Did Richard Nixon Finger Louis Armstrong’s Wife for a Pot Bust?

On the evening of January 16, 1954, Louis Armstrong sat at the Alexander Hamilton Hotel at 631 O’Farrell Street in San Francisco and wrote what has been called “one of the most stunning documents Armstrong ever composed.”

“Mr. Glaser, you must see to it that I have special permission to smoke all the reefers that I want to when I want or I will just have to put this horn down, that’s all,” the letter says, addressing Armstrong’s manager. “I can gladly vouch for a nice, fat stick of gage, which relaxes my nerves, if I have any … I can’t afford to be … tense, fearing that any minute I’m going to be arrested, brought to jail for a silly little minor thing like marijuana.”

The incident that prompted Louis to write about his well-known love for marijuana was the arrest of his wife Lucille on marijuana charges in Hawaii on New Year’s Day, 1954. Lucille was nabbed by federal narcotics agents at her hotel in Waikiki Beach where a US Customs inspector found one cigarette and two stubs, totaling 14.8 grams of marijuana, in her eyeglass case.

The bust was a big deal: Louis almost lost a charity gig for the March of Dimes and was nearly barred from performing in Hawaii. Lucille posted $300 bail and appeared at a day-long hearing on January 5 with Louis sitting in the spectators’ section. She pleaded guilty for expediency, she said, but protested her innocence. It was widely speculated that it was Louis’s stash.

The judge reduced Lucille’s fine to $200 owing to her husband’s good works. “At the start of 1954, he was at the peak of his popularity and was already being touted as an ‘Ambassador of Goodwill’ due to his tremendous popularity overseas,” wrote Ricky Riccardi, who details the incident in his book What a Wonderful World.

An often-told story relates that Armstrong once prevailed on Richard Nixon to carry his valise containing pot through an airport for him. A trumpeter in LA told me that Satchmo laughed heartily every time he told the story, pinpointing the locale as Japan. Both Armstrong and then-VP Nixon toured Japan in late 1953, just before Lucille’s arrest. The timing begs the question, did Nixon figure out he’d been used for a drug courier and fail to see the humor in it?

Louis hadn’t been in trouble with the law since 1930, when he was arrested outside the Cotton Club in LA while smoking a joint. That incident and his subsequent jailing ultimately lead to Joe Glaser, an Al Capone acolyte, taking over Armstrong’s career, and later suppressing his writings about marijuana.

“Can you imagine anyone giving Lucille all of those headaches and grief over a mere small pittance such as gage, something that grows out in the backyard among the chickens and so forth,” Louis emoted in his letter to Glaser. “I just won’t carry on with such fear over nothing and I don’t intend to ever stop smoking it, not as long as it grows. And there is no one on this earth that can ever stop it all from growing. No one but Jesus – and he wouldn’t dare. Because he feels the same way that I do about it.”

Gage “ain’t nothin’ but medicine,” Louis concluded, words that will resonate with medical marijuana advocates here in the city where he wrote them.

The medical marijuana movement began in San Francisco, where activist Dennis Peron rallied the HIV/AIDS community to fight for their rights in the early 1990s. The state Proposition 215 followed in 1996, making California the first state to legalize marijuana for medicine.

Those events and others will be marked by a conference happening January 26 & 27 at Ft. Mason Conference Center in San Francisco, sponsored by California NORML. The conference will take place at the 100th anniversary of cannabis prohibition in California.

It’s high time to end the 100-Year War that has harassed and imprisoned so many of our citizens, including some of our best and brightest.

Ellen Komp is Deputy Director of California NORML and a regular contributor to Cannabis Culture. She manages the website VeryImportantPotheads.com and blogs at Tokin Woman.



  1. Anonymous on

    Funny…lotsa hate here for Nixon, based solely on conjecture. What about Obama’s war on weed in LA? He just got a 10 year minimum to life sentence for a fellow who was growing legally under CA’s law. That ain’t conjecture, that’s a FACT. Let’s put the blame where the blame belongs.
    Yaspar Kyashred

  2. gutrod on

    If weed is good for a musical genius like Louis Armstrong it’s good enough for all. Nixon’s war on drugs turned out to be a complete failure with much blood on it’s hands. Kinda ironic that the very musician’s that are adored by the politicians enforcing the laws almost all smoked weed. It was sport back then for whites to hunt down black people who smoked weed.

  3. VIPelle on

    Don’t know about them partying together, but in the movie Good Morning, Vietnam Robin Williams’s character makes a parody implying Nixon partied in Vietnam and carried pot back from there. Announcing Armstrong’s “What a Wonderful World” he called him “The Great Satchmo” (which of course he was.)

    Shortly after Lucille’s bust, Louis appeared on What’s My Line and joked about “getting higher next time” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rPoIsrmQbcE

    Yes, the Nixon tapes have been transcribed http://www.csdp.org/news/news/nixon.htm

    Thanks for the ideas but I don’t need another project and you know what they say, “She who proposes, disposes.”


  4. Mrs. Ratsrectum on

    What if Nixon partied with Satchmo, and Armstrong kept it a secret? Can you put that into a movie or make a movie out of it? Funny as hell, explain why Nixon hated the weed so much. Ex-smokers, ex-whatever can be the most adamant, to put it nicely. That would mean Nixon used the war on weed for more than just to get at the hippies who didn’t like the war in Vietnam. He had an ax to grind against something he considered one of his demons, not just one of the country’s demons.

    Exactly what did Nixon say about weed? There are the tapes. You hear them all the time about Watergate. I want to hear the Weedgate tapes, what he said regarding cannabis on the tapes, in his memos. Make a documentary on it like the ones with Trish Regan that used to show over and over again on CNBC and History, etc.

    The Beat Goes On


    Sonny & Cher