White House petition for a pardon, performing live music, and more updates from federal prison

Hi Miss! This Sunday, October 2nd (in the evening, after your visit), I will perform three Bob Marley songs in concert with the reggae band: “No Woman, No Cry”, “I Shot The Sheriff” and “Stir It Up”. I continue to practice, learn and rehearse on the bass guitar in my own band, called “Yazoo”, for 2-4 hours each day.

CLICK HERE to sign the Pardon Marc Emery petition!CLICK HERE to sign the Pardon Marc Emery petition!Tonight in the studio we worked on “Don’t Stop Believing”, “I Can See Clearly Now”, “Purple Haze”, “Hotel California”, and “Panama” by Van Halen. Our song list for our Thanksgiving Day Concert includes those songs and “Stormy Monday”, “The Wind Cries Mary”, “Sweet Emotion”, “Don’t Blink” by Kenny Chesney, “El Paso” by Marty Robbins, “Red House”, “Purple Haze”, “Freddie’s Dead”, “Winds of Change”, “Dust in the Wind”, “Comfortably Numb”, and “Money”. Quite the eclectic song list!

I read voraciously every day, the weather so far has been conducive to it, virtually a 5-month stretch of brilliant blue skies and warm temperatures. The air here is sweet; Mississippi, if not beset by poverty and historical apartheid that makes impossible a genuine rapprochement between the races, would be a nice place to be. I am attracted to its musical heritage, weather, and even the NPR affiliate, the Mississippi Broadcast Network radio with its homey gardening and cultural programs; it is a shame that after my deportation back to Canada (Hallelujah!), I will be barred from ever visiting these United States.

That is, unless I receive a Pardon from the President or Attorney-General of these United States. I am so excited you have had a “Pardon Marc Emery” petition posted on the White House website here (share this link: http://wh.gov/gFJ). Within 36 hours, it had over 2,500 signatories. 5,000 signatures are required within 30 days for it to get an official response from the White House.

I hope, if there is no limit on the number of signatures from Americans, that 25,000 citizens of the 50 states can be delivered on this petition within 30 days, to prove a depth of support for my repatriation to Canada. A pardon also allows me to return to America as a sympathetic human being to gather and share the American Experience in all its manifestations without chains, handcuffs and leg irons.

I hope you can encourage all my friends and supporters to attach the petition to their Twitter, Facebook and websites to see if we can crack the 25,000 mark within 30 days, or perhaps even a better result. Perhaps, if it does become a viable ’cause celebre’, it can get some nominal media attention, as certainly it could be the largest petition urging a pardon for someone in the vast US penal system.

Marc's LTE in The Province (click to view)Marc’s LTE in The Province (click to view)I was pleased that the Sunday, September 25th “Province” newspaper in BC published my letter in regard the Canadian government’s repugnant plans for massive increase in incarceration and prison expansion. The population of the prisons will be 95% drug and cannabis users, and the number from our marijuana community will increase by the thousands over the next few years. Cannabis arrests are at a shocking all time high; in 2010, the number of marijuana related arrests for simple possession alone ballooned to 56,870, a 14% increase from 2009. The photograph and subhead that accompanied the letter (seen at right; click to enlarge), which was signed “Marc Emery, Yazoo City Medium Federal Prison, Mississippi”, was a nice reminder to myself that I still exist in a Canadian political context.

I’m also excited that the Canadian Liberal Party, under the leadership of interim leader Bob Rae, has declared the war on drugs “an absolute, catastrophic failure” (see quotes here), and that the Liberal Party of Canada seems to be adopting a repudiation of prohibition as central to its opposition to Harper Omnibus Crime Bill (see the Liberal Party’s website post “5 Reasons to Oppose the Omnibus Crime Bill”). This is great news. The Liberal party must revitalize itself, and all the science, facts and political momentum buttress their new energy they are applying to this issue.

It is noteworthy that on the federal NDP website, absolutely no opposition to the Omnibus Crime Bill has been articulated. Could the NDP members like Libby Davies have had their opposition to the war on drugs silenced? The NDP is frustrating in its weather-vane-like direction on this issue. Bob Rae cannot retreat from his statement the war on drugs is a complete failure. In one sweeping statement, he has established what the Liberal Party policy is – and it’s deserving of our support. If anyone is looking for a reason to join the Liberal Party of Canada, now they have it, and there could not be a better or more significant reason to do so. Anyone who joins must say, “I am impressed by Bob Rae’s repudiation of the war on drugs and his statement that it is a complete failure, and wish to be a part of the Liberal Party re-birth.”

Of course, the evil Prime Minister Harper and Justice Minister Rob Nicholson promise that this Omnibus Crime Bill called C-10, with its mandatory minimum jail time for as few as six marijuana plants or making a few grams of hashish, “is just the beginning”, and that even more ominous and draconian measures are to come.

That’s why it is essential to our movement that you keep up the charge, my dear wife. You inspire me and you inspire many. Canadian families will suffer greatly, as their loved ones will be going to prison in much greater numbers in the cannabis community, and you must help them in dealing with these sad eventualities and help them cope. Few of them will get five year sentences for cannabis, but thousands upon thousands will get six months, a year, two years or more in prison. Second offenses get years in jail. Selling and producing other drugs have multiple years in jail under the proposed mandatory minimums. The harm and devastation to Canadian families will be extensive. You’ll be needed to lend your compassion and sympathy to them.

The answer, as always, is to get involved in politics. All our people must join or work with a political party and make their voice heard and their participation count – because as we have seen, the prohibitionists are doing that very thing, and getting the results they want.

When I am released in the summer of 2014, you or I will begin campaigning for a nomination in Vancouver Center. Whichever one of us is seen as attractive to the NDP or Liberal Party in Vancouver Center (I don’t believe Liberal MP Hedy Fry will run again), we will contest a nomination. Whether you get a nomination or I do, the voters are getting a twofer either way; you and I are a team, and we’ll go to Ottawa together and work together and represent a vision of change from the diabolical Conservative agenda of pain, punishment and social control.

In Ontario, the Freedom Party that I founded long ago is making a good showing with 57 candidates on the October 6th provincial election ballot. But there is much work to be done there. Next election, they must get a full slate and more money raised to make serious inroads. Hopefully the many (over thirty!) cannabis activists who found welcome with the Freedom Party will continue to be politically active. I was pleased their money bomb raised over $7,000 for the purchase of TV ads during the election campaign.

I’m wearing my thermal undershirt today, the first time I’ve worn it since I bought it at D. Ray James (the private prison in Georgia) in December. I put it on a few times when I was there, but we also had a coat for cold December-January days too; here in Yazoo City they haven’t given that out yet.

Nonetheless, I was comfortable reading outside my excellent biography of Allen Ginsberg by Michael Schumacher, called “Dharma Lion”. I’m at the part, page 250, where Ginsberg’s magnum opus poem “Howl” has been seized by San Francisco police, and the publisher Lawrence Ferlinghetti and his City Lights Bookshop are being charged with obscenity and distribution of lewd materials. This trial is one of the big upheavals in San Francisco and American legal history, and “Howl” is vindicated.

While “Howl” is seized, and Ferlinghetti and a City Lights book store clerk are jailed and bailed out by the ACLU, Ginsberg’s edit of William Burrough’s “Naked Lunch” is being completed, with the portend that “Naked Lunch” too will encounter similar controversies shortly afterward. I have read “Howl” many years ago but now I will comprehend it much more, understanding what the ‘Beat generation’ means and what was going on with Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac, and William Burroughs that underlined how their work came about, and its significance. The first stanza of “Howl” may be one of the most famous opening lines in all of American poetry:

“I saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by madness, starving hysterical naked,
dragging themselves through the negro streets at dawn looking for an angry fix,
Angel-headed hipsters burning for the ancient heavenly connection
to the starry dynamo in the machinery of night”

In that opening you can see into the soul of Charlie Parker, Jim Morrison, Abbie Hoffman, Phil Ochs, and so many other casualties of the brutalities of our age. Fortunately, some of those brutalized did not go mad, and survived intact enough to leave us powerful legacies as a warning about the fragility of our liberties and our sanity.

I have always admired how Allen Ginsberg was present at so many influential moments in history: the founding of the Beat generation literary and poetry movements; the early, more risky protests of the Vietnam War; the King of May event in Prague in 1965; the Human Be-In at Golden Gate Park in San Fran in January 1967; the protests at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago; and so many other moments in history that captured the zeitgeist of the times.

Allen Ginsberg led the very earliest marijuana protests in the 1950’s and early 60’s, plus he brought it up in Cuba, Czechoslovakia, and anywhere he traveled where cannabis users were oppressed and imprisoned. He had such a revelatory and liberating experience at a poetry convention at the University of British Columbia in October 1963, involving sex orgies and marijuana; this in turn influenced his Human BE-IN’s that happened in San Francisco in January 1967 and in Vancouver in March of 1967. Ginsberg picketed numerous jails and detention centers in New York and San Francisco where marijuana users were held in the 1950’s and 60’s. He brought marijuana legalization up wherever he went in the world. In India its use was everywhere, so he really liked India. Ginsberg’s life story is fascinating for the cannabis culture. Ginsberg used marijuana from 1947 to his death in 1997 and was perhaps one of its most articulate defenders in the 1950’s, 60’s and 70’s.

I am enjoying the research, structure and thoroughness of Michael Schumacher’s biographies. I have his biography of Eric Clapton here to read afterward, but weeks ago I finished Schumacher’s excellent biography of 60’s folksinger Phil Ochs, called “There but For Fortune”.

I will say that my time in prison has given me the opportunity to immerse myself in the life and works of some of my heroes, such as Martin Luther King Jr. (the outstanding three-volume work by Taylor Branch that took me months to complete at Sea-Tac FDC in Seattle last year), Malcolm X, Bob Marley, Ayn Rand, Clarence Darrow, Phil Ochs, Bob Dylan, John Lennon, and now Allen Ginsberg.

I am busy all the time, reading six or seven magazines each week and the daily NY Times, writing letters, doing three hours of Corrlinks (“email”) daily, practicing and playing bass guitar, working through a backlog of books (and more on the way), and making the best use of my time. I have been in good health for two months now, and I eat as best as can be possible here, and drink only water. I take calcium and Vitamin C and D supplements daily. My morale stays elevated just anticipating and cherishing your visits to me.

I look forward to receiving photographs of all the changes at your store and the hallways leading to the BCMP Lounge. I hear it looks very handsome! So glad to hear change and improvement is going on. I know you are incredibly busy and wish I were home to rub your feet after your long gruelling days of activity. I promise there will be a long, delicious foot rub every night once I am returned to you!

The National Geographic Special “Marijuana Nation” with me in it aired last Saturday, and days before that, the worldwide version of that episode, titled “Inside Marijuana” with even more of me in it (and less DEA coverage, which was more prominent in the US version), aired in numerous countries around the globe, so I am pleased to know the message about my work continues to be on television. The new documentary CITIZEN MARC is in the final stages of editing and should be ready to be submitted to film festivals by next Spring and Summer.

My graduation photo of me in cap and gown came back today, so I will mail that to you immediately so you can make it my Facebook profile photo. As of today, Tuesday, September 27th, I have 1,016 days to my release – that’s 33 months to go. Unless we get that pardon! Something to work towards!

I love my Mrs. Emery!
Your Husband & Admirer,

Write Marc a letter:

MARC EMERY #40252-086
P.O. BOX 5888

Marc Emery
Marc Emery

Marc Emery is a Canadian cannabis activist, entrepreneur, and politician. Known to his fans as the Prince of Pot, Emery has been a notable advocate of international cannabis policy reform for decades. Marc is the founding publisher of Cannabis Culture and Pot TV.



  1. Anonymous on

    Listen how vain the guy is – Read through the letter,

    Hi Miss!
    I this I that, etc.

    Look how many times he says “I”

    even in prison the guy is so full of himself

    oh ya I did this and in this year I started that…

    does anybody else see it? …be honest


  2. Anonymous on

    It took you > five days to come up with that witty comeback ?
    Thanks your whineyness, you made my point for me

  3. freckles on

    Marc, you “still exist in a Canadian political context”. The disgrace isn’t trumpeted but it’s there and influential, never doubt it. Stay positive and make it back, that’s all.

  4. Liz G on

    Try to say something worth responding to, and I will take the time to think about it.

  5. Anonymous on


  6. Bhonze on

    I work and do things with my family and friends and community; Then I Burn One!!!

  7. Son of Sam Walton on

    Because outlawing a plant creates an increase in earths destruction from pollution and human destruction from crime, war, genocides and poverty, we can show the American people how the cow ate the cabbage logically . . . we ended slavery and segregation . . . we defeated Hitler and executed a Kurd murderer with rational reasons as to why, so there is hope for America to not allow chunks of life, nature and freedom to be destroyed by these cops.

    We also need thousand and thousand of young pot heads to quit smoking and pass drug tests so they can get jobs as cops, EMT, Fire, DA’s, Military etc so we can dilute the system . . . I joined the military after dope funded 9/11 and did the Habitat 4 Humanity thing and the American Red Cross volunteer thing during Katrina and Winter storms, so surely several thousand pot heads can temporarily forgo college and their dream jobs to do civic service. Protesting is not enough if you are not a part of the community and all should chose a few years of community service in the Military, Medical, Parks and Wild Life, Fire and Emergency, law, D.O.J etc. Some of these little civic jobs pay good wages, others don’t but all civic services help the nation and community. If one wants to get busted, then one will not join the police force or military or Fire or American Red Cross etc. We should learn from our elders mistakes . . . we should do what they didn’t do: volunteer our services so we can dilute the system’s mind set at unstoppable waves . . . Imagine if Marc decided he was going to be a cop for three years . . . I worked at a Quasi-Military Academy after war and university and preached to the teens the benefits of destroying the war on drugs, so surely the young will choose to join the ranks of the volunteer services . . . I think Marc should preach to the young about the importance of thousands of non-busted Canadians pot smokers or non-medical card holders (give up medical pot rights if possible for the victory of all) to join the Canadian or American or British Police department . . . how does a sniper get a kill shot . . . by getting real close to the enemy: scope and silencer . . . what does Recon and Cav do again? What do Airborne Rangers do . . . they get in the shit. I hate cops, but I’m chomping at the bit for my wife to become one since I know she knows the real world. Its insane to only protest with signs and smoking weed during little parades since it does nothing but demonstrate criminal activity since it’s a crime to use pot . . . but when officer Law and Dr. Who and teacher, and Judge and District Attorney and firefighter and coach and Military Vet tells the people drugs should not be illegal, then more and more will see the truth logically. Look at what’s happening in American protests . . . if you get pot activist cops to offer their security aid during these peaceful protests, then you get a bigger victory for the people . . . we should join the ranks of government and government is at its purist when its cops, military, fire, EMT, etc. since those jobs are the backbone of modern civilization. Marc and Jodi and Jeremiah and Ed need to point their fingers and demand we join the ranks of the volunteers . . . no young weed user should have a legal right to go to any university they want to get or any job they want without first giving back to the community . . . if they don’t then they are evil like the cops and they should be busted for condoning and harboring terror and murder and corruption and pollution and job loss and starvation. Now if the person is not eligible to join such groups, then that’s a whole other story. If good people don’t stand up against evil, then those good people are indeed evil and be punished appropriately since no man is an island . . . I know that sounds mean, but those who don’t get involved in diluting the system (at least attempting) are setting us up for failure. The hippies lost since they decided as a whole to drop out of society and not change it permanently . . . If our numbers join in masses and droves, then not only will we have the numbers, but we’ll have the guns as well, since we’ll be the ones with the jobs that give us the guns such that cops and military use. Marc and Jodie should jump onto this really fast before some young weed user gets busted and therefore ineligible for service . . . the sooner they take up the cause, the sooner cops will hit the bong with you, instead of hitting you with the bong and arresting you. It would be catastrophic and impossible to fire 10% of your police force for their refusal to obey drug laws (within reason since meth labs and DUI are serious). We already let people join the military who refuse to fight due to their religious beliefs . . . surely cops can refuse to bust drug users due to their humane beliefs. Dilute the system and people will treat pot like its pot and not some sort of Super Aids.

  8. Anonymous on

    I think that allen ginsberg was a member of the North American Man/boy Love Association (NAMBLA). haha I hardley think of him in such a way as you do marc. To me he is just creepy, even if he was an advocate for cannabis.

  9. Anonymous on

    you sound just like the fat girl in grade school who recycles cat food cans as her big contribution to society..The change we seek is not washing out cat food cans sister, its seeing things are they really are in a changing world and acting on these insights.. change your underwear if you can`t change your mind from revolution to resolution..

  10. Lygeia on

    Marijuana is technically legal on the Federal level in the US. The Marijuana Stamp Act was passed in the 1930s. The US printed stamps through one of their departments, like the Department of Justice or Agriculture. Then they locked the stamps away in a vault and you can’t buy them. If you do, it is a crime. But you need the stamps to legally grown marijuana. No stamps, no marijuana. Catch-22.

    So we can pass all the laws we want. The only way all the persecution stops is the way it did when the Berlin Wall came down. The soldiers just stopped shooting the people who wanted to leave.

    Basically, all the soldiers and police in the drug war need to stand down for this to stop. And all the prosecutors need to walk away from any cases that make their way into the courts.

    That being said, continuing to pursue every avenue, including this petition is a good one, as it will eventually wear the government down.

    They wage war, we wear them down. The difference is one letter, but it works.

  11. Liz G on

    Obviously you don’t bother to read any of the articles on this website, or you would see activism in action. And how brave of you to hide behind the anonymous name tag mocking someone who has been strong enough to put their own name on many controversial and risky activism activities.

    Bring about the change you want to see in the world. It’ll actually improve the world and feel way better than making fun of others! Revolutionary hey?

  12. Anonymous on

    you got me convinced , pardner , how do you feel about getting caught with more than 6 plants

  13. Anonymous on

    What do you do after a hard day of goal accomplishing and good deed doing? That gets kind of monotonous after a few weeks, months and years. If I didn’t have Cannabis I would just plain go nuts. Alcohol doesn’t help, it just poisons me on top of being stressed and tired from goal accomplishing and good deed doing. Cannabis is literally the only thing in existence that does what I need done. I will never stop using it until I am dead or in jail, and they’ll have to catch me first, which they’re too stupid to do. People NEED Cannabis, it doesn’t hurt them and there is no downside other than crazy mofos trying to lock them up or shoot them. Our job is to stop the mofos from doing that, to stop them from standing between us and what we need, because the world is so stressful and Cannabis is the only real good thing left and they want to take even that from us. They want us all to be neurotic work drones like them, with no reward in life other than coming home to the same crappy dinner we had last night and then going the hell to sleep and doing the same pointless routine again and again until we got nuts and shoot a bunch of folks at a McDonalds or something. Wouldn’t it be better just to let us smoke our Cannabis and chill? Dumb people don’t understand that. And no, antidepressants or tranquilizers won’t do. They will just make us crazier and make us kill ourselves or somebody else. Cannabis never made anyone kill anyone. That crazy Jared guy in the US would have killed MORE people if he hadn’t been using Cannabis to tone his craziness down a notch.

  14. Anonymous on

    river when i want to “get the edge off “i go out and and accomplish a goal or do a good deed for some one…have you ever tried something like that ???

  15. Riverod on

    We are controlled by our government by never being given more than 2 options in life to take the edge off.
    1. Alcohol
    2. Prescription drugs.
    Should we all submit to the masters, or go to prison.

  16. Sgt.Murphy on

    It appears as if the Emerys and many of their readers regard President Obama as merely an extension of the Bush administration. This is a dreadful misunderstanding of the nature of his office and the American power structure as manifested in the federal government. United States presidents are elected to a four year term which rarely enable them to make sweeping changes when assuming office, as much of the time and policies involved are simply undoing policies and practices of the previous president. Bush appointed hundreds of officials and administrators to government agencies, most of whom are still in place. Example; Michelle Leonhart, director of the DEA. Though working for a new “boss”, many of these bureaucrats simply carry on existng policy as if nothing has changed at all. Reviewing and replacing these figures is an brutally slow process due to the Republican opposition to anything Obama proposes and the glacial pace of government in general. The “War on Drugs” is still a significant political rallying cry for conservatives and if Obama were to make significant efforts to end that continuing debacle it would probably cost him votes in the 2012 election. If a president is seen as “soft on drugs” (echoes of “soft on communism”; remember that one?) it could be a significant blow to reelection. The primary job of a first term preident is to get elected to a second term. Only second term executives really wield the power and influence that many see as presidential prerogotive. It’s like a president serves one term, and if americans decide they like him, he’ll get reelected. This is a cumbersome and outmoded 19th century electorate process, but it’s what we’re stuck with in this “land of the free”. Only when the 44th President is sworn in on January 21st, 2013 will we see his power base consolidated and real efforts in the change to existng policy occur. The other part of the process is the restructuring of the American Security State. (Or Security/Police State, if you prefer.) “Drug War” bureaucrats have insinuated themselves into this new vast and far reaching “government within a government”, and have enormous influence on shaping policy. Since now the international “terrorist/jihadist” movement uses illegal drugs as a major source of revenue, the DEA plays a large part in formulating the strategy to combat them. This isn’t likely to change immediately. Many career officers in the DEA and other Law enforcement agencies still hold a personal conviction that the “War on Drugs” can still be won, or at least they can “roll back” the legalization movement to some extent. I beleive many of them still wish for a Ronald Reagan type figure to appear and galvanize their failing campaigns. Until major policy changes occur in this area, and some clear headed agency directors are in office, backwards and innefective actions are sure to be the products of the overarching strategies that are now being followed. Changing the current executive leadership will not change this scenario whatsoever, and will most likely result in a further extension of the destructive, wasteful programs (pogroms?) that have been pursued for decades in the U.S., Canada and abroad.
    Face the the facts, people, Marc Emery is a pawn in a huge, grossly expensive, detructive, divisive, inhuman power game that has scant regard for human rights, rule of law, freedom, liberty or cherished constitional ideals. There are enormous social and political forces at work that move in a world where individuals often don’t matter. To stand up and demand justice as a citizen (without a political and financial base) is simply to make youself a target and invite retribution from existing power structures, which jealously guard their privileges within this society. Only well funded, organized, motivated groups of people with carefully formulated plans and goals can make effective changes to an otherwise moribund and vengeful government agency (Law Enforcement)that is out of the control of the population that funds it and is nominally suppossed to direct its activities. Change may come eventually, but don’t hold your breath unless change occurs in the people that wish for change.

  17. Anonymous on

    Marc, you`re a great guy and a lovable stoner but it is really too bad you identified yourself in your letter to the editor as a prisoner in AMERICA..
    its even 2worse iuts printed beside a photo of some fat clown wearing a marc emery t shirt tossing joints out to the crowd- the very image of a reefer madness era dope dealer creep sowing poison at random.The straight media is shitting on you and everything you have accomplished. We identify you as the leader of the global marijuana movement= a very important job but you identify yourself as a guy in a foreign cage..
    Have you completely bought into the US punishment industry ? Is your self identity no longer the shit kicking Howard Roark of pot but a de masculated activist trophy of the enemy playing 60s` cover tunes on prison property guitars ???

    I hope you get that Presidental pardon, I hope you get kicked out of the USA and I hope you run the hell straight home to straighten out the marijuana liberation activist trainwreck in progress here. The Torys are poised to shut us all down and have us join you in prison. Nobody in the activist scene seems to know what they are doing, they either whine or run..create pointless videos or make boring vague comments to the press who just mock them as redundant old dope fiends going nowhere fast


  18. Anonymous on

    Very sarcastic you are.A real realist,the reality of the pardon happening is slim to none,but hey its worth a shot
    The united states should pardon him to save what little money they have

  19. Anonymous on

    I’m sure Obama will get right on that pardon, much like the DEA got right on that petition to reschedule Cannabis. At least he’ll have some more shredded paper to start his fireplace with. Imagine this headline on CNN; This is Wolf Blitzer, President Obama has just pardoned admitted international marijuana trafficker Marc Emery, saying “this is a giant step for justice, everybody light up”. The petition is a nice gesture of support for Marc but it ain’t got a snowball’s chance in hell. The US wouldn’t even agree to transfer him to Canada. WTF makes you think they would give him a full pardon and drive him to the border and say have a nice day, Mr. Emery, sorry for your inconvenience in that concentration camp in Georgia. Hope the MRSA won’t be a problem? Send the petition though. Obama needs a few laughs about now. They’ll be passing that one around the office for awhile. You’re only giving them more amusement and satisfaction with your grovelling. Please judge, don’t put Marc in prison. Please US Justice Depart,ment, transfer Marc to canada. Please Vic Toews, transfer Marc home if the US agrees to it first and everyone else in your Party doesn’t mind you bringing their worst enemy home for Christmas. Just do the time and stop setting your self up for a disappointment repeatedly. That sh*t never works with them. They don’t give a rat sass about Emery, period.