My Religious Freedoms Charter Challenge Interview on The Standard

Here is an interview I did on the Joy TV show The Standard last fall about my current case regarding religious freedoms and the sacramental use of cannabis.


Click here to watch on YouTube.


Click here to watch on YouTube.

Read “Pot Activist Takes on Canadian Government” and “Cannabis Religious Challenge Update” for more information on the case.

Catholic Church VS Pot Religion

Interestingly, in the G13 Church of the Universe case, the Crown Prosecutors have called in a Catholic Priest, Roland Jacques, who calls the COU a “parody religion, and Two University Professors, Dr. Katherine Young and Dr. Paul Nathanson who claim that the COU does not fulfill there “10 characteristics of a religion”.

I am particularly excited to see the Crown has chosen a Catholic priest as a witness against the COU……..

Should be a very exciting case. Make way for the Tree of Life!

The Crown seems eager to show that the COU is not a church, because the Police may have violated certain laws in raiding a Church.

Brother Walter and Brother Michael stated recently that

“Freedom of religion has nothing at all to do with the church as a defence to trafficking marijuana for religious reasons.

“Religion is a personal freedom under the charter. No church required. The prosecutors are trying to cover their ass in case of a law suit because they did a church in violation of section 176 of the Criminal Code, which is their only interest in proving the Church is not a Church. We don’t want government recognition and it is not required to have a religion or Church or we would all be still worshiping Cesar.

“The undercover cops joined the church and did whatever they had to in order to make their bust. Thing is, the persons charged believed it was their sacred herb and that they were distributing it because it is THEIR RELIGIOUS BELIEF in doing God’s work spreading the healing of the Tree of Life. The Church, in other words, the people, believe that so there is more than one has no bearing on the individuals belief or freedom and one does not need any more than their belief to make it a charter issue, right and freedom being violated. They, the government is so senseless and insensitive. We are like the early Christians and so are the stupid powers that be, as you know.”

Chris Bennett
Chris Bennett

Chris Bennett has been researching the historical role of cannabis in magic and religion for over a quarter century, his books include 'Green Gold the tree of Life: Marijuana in Magic and Religion' (1995); 'Sex, Drugs, Violence and the Bible' (2001); 'Cannabis and the Soma Solution' (2010. He Currently resides in Vancouver, BC, Canada, where he runs his ethnobotanical shop The Urban Shaman.

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  1284. Anonymous on

    We needn’t bring religion into the cannabis legalisation issue, -we can all claim our homes are churches and therefore exempt from this fee and free to do that thing but there is no good reason. Religion belongs in history but in the future there will be pot… there will be pot, yes it hath been revealed to me, in a civilised & industrialised future, there will be pot my brothers, sisters and hermaphodites. There will be pot.

  1285. Anonymous on

    Modern Hebrew? Let me assure you that it would have been, and still is an abomination for devout Jews assign divinity to the creation which in effect marginalizes the Creator. While many examples are given about Earthly things being compared to God or his works are given in scripture, 2 Samuel 23:4 being one of many, there is never anything in the Old Testament cited as equal to God. Anyone, IMHO who accepts this rendering is certainly swallowing a Camel to justify replacing the corrupt with the incorruptible. Though I seriously doubt the truth behind this modern rendition, I guarantee you that to utter such foolishness before the priests of Judea would probably have gotten one a different kind of stoned.

  1286. xxx on

    Needless to say, since it has been shown that the ancient Jews of the Bible didn’t use hemp, or used it so little that they didn’t even mention it once in the Bible or anywhere else in the known world, there is zero chance that the Tree of Life was a Cannabis plant. Indeed, Chris Bennet’s two pet theories, Cannabis was the qne bshm of the Torah and the Tree of Life was Cannabis, are mutually exclusive. Obviously, if the Jews called Cannabis a tree in one case they wouldn’t call it aromatic reed in another. Chris might have been HALF right, were it not for the fact that BOTH theories are so easily proven extremely unlikely to be the truth. He’s actually NONE right. If only he hadn’t smoked that joint on the job he might not have publicly embarrassed himself in such a way. How will he ever be able to get all those things off of google that have him trumpeting those two theories, even now that they are quite dead?

  1287. xxx on

    Unfortunately, if you include the “apostrophe” looking letter it means “disobedience”. So the word probably means “disobedience God is gracious”. Probably they just used God is gracious because it is pronounced hoana, as in mari hoana.

  1288. Anonymous on

    Here’s a tip for you. If you take the modern Hebrew word for marijuana (from the Reverso translator) and break it down into its two parts and translate each part into English you get Mister God is gracious. The first part (from the right as Hebrew is read) means mister and the second part (after the part that looks like an apostrophe) means God is gracious. So just tell the Supreme Court that even the Jews believe that marijuana is a gift from the gracious God. In fact, you might even say that Marijuana IS God, Mr. God to you.

  1289. xxx on

    Qne actually appears 43 times in the Old Testament, in 36 verses. Chris and Sula don’t mention the other ones because most of them mean something regarding “buy” and the rest mean “reed”. Can’t see why it would mean Cannabis, something that they apparently didn’t even use so had no reason to think up a name for. If they did want to name it I don’t think reed of aroma would have been the name, for the obvious reason that fragrance isn’t the characteristic of Cannabis that you would take note of and that would differentiate it from other plants with straight hollow stems. The most obvious thing to name it for would be its fiber and the next most obvious would be its seeds. Its smell is generally quite repulsive so a third choice would be reed of stink. Here are the search results showing 43 instances of qne http://yfrog.com/jdtorahqnesearchp

  1290. Anonymous on

    Compare the above word for roasted to the word for reed, second translation listed here http://yfrog.com/izreedp

    Easy to see why that guy was fooled into thinking qne might be involved somehow, but it isn’t.

  1291. Anonymous on

    You know the thing where some guy said tzli’q means roasted hemp seeds because he thinks the q is short for qne? Well, if you look up the word roasted in an English to Hebrew dictionary you find that it is actually part of the word roasted. http://yfrog.com/0rroastedp

    The whole “Cannabis used by the ancient Jews” thing falls apart under serious scrutiny.

  1292. Chris Bennett on

    The Leviticus quote says linen, they used both linen ‘bust’ and shesh, as well as other cloths. “So why do you claim that the jews were buried in hemp shirts?” I didn’t I quote Klein, who is not referring to a biblical referesnce but another ancient Jewish text. Klein is considered to eb a very good source, as the refernce you cited also noted. And the burial rite you are referring to is not in Leviticus, that is a later rite developed upon the Leviticus passage. So your point about linen burial shirts is mute.

    “Well, a while ago you said that Cannabis didn’t grow in Israel or even Lebanon, so they had to order in from a distant land. Guess that was a lie. so why did they pay a lot of money to bring in qne bshm when according to your own quote it grew right there?”

    You must have missed the part where I said it may have been just the quality ganja being imported. As well de Waal is speculating, the hemp fibre may have come via Egypt, as i have shown. There are different potential answers fro that question.

    Re”Guess that was a lie”

    well for you another vain attempt to attack a real person from your anonymous position.

  1293. Anonymous on

    Yeah it was the lotus plant that was later changed to tree. Has nothing to do with qne being or not being Cannabis. So you have shown that sheesh in exodus was lenin. That’s very interesting but the passage I cited was Leviticus 16:4, in which it states what Aaron wore as high priest and which is also used to dree the dead before burial. It says lenin. I posted the Hebrew version with the wo0rd “bd” translated as “lenin”. No sheesh or hemp involved. So why do you claim that the jews were buried in hemp shirts?

    You also include in your post;

    “Fabric from hemp fibre was used by the ancient Israelites for clothing, but was later replaced for this purpose by cotton and linen. It was more often cultivated for its strong fibers and hemp seed, used in carpets and rope. The latter was used in the days of Moses for making the sanctuary:”
    ‘And let every wise-hearted man among you come, and make all that the Lord hath commanded…the hangings of the court, the pillars thereof, and their sockets, and the screen for the gate of the court; the pins of the tabernacle, and the pins of the court, and their cords…’-(Exodus 35:10,17,18)” (De Waal 1994)
    de Waal, Dr.Marinus; MEDICINES FROM THE BIBLE, (Weiser,1994) from a 19th century Dutch translation”

    Well, a while ago you said that Cannabis didn’t grow in Israel or even Lebanon, so they had to order in from a distant land. Guess that was a lie. so why did they pay a lot of money to bring in qne bshm when according to your own quote it grew right there?

  1294. Chris Bennett on

    Re Mr Dumb-Ass “Doesn’t look like sheesh to me. Looks more like “bd” http://yfrog.com/1rleninp .Maybe YOU should have used a Hebrew Bible instead of an English one.”

    See this shows once again how you just don’t even know what you are writing about. So much for your critical thinking. You referred to a Exodus reference to linen, that reference is Hebrew Shesh, Byss occurs later and likely refers to a cotton product.

    “Fabric from hemp fibre was used by the ancient Israelites for clothing, but was later replaced for this purpose by cotton and linen. It was more often cultivated for its strong fibers and hemp seed, used in carpets and rope. The latter was used in the days of Moses for making the sanctuary:”
    ‘And let every wise-hearted man among you come, and make all that the Lord hath commanded…the hangings of the court, the pillars thereof, and their sockets, and the screen for the gate of the court; the pins of the tabernacle, and the pins of the court, and their cords…’-(Exodus 35:10,17,18)” (De Waal 1994)
    de Waal, Dr.Marinus; MEDICINES FROM THE BIBLE, (Weiser,1994) from a 19th century Dutch translation

    “Moses indeed does not employ the term ‘Butz’ in speaking of linen, … That
    which is of most importance in respect to the ‘Shesh’ or ‘Byss,’ is the fact …” From Notes, critical and practical, on the book of Exodus: designed as a general …? – Page 79
    George Bush – History – 1871

    See also
    http://books.google.ca/books?as_brr=0&q=linen%20shesh%20exodus%20byss%20cotton

    Questions and notes, critical and practical, upon the Book of Exodus …? – Page 186
    George Bush – Religion – 1832 –
    “Fine linen ;’ Heb. ‘ Shesh,'”

    The Edinburgh new philosophical journal: exhibiting a view of the …, Volume 3? – Page 74
    Robert Jameson, Sir William Jardine, Henry Darwin Rogers – Science – 1827
    On this ground, several learned men have thought that shesh, … Exodus xxvii.
    and 42. with Exodus xxxix. and 28., we find that shesh may denote linen, …

    The Edinburgh new philosophical journal, Volume 3? – Page 74
    Art – 1827
    … several learned men have thought that shesh, translated^we linen in the …
    and 42. with Exodus xxxix. and 28., we find that shesh may denote linen, …

    A dictionary of the natural history of the Bible: or, A description of all …? – Page 119
    Thaddeus Mason Harris – Fiction – 1833 – 350 pages
    From uMP SHESH is derived our word SASH ; a girdle of linen or silk. si Comp.
    Plutarch de Isid. et Osir. p. 352. Apnl. metam. 1. ii. p. 245. …

    Mr Phoney baloney better stay anonymous because you don’t know much: “Maybe YOU should have used a Hebrew Bible instead of an English one, Re: “Now here’s another instance of qne that you didn’t know about, Job 40:21 http://yfrog.com/jyjob4021p You didn’t know about it because it was changed to “tree” in the KJV.”

    It says that does does it? Look at your own reference you clown, qeneh is translated as reed, not tree, LMAO. King James Bible:
    “He lieth under the shady trees, in the covert of the reed, (keneh) and fens.”

    Here is a tip, get a Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, it has every word in the Bible from every verse translated into the original Greek or Hebrew. This is important as many of the words that appear the same in English, have different names and meanings in Hebrew. The English term ‘Prophet’ for instance in the Old Testament, is used as a translation for 4 differing Hebrew words, all with different meanings.

    As you THC levels are so low and mine are so high, I do have an unfair advantage over you http://budfacts.com/243/new-study-proves-that-marijuana-increases-brain-cell-formation/

    face it, you are not getting any better at this, just stupider in your unthought out responses. 🙂 As well, go back and read Sula benet, she explains that not all qeneh refences identify cannabis.

    Re Mr Assnonymouse: “but since you said it didn’t even grow around the Biblical lands at that time I can’t imagine why they would call the imported buds a name involving the same word as used for Giant Cane. They never would have seen a growing Cannabis plant in their lives. What they bought from away would have been called “fragrant buds” if anything, or did they order the whole plants?”

    The measuring qeneh were not that big, about a yard, if you look at that Ur picture i linked too. I said quality cannabis, as in fragrant cane, was imported. Hemp fiber and stalks may have been acquired from the Egyptians.
    From about around 3000 BC onward there is evidence of cannabis pollen in Egypt. According to the CODEX OF ANCIENT EGYPTIAN PLANT REMAINS, (1997) pollen has been identified at Egyptian sites dating from the Predynastic period (c.3500-3100 BCE); the 12th Dynasty (c.1991-1786 BCE) includes not only pollen, but also a hemp “fibre (ball)”; from the 19th Dynasty (c.1293-1185 BCE) found on the Mummy of Ramses II; and the Ptolemaic period (323-30 BCE) (Vartavan & Asensi, 1997).

    You know Moses was in Egypt right? Lmao.

    So far, every single point that you have brought up, is a point I have already adressed in my books, save for the identity of calamus as spikenard (Thanks again for that one!)

    The only things you have proven in this discussion is that you are not very smart; not very educated; you shoot off like you know things when clearly you do not; you are scared of pot; you are mean spirited; and this last one drives you to Lie; make false accusations in order to attack others; and you are a coward who hides behind the cloak of anonymity to attack the character’s of real people. That is you and that is God’s own truth about you, as you have shown that here. – But then, deep down, you already know that, just go and look at your self in the mirror and try to tell yourself different.

  1295. Chris Bennett on

    Re Klein, not sure what your point is. Everything Klein says seems pretty accurate to me.

    “Were Cannabis stems commonly used as a unit of measurement?”

    Yes, both hemp ropes and stalks were used for measuring. The stalk as a sort of yard stick, ropes for longer measuring like a measuring tape.

    As with Seshat
    http://www.recoveredscience.com/const201seshathempmath.htm
    ‘“It was… consistent with the ancient Egyptian visual canon that the artists who portrayed Seshat the rope-stretching goddess of measuring and geometry would have labeled her with pictures of her principal tools, or with easily recognizable symbols for these. Indeed, they combined evocations of these tools ingeniously in her emblem”

    Same with Ur images of the sacred tree wich depict the king with rope and stalk rod in hand. (where Abraham is from)

    http://media.photobucket.com/image/Ur%20moon%20god%20Nannar/dr34mcrush3r/urnam.jpg
    image of the Ur moon god Nannar seated before the sacred tree, across from the Goddess, Sir Wallis Budge noted:

    “He holds in his outstretched hand a reed or rod, a loop of cord, and a circular object made of cord or reeds, which are tied round with a cord. What this object is unknown. In his left hand the god holds a digging tool”
    (Budge, 1925)

    They were hemp ropes and stalks used for measuring, gifts from the sacred tree.

    Measuring was an important development in the ancient world and hemp stalks were used as yard sticks, and ropes for longer lengths.

    The term also came ot be the basis of the term cannon, and canon as in the weapon and the offical books of the Bible. Testament, btw, comes from testicle, and the old world practice of placing one’s hands upon the genitals when making oaths. As a popular item of trade keneh even came to have conoations of purchase. Ancient root words like I.E. kann, for cannabis, came to have many meanings, this is a common occurence.

    Yes, the Isaiah reference indicates unlike Jeremiah and your “bad beef theory” (LMAO), the Lord liked keneh. Why was he Lord so finicky?

    Other textual evidence from Isaiah, although not identifying cannabis by name, gives clear indications that at other times the Lord’s hunger for it was being appeased and hemp was being used as a shamanic incense inside the precincts of the temple, in elaborate ceremonies such as that indicated in the account of Ezekiel to which we just referred. Clearly Isaiah also received the keneh bosem anointing rite insituted by Moses: “The Spirit of the Sovereign Lord is on me, because the Lord has anointed me…” (Isaiah 61:1). Another dramatic episode in Isaiah describes a shamanistic ceremony involving the use of an entheogenic incense;

    And the posts of the door moved at the voice of him that cried, and the temple was filled with smoke.

    Then said I, “Woe is me, for I am undone; because I am a man of unclean lips, and I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips; for mine eyes have seen the King, the Lord of hosts.”

    Then flew one of the seraphims unto me, having a live coal in his hand, which he had taken with the tongs from off the altar, And he laid it upon my mouth and said, “Lo, this hath touched thy lips; and thine iniquity is taken away, and thy sin purged.” (Isaiah 6:4-7)

    As this passage was explained in SDVB:

    Those of us who are familiar with hashish know that it burns in a similar way to both incense and coal and it’s not hard to imagine an elaborately dressed ancient shaman, or seraphim, lifting a burning coal of hashish, or pressed bud, to the lips of the ancient prophet Isaiah. Interestingly, the holder of the tongs is described as a “seraphim”, which translates as a “fiery-serpent’, and has been associated with the Nehushtan that Moses made and Hezekiah later destroyed during his reforms, because the Israelites were burning incense to it [inside the temple]. In the context of this passage it would appear that “seraphim” may have been another word for Levite, which… had connotations of “serpent”. (Bennett & McQueen, 2001)

  1296. Anonymous on

    Doesn’t look like sheesh to me. Looks more like “bd” http://yfrog.com/1rleninp

    Maybe YOU should have used a Hebrew Bible instead of an English one. Now here’s another instance of qne that you didn’t know about, Job 40:21 http://yfrog.com/jyjob4021p

    You didn’t know about it because it was changed to “tree” in the KJV. As for what they used as a measuring reed, it was Giant Cane http://www.odu.edu/~lmusselm/essays/wetlandplants.pdf Granted, a Cannabis stem is somewhat like a Giant Cane stem, but since you said it didn’t even grow around the Biblical lands at that time I can’t imagine why they would call the imported buds a name involving the same word as used for Giant Cane. They never would have seen a growing Cannabis plant in their lives. What they bought from away would have been called “fragrant buds” if anything, or did they order the whole plants?

  1297. Chris Bennett on

    Mr. Assynonomouse: “I searched the Net and Sula is the only person on earth who ever said that.”

    Yes, well you have been showing what a piss poor researcher you are… “keneh is calamus, no its Lemon Grass, no it is a bunch of different sweet smelling cane like plants… blah, blah” Backed up with outright lying and unnamed wed sources.

    Here is the source for hemp shirts in burial, Sigfried Klein’s TOD UND BEGRABNIS IN PALISTINA

    Mr. Assynonymouse “The truth is that the Jews used the same clothing for burials as listed in Leviticus 16:4 for Aaron to wear as the high priest. It clearly states “linen”. It’s ALL linen.”

    So now you cliam the Hebrews were speaking English and used the word linen. You are such a clown. Try going back to the old Hebrew at the very least.

    The Hebrew word which is translated as linen is Shesh.

    Now about Shesh…. Zingggggggggggggggggggg

    In different publications of A CYCLOPAEDIA OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE, the 19th century scholar John Kitto put forth two, potentially related, etymologies for “hashish”, through Hebrew terms Shesh, which originates in reference to some sort of “fibre plant”, and the possibly related word, Eshishah, (E-shesh-ah?) which holds connotations of “syrup” or “unguent”.

    SHESH… also SHESHI, translated fine linen in the Authorized Version, occurs twenty eight times in Exodus, once in Genesis, once in Proverbs, and three times in Ezekiel. Considerable doubts have, however, always been entertained respecting the true meaning of the word; some have thought it signified fine wool, others silk; the Arabs have translated it by words referring to colours in the passages of Ezekiel and of Proverbs. Some of the Rabbins state that it is the same word as that which denotes the number six, and that it refers to the number of threads of which the yarn was composed. … This interpretation, however, has satisfied but few….
    Shesh… must… be taken into consideration. In several passages where we find the word used, we do not obtain any information respecting the plant; but it is clear it was spun by women (Exod. xxx. 25), was used as an article of clothing, also for hangings, and even for the sails of ships, as in Ezekiel xxvii. 7. It is evident from these facts that it must have been a plant known as cultivated in Egypt at the earliest period, and which, or its fibre, the Israelites were able to obtain even when in the desert. As cotton does not appear to have been known at this very early period, we must seek for shesh among the other fibre yielding plants, such as flax and hemp. Both these are suited to the purpose, and were procurable in those countries at the times specified. Lexicographers do not give us much assistance in determining the point, from the little certainty in their inferences. The word shesh, however, appears to us to have a very great resemblance, with the exception of the aspirate, to the Arabic name of a plant, which, it is curious, was also one of those earliest cultivated for its fibre, namely hemp. Of this plant, one of the Arabic names is… husheesh, or the herb par excellence, the term being sometimes applied to the powdered leaves only, with which an intoxicating electuary is prepared. This name has long been known, and is thought by some to have given origin to our word assassin, or hassasin. Makrizi treats of the hemp in his account of the ancient pleasure grounds in the vicinity of Cairo, “famous above all for the sale of the hasheesha,, which is still greedily consumed by the dregs of the people, and from the consumption of which sprung the excesses, which led to the name of ‘assassin’ being given to the Saracens in the holy wars.”
    “Hemp is a plant which in the present day is extensively distributed, being cultivated in Europe, and extending through Persia to the southernmost parts of India. There is no doubt, therefore, that ‘it might easily have been cultivated in Egypt. We are, indeed, unable at present to prove that it was cultivated in Egypt at an early period, and used for making garments, but there is nothing improbable in its having been so. Indeed, as it was known to various Asiatic nations, it could hardly have been unknown to the Egyptians. Hemp might thus have been used at an early period, along with flax and wool, for making cloth for garments and for hangings, and would be much valued until cotton and the finer kinds of linen came to be known…. There is no doubt… that it might easily have been cultivated in Egypt.”
    “…Indeed, as it was known to various Asiatic nations, it could hardly have been unknown to the Egyptians, and the similarity of the word hasheesh to the Arabic shesh would lead to a belief that they were acquainted with it…” (Kitto, 1856)

    ESHISHAH, eshishah, once translated ‘flagon’ only: in three passages ‘flagon of wine’ and once ‘flagon’ with grapes joined to it in the original, as noticed in the margin (Hosea iii. 1). The Sept. renders it in four different ways, viz. … ‘a cake from the frying- pan’ (2 Sam. vi. 19); in another part, which narrates the same fact…, ‘a sweet cake of fine flour and honey’ (1 Chron. xvi. 3)… a cake made with raisins (Hos. iii. 1), *raisins here corresponding to ‘grapes’ in the Hebrew ; and by one copy…, ‘sweet cakes’ (Cant. ii. 5) ; but in others ‘unguents’ [!-emphasis added]. In the Targum to the Hebrew… tzappikhith. in Exod. xvi. 31, the Chaldee term is… [Hebrew] ethiilian, ‘a cake,’ rendered in our version by ‘wafers.’ Eshishah has been supposed to be connected with [Hebrew]… ash, ‘fire’ and to denote some sort of ‘sweet cake’ prepared with fire; but the second part of the word has not been hitherto explained.”
    “Perhaps the following extract from Olearius (1637) may throw light on the kind of preparations denoted by shemarin [preserves or jellies] and eshishah: ‘The Persians are permitted to make a sirrup of sweet wine, which they boyl till it be reduc’d to a sixth part, and be grown as thick as oyl. They call this drug duschab [debhash], and when they would take, of it, they dissolve it with water.’ ‘Sometimes they boyl the duschab so long that they reduce it into a paste, for the convenience of travellers, who cut it with a knife, and dissolve it in water.’ At Tabris they make a certain conserve of it, which they call halva… mixing therewith beaten almonds, flour, &c. They put this mixture into a long and narrow bag, and having set it under the press, they make of it a paste, which grows so hard that a man must have a hatchet to cut it. They make also a kind of conserve of it, much like a pudding, which they call zutzuch, thrusting through the middle of it a small cotton thread to keep the paste together… Amongst the presents received by the ambassadors there is enumerated ‘a bottle of scherab [syrup] or Persian wine’… This zutzuch is but a harsh corruption of the Hebrew eshishah, and is by others called hashish and achicha. Even this substance, in course of time, was converted into a medium of intoxication by means of drugs. Hemp is cultivated and used as a narcotic over all Arabia. The flowers, when mixed with tobacco, are called hashish. The higher classes eat it (hemp) in a jelly or paste called majoon mixed with honey, or other sweet drugs’ … De Sacy and Lane derive the name of the Eastern sect of ‘Assassins’ (Hashshusheen). ‘hemp- eaters,’ from their practice of using shahdanaj [Persian – cannabis] to fit them for their dreadful work. El-ldreesee, indeed, applies the term Hasheesheeyeh to the ‘Assassins.’ (Kitto, 1845/1854)

  1298. Chris Bennett on

    That burial ritual is a later development, not a ritual described in the Torah.

  1299. xxx on

    All those question marks in the above post were Hebrew letters. Click the link to see the proper text.

    Now why did Klein say that kaneh can mean “the length of a reed” if it is supposed to mean Cannabis? Were Cannabis stems commonly used as a unit of measurement?

  1300. Anonymous on

    Look at this Chris. It has stuff from the guy who supposedly said the Hebrews buried their dead in Kaneh shirts, Klein;

    “canyon

    In 1986, when developer David Azrieli built Israel’s first mall, he also coined the catchy name: ????? – kanyon (or kanion or canion.) It is a combination of kniya ???? (shopping) and chanyon ????? (parking place) – both two major draws for a mall. I’m sure it also had the allure of a foreign word, sounding like the English word “canyon”. (In fact, today one of Israel’s largest malls is the Grand Kanyon in Haifa). I wonder, however, if he realized the Semitic roots of “canyon” when he came up with the term.

    The English word canyon was borrowed from the Spanish cañon, which meant “a pipe, tube, gorge”. The Spanish word derived from the Latin canna, and earlier the Greek kanna, meaning “reed”. Many English words derive from either the Greek or Latin, including canister, cannon, canon, caramel, can, canal, cane, channel, canasta and canneloni.

    The Greek kanna derived from the Semitic word (maybe Hebrew?) for reed – ??? kaneh. According to Klein, kaneh has many meanings: stalk, reed, cane, beam of scales, shaft of lampstand, arm of lampstand, length of a reed, and in later Hebrew – windpipe.

    One of the interesting meanings is “beam of scales”. In Yechezkel 40:3 we read of ??????? ????????? – a “measuring rod” — knei mida has the meaning in modern Hebrew of “criterion” or “scale”. In the continuation of the chapter we see Yechezkel use kaneh as a measurement for building.

    Kaneh was used for another type of measurement in Yeshayahu 46:6 – ??????? ????????? ?????????? — “and weigh out silver on the beam [of the balance]”. From here Klein writes that some scholars say that the meaning of ??? – “to buy” comes from kaneh as well. He points out that there is a similar sense development in Aramaic, where ??? – “he bought” is probably borrowed from the Akkadian zibanitu – “balance, pair of scales”. Yeshayahu makes a play on words using the double (and perhaps connected meanings) in 43:24 – ???-??????? ???? ???????? ????? — “You have not bought me fragrant reed with money”.” http://www.balashon.com/2006/06/canyon.html

  1301. xxx on

    in case you’re wondering where I got the idea that Lev. 16:4 is the source of the Jewish burial clothes, it’s from here http://www.jewish-funerals.org/PSJCTaharahManual.pdf

    “Portions of Leviticus 16:4, which describes how Aaron is to be clothed as the High
    Priest, are recited after the meit/ah is dressed in each of the corresponding garments.
    It is our minhag (custom) to proceed according to the order of the verse, placing the
    head covering last. However, care should be taken to keep the face covered while the
    body is dressed in the rest of the takhrikhim.”

  1302. Anonymous on

    I take issue with Sula’s claim that the Jews required hemp shirts in burials. I searched the Net and Sula is the only person on earth who ever said that. The truth is that the Jews used the same clothing for burials as listed in Leviticus 16:4 for Aaron to wear as the high priest. It clearly states “linen”. It’s ALL linen. There is no mention of hemp whatsoever so why would Sula and Chris think the Jews would suddenly switch to hemp? Just more of Chris’ disinformation campaign. And for the record, I am a Cannabis user. Chris stated several times that I am afraid of pot, or something to that effect. Complete lie, from a complete liar. In fact, when I first read about Sula’s work (in CC) I thought it really was true. Then recently I did research on it and found that the theory was just untenable and that qne bshm was certainly Calamus or a related fragrant cane. There’s just no way around it when you take all of the Biblical instances of the word into account. I don’t know what Chris fails to comprehend about it. It’s pretty clear when you really take the time to look at it.

  1303. Chris Bennett on

    You really are a lot of baseless blah, blah, blah, peppered with unsourced or outdated references. One thing is for sure, your uneducated anonymous opinion is worth nothing, you are a complete Kook.

    Just Sula and me eh? More of your Lies. Why do you lie so much?

    Unlike your petty anonymous ass, and your continual unsourced spurious web references, we can identify who supports the keneh-cannabis theory.

    The Great Keneh Bosem Debate – Part 1
    http://www.cannabisculture.com/v2/node/20688

    Part 2 of the Great Keneh Bosem Debate:
    http://www.cannabisculture.com/v2/node/20803

    This connection has been accepted by a number of scholars

    One of Anthropologist Sula Benet’s, original articles regarding the keneh bosem theory http://books.google.ca/books?id=CBXxnaGk0hwC&pg=PA40&dq=exodus+30:23+can

    As Sula Benet herself notes: “In the original Hebrew text of the Old Testament there are references to hemp, both as incense, which was an integral part of religious celebration, and as an intoxicant” (Benet 1975: 1936). Through comparative etymological study, Benet documented that in the Old Testament and in its Aramaic translation, the Targum Onculos, hemp is referred to as keneh bosem (variously translated as kaneh bosem, kaniebosm, q’neh bosm ) and is also rendered in traditional Hebrew as kannabos or kannabus. The root “kana” in this construction means “cane~reed” or “hemp”, while “bosm” means “aromatic”. This word appeared in Exodus 30:23, whereas in the Song of Songs 4:14, Isaiah 43:24, Jeremiah 6:20, Ezekiel 27:19 the term keneh (or q’aneh) is used without the adjunct bosem.

    Anthropologist Vera Rubin (Jewish, so she knows the language) http://www.thereedfoundation.org/rism/Rubin.html
    Vera Rubin noted, that cannabis “appears in the OLD TESTAMENT because of the ritual and sacred aspect of it” (Rubin 1978).

    The German researcher Immanuel Low, in his DIE FLORA DER JUDEN (1926\1967) identified a number of ancient Hebrew references to cannabis, here as an incense, food source, as well as cloth, noting the keneh, and keneh bosem references amongst others in this regard, independent of Benet . Interestingly, Immanuel Löw, referred to an ancient Jewish Passover recipe that called for wine to be mixed with ground up saffron and hasisat surur, which he saw as a “a kind of deck name for the resin the Cannabis sativa” (Low, 1924). Low suggests that this preparation was also made into a burnable and fragrant concoction by being combined with Saffron and Arabic Gum (Low, 1926\1967).

    In 1980 the respected anthropologist Weston La Barre (1980) referred to the Biblical references in an essay on cannabis, concurring with Benet’s earlier hypothesis. In that same year respected British Journal New Scientist also ran a story that referred to the Hebrew OLD TESTAMENT references: “Linguistic evidence indicates that in the original Hebrew and Aramaic texts of the Old Testament the ‘holy oil’ which God directed Moses to make (Exodus 30:23) was composed of myrrh, cinnamon, cannabis and cassia” (Malyon & Henman 1980).

    As well, William McKim noted in DRUGS AND BEHAVIOUR, “It is likely that the Hebrews used cannabis… In the OLD TESTAMENT (Exodus 30:23), God tells Moses to make a holy oil of ‘myrrh, sweet cinnamon, kaneh bosem and kassia’” (McKim, 1986). A MINISTER’S HANDOOK OF MENTAL DISORDERS also records that “Some scholars believe that God’s command to Moses (Exodus 30:23) to make a holy oil included cannabis as one of the chosen ingredients” (Ciarrocchi, 1993).

    Independent support for Benet’s view of the Semitic origins of the term kaneh can be found in THE WORD: THE DICTIONARY THAT REVEALS THE HEBREW SOURCE OF ENGLISH, by Isaac E. Mozeson. In reference to Hebrew kaneh, Mozeson follows a similar view to Benet’s that the “so-called IE root kanna… is admitted to be “of Semitic origin”….the IE word kannabis (hemp – a late IE word borrowed from an unknown source)” (Mozeson, 1989)….KANBOOS is an early post biblical term for hemp… The word HEMP is traced to Greek kannabis and Persian kannab… The ultimate etymon is conceded by Webster’s to be “a very early borrowing from a non-IE, possibly Semitic language…. In seeking related words… consider Aramaic… KENABH… and [Hebrew] KANEH…” (Mozeson, 1989) Interestingly Mozeson makes no reference to calamus in the context of the term kaneh.

    Prof. Carl Ruck, Classical Mythology, Boston University , (also a linguist)

    Cannabis is called kaneh bosem in Hebrew, which is now recognized as the Scythian word that Herodotus wrote as kannabis (or cannabis). The translators of the bible translate this usually as ‘fragrant cane,’ i.e., an aromatic grass. Once the word is correctly translated, the use of cannabis in the bible is clear. Large amounts of it were compounded into the ointment for the ordination of the priest. This ointment was also used to anoint the holy vessels in the Inner Sanctum or Tabernacle (‘tent’). It was also used to fumigate the holy enclosed space. The ointment (absorbed through the skin) and the fragrance of the vessels (both absorbed by handling and inhaled as perfume) and the smoke of the incense in the confined space would have been a very effective means of administering the psychoactive properties of the plant. Since it was only the High Priest who entered the Tabernacle, it was an experience reserved for him, although as the chrism of priestly ordination it was probably also something experienced in a different way by the whole priesthood. This same psychoactive chrism was later used for the coronation of the kings.

    As well, my co-author of Sex, Drugs, Violence and the Bible, Neil McQueen, who has a Masters in religious Studies and a degree in Hebrew, is also a supporter of Benet’s theory

    Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan, a noted American Orthodox rabbi and author. In THE LIVING TORAH, Kaplan notes that “On the basis of cognate pronunciation and a Septuagint reading, some identify Keneh bosem with English and Greek cannabis, the hemp plant” (Kaplan, 1981). Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan has also noted of early Kabalistic magical schools who used magic and other means of communion for mystic exploration, that “some practices include the use of ‘grasses,’ which were possibly psychedelic drugs” (Kaplan, 1993). The Kabalistic text the Zohar records:

    “There is no grass or herb that grows in which G-d’s wisdom is not greatly manifested and which cannot exert great influence in heaven” and “If men but knew the wisdom of all the Holy One, blessed be He, has planted in the earth, and the power of all that is to be found in the world, they would proclaim the power of their L-rd in His great wisdom.” (Zohar.2,80B)

    Like the Zoroastrian royalty and priesthood, there are indications that early Kabbalists enjoyed the use of the herb, but prevented its consumption by the common people. In the P’sachim, “Rav Yehudah says it is good to eat… the essence of hemp seed in Babylonian broth; but it is not lawful to mention this in the presence of an illiterate man, because he might derive a benefit from the knowledge not meant for him.- Nedarim, fol. 49, col. 1” (Harris, et al., 2004).

    Other sources have noted a Kabbalistic comparison to the effects of cannabis with divine perception, noting an “intriguing reference to cannabis in the context of a fleeting knowledge of God: Zohar Hadash, Bereshit, 16a (Midrash ha-Ne’elam)” (Gross, et al., 1983). Thus, evidence for the use of cannabis in Jewish mysticism does exist,and this fits in well with the suggestions for the role of q’neh in pre-reformation Israel and Judea.

    Make Way for the Tree of Life
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kQ2J4V39s-8&feature=related

  1304. Chris Bennett on

    You mean that lame ass anonymous multi-plant theory? What scholar takes that guys claim seriously? There are numerous “distinct” plants referred to in the Bible, if keneh bosem was a reference to more than one plant, this would have been clearly referred to. That unknown guy you quote is an unknown amature. find some credible sources for your new theory, now that you dumped your calamus theory. This one is even less founded. Face it you are scratching….

    keneh comes from the Indo-European root for cannabis, kann, which also came to mean cane.

  1305. Chris Bennett on

    Hey spazzy quit banging on that keypad before thinking things out
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bZTAyBpnIEw

    You keep quoting unsure researchers, who are unfamiliar with the etymological research and comparitive use research regarding keneh and cannabis. Everyone knows that people used to think keneh was calamus, confusion on this has existed for like over 2000 years. Those researchers you quote are just repeating those mistakes without knowning about the connection between keneh-cannabis. The basis of your arguements here, would be like quoting sources that beleived in the Creation myth of Genesis before Darwin, as evidence Darwin was wrong. Now people know and now people think differently, at least those in the know. So do you still believe the earth is flat too? People were just as resistant to accept that as yo are to the reality of keneh-cannabis.

    So how many people spoke to God under the influence of Lemon Grass scent? Above I doucment the entheogenic use of cannabis in numerous religions for the exact same purpose as the Jews used keneh-cannabis.

    Realistically, the keneh-cannabis theory is just as much as a threat to the “faithful” as evolution was. I thin that is the fact that really scares you.

    R. Gordon Wasson hypothesized that the genesis of religion could be found in humanity’s relationship to the hallucinogens. For this, and his lifelong research into entheogenic history, Jonathon Ott compared Wasson to Charles Darwin. For Darwin’s hypothesis of natural selection helped to document the reality of Evolution, in the same way “Wasson’s theory suggested a natural mechanism to explain the historical fact that strikingly similar religious concepts arose independently in diverse parts of the… globe in protohistory, having certain pangaen motifs relating to ecstatic communion with the entheogens, the use of which has likewise been shown to be common virtually to all cultures studied… of the Axis Mundi or ‘World Tree’ (‘Tree of Life,’ ‘Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil,’ etc.) with its sacred fruit… of communion with sacrament… of the souls seperability from the body… of the Otherworld…” (Ott 1995) Ott further contends that just as the fundamentalists are being overwhelmed by the gaining world acceptance of Evolution over the belief in Biblical Creationism, so too as data accumulates will the world come to see the Wasson theory of the origins of religion vastly more believable than the theologies put forth by any of the modern day followers of today’s orthodox religions.

    Keneh is cannabis, the most useful plant in the world, and your issue is that you are scared of cannabis.

    So what are you so obsessed and scared about?

  1306. Chris Bennett on

    Sure it does….. to you. 🙂

    Also, that keneh reference from dreamland, that you thought was from Israel, was written long after the introduction of keneh to Israel, and the Isrealites adopted the word into their language to define other things….

    EARLY DIFFUSION AND FOLK USES OF HEMP
    « previous entry | next entry »
    Jun. 10th, 2006 | 12:58 pm
    music: Maggi Payne – Moiri

    KONOPIE

    Here is the original article that re-kindled
    all the old arguments about the presence of
    cannabis in the Torah / Old Testament when
    it was printed in 1975:

    EARLY DIFFUSION AND FOLK USES OF HEMP
    SULA BENET < -aka- SARA BENETOWA >

    [ from *Cannabis and Culture*, Vera Rubin &
    Lambros Comitas, (eds.), 1975, pgs. 39-49 ]

    ABSTRACT

    Despite the growing volume of literature on the subject of
    hemp, the historical routes of its diffusion remain obscure
    and there is scant reference to its ubiquitous role in folk
    ritual, magic and medicine among European peasantry.

    The term cannabis, itself, has been considered to be of
    Indo-European origin. The paper re-examines the origin of
    the term cannabis to demonstrate its derivation from Semitic
    languages.

    Both the word and its forms of use were borrowed by the
    nomadic Scythians from peoples of the Near East and diffused
    among the people with whom they came in contact. Ritual and
    other folk uses are described.

    Hemp, one of the most versatile and important plants
    discovered by man and used for millennia, has been long
    neglected in scientific literature. Not until society’s
    recent concern with drug addiction has the existing body of
    knowledge about hemp become so readily available. In the
    past, such information could be found in pharmacopoeia, in
    occasional historical references, or in ritual folkloristic
    material.

    Although the body of literature concerning hemp has grown
    rapidly in the last decade, the exact origin of the plant
    has yet to be established; the historical routes of its
    diffusion remain obscure, and there is barely any reference
    to the role it played in the life of the European peasantry.
    The latter should be of special interest in view of the
    ubiquitous use of hemp in folk ritual, magic, and medicinal
    practices.

    A major reason for the obscurity as well as confusion that
    becloud the issue is that previously suggested theories of
    diffusion have been repeated and elaborated without critical
    examination of their historical sources.

    For example, the German scientists, Schrader, Hehn, and
    Bushan, as well as learned biblical commentaries and modern
    botanists, have claimed that ancient Palestine and Egypt did
    not know hemp and its uses (Dewey 1913; Moldenke 1952).

    In this paper, I propose to reconsider the origin of the
    term cannabis to demonstrate that it is derived from Semitic
    languages and that both its name and forms of its use were
    borrowed by the Scythians from the peoples of the Near East.

    We will thus discover that the use of cannabis predates by
    at least 1000 years its first mention by Herodotus.

    Next, we will examine the diffusion of the plant to Europe
    and its continued use in peasant rituals, magic, and medical
    practices.

    Western scholars have universally considered the term
    cannabis to be of Indo-European, specifically Scythian, origin.

    This widely-held opinion not only credited the Scythians
    with the name for hemp (which Linnaeus categorized as
    Cannabis sativa) but also with the initial introduction of
    the plant into Europe and Asia.

    There was barely any history of cannabis before the Greek
    historian Herodotus, in the fifth century B.C., observed
    that the Scythians used the plant to purge themselves after
    funerals by throwing hemp seeds on heated stones to create a
    thick vapour, inhaling the smoke and becoming intoxicated.

    “The Scythians howl with joy for the vapour bath”
    (Herodotus, IV: 142).

    To the Western world, Herodotus’ account is the earliest
    source of knowledge of the ritual use of cannabis.

    Tracing the history of hemp in terms of cultural contacts,
    the Old Testament must not be overlooked since it provides
    one of the oldest and most important written source materials.

    In the original Hebrew text of the Old Testament there are
    references to hemp, both as incense, which was an integral
    part of religious celebration, and as an intoxicant (Benet
    1936) Cannabis as an incense was also used in the temples of
    Assyria and Babylon “because its aroma was pleasing to the
    Gods.” (Meissner 1925 (II): 84).

    Both in the original Hebrew text of the Old Testament and in
    the Aramaic translation, the word ‘kaneh’ or ‘ keneh’ is
    used either alone or linked to the adjective bosm in Hebrew
    and busma in Aramaic, meaning aromatic.

    It is ‘cana’ in Sanskrit, ‘qunnabu’ in Assyrian, ‘kenab’ in
    Persian, ‘kannab’ in Arabic and ‘kanbun’ in Chaldean.

    In Exodus 30: 23, God directed Moses to make a holy oil
    composed of “myrrh, sweet cinnamon, kaneh bosm and kassia.”

    In many ancient languages, including Hebrew, the root ‘kan’
    has a double meaning — both hemp and reed.

    In many translations of the Bible’s original Hebrew, we find
    ‘kaneh bosm’ variously and erroneously translated as
    “calamus” and “aromatic reed,” a vague term.

    Calamus, (Calamus aromaticus) is a fragrant marsh plant.

    The error occurred in the oldest Greek translation of the
    Hebrew Bible, Septuagint, in the third century B.C., where
    the terms ‘kaneh, kaneh bosm’ were incorrectly translated as
    “calamus.”

    And in the many translations that followed, including Martin
    Luther’s, the same error was repeated.

    In Exodus 30: 23 ‘kaneh bosm’ is translated as “sweet calamus.”

    In Isaiah 43: 24 ‘kaneh’ is translated as “sweet cane.”
    although the word “sweet” appears nowhere in the original.

    In Jeremiah 6: 20 ‘kaneh’ is translated as “sweet cane.”

    In Ezekiel 27: 19 ‘kaneh’ is translated as “calamus.”

    In Song of Songs 4: 14 ‘kaneh’ is translated “calamus.”

    Another piece of evidence regarding the use of the word
    ‘kaneh’ in the sense of hemp rather than reed among the
    Hebrews is the religious requirement that the dead be buried
    in ‘kaneh’ shirts.

    Centuries later, linen was substituted for hemp (Klein 1908).

    In the course of time, the two words ‘kaneh’ and ‘bos’ were
    fused into one, ‘kanabos’ or ‘kannabus,’known to us from
    Mishna, the body of traditional Hebrew law. The word bears
    an unmistakable similarity to the Scythian “cannabis.”

    Is it too far-fetched to assume that the Semitic word
    ‘kanbos’ and the Scythian word ‘cannabis’ mean the same thing?

    Since the history of cannabis has been tied to the history
    of the Scythians, it is of interest to establish their
    appearance in the Near East. Again, the Old Testament
    provides information testifying to their greater antiquity
    than has been previously assumed.

    The Scythians participated in both trade and wars alongside
    the ancient Semites for at least one millennium before
    Herodotus encountered them in the fifth century B.C.

    The reason for confusion and the relative obscurity of the
    role played by the Scythians in world history is explained
    by the fact that they were known to the Greeks as Scythians
    but to the Semites as Ashkenaz.

    Identification of the Scythian-Ashkenaz as a single people
    is convincingly made by Ellis H. Minns (1965) in his
    definitive work on Scythians and Greeks.

    The earliest reference to the Ashkenaz people appears in the
    Bible in Genesis 10: 3, where Ashkenaz, their progenitor, is
    named as the son of Gomer, the great-grandson of Noah.

    The Ashkenaz of the Bible were both war-like and extremely
    mobile. In Jeremiah 51: 27, we read that the kingdoms of
    Ararat (known later as Armenia), Minni (Medea), and Ashkenaz
    attacked Babylonia. In 612 B.C. Babylonians with the aid of
    the Medeans (Medes) and Scythians, coming from the Caucasus,
    dealt a deadly blow to Assyria (Durant 1954). Referring the
    threat of war, Herodotus reports that Scythians attempted to
    invade Egypt by way of Palestine and they withdrew only
    after the Pharaoh paid them to retreat.

    There is evidence of the presence of the Scythians in Palestine.

    The city known as Beizan in modern times was originally
    called Bethshan and later renamed Scythopolis by the Greeks
    during the Hellenistic period, since many Scythians settled
    there during the great invasion of Palestine in the
    seventh-century B.C.

    The importance of the geographical position of Palestine
    cannot be overlooked when considering the trade routes
    through which caravans moved, laden with goods and precious
    “spices.”

    Palestine was situated along the two most vital trade routes
    of the ancient world. One was between Egypt and Asia and the
    other ran west from Arabia to the coastal plain, from there
    branching off to Egypt to Syria.

    In the original Hebrew of the Bible (Ezekiel 27: 19), in a
    description of Tyre, the royal city of the Phoenicians,
    famous in antiquity for its far-flung trade, it is noted
    that “Vedon and Yavan traded with yarn for thy wares;
    massive iron, cassia and kaneh were among thy merchandise.”
    (The markets of Tyre were frequented by the Jews.

    Biblical quotation from “The Holy Scriptures,” The Jewish
    Publication Society of America.)

    King Solomon, a contemporary and friend of King Hiram of
    Tyre (960 B.C.), ordered hemp cords among other materials
    for building his temples and throne (Salzberger 1912).
    Rostovtzeff (1932) describes the caravan trade between
    Babylonia, Egypt, Syria, and Asia Minor. Among the goods
    there was incense for the “delection of gods and men.”

    In addition to the caravan trade, the mobile, warlike
    Ashkenaz carried their raid to the Caucasus in the north and
    westward to Europe, taking with them their knowledge of the
    use of hemp as well as their dependence on its intoxicating
    qualities. So mobile were the Scythians that there is a good
    probability that as they spilled across much of Europe and
    Asia; they were the ones to introduce the natives to the
    ritual use of the plant and the narcotic pleasures to be
    derived from it. The Scythians apparently did not use hemp
    for manufactures such as weaving and rope-making. Yet,
    despite the plentiful quantity of wild hemp, the Scythians
    cultivated the plant in order to increase the amount
    available for their use. Apparently their need for it was
    great indeed.

    Since hemp was originally used in rituals, it may be assumed
    that the Scythians spread their custom among the people with
    whom they came into contact. The Siberian tribes of Pazaryk
    in the Altai region (discovered by the Soviet archaeologist,
    S. Rudenko) left burial mounds in which bronze vessels
    containing burnt hemp seeds to produce incense vapours were
    found.

    Rudenko believes that these objects were used for funeral
    purification ceremonies similar to those practised by the
    Scythians (Emboden 1972: 223).

    Another custom connected with the dead in parts of Eastern
    Europe is the throwing of a handful of seeds into the fire
    as an offering to the dead during the harvesting of hemp —
    similar to the custom of the Scythians and of the Pazaryk
    tribes, two-and-a-half thousand years ago.

    There is no doubt that some of the practices, such as
    funeral customs, were introduced by the Scythians during
    their victorious advance into southeast Russia, including
    the Caucasus, where they remained for centuries.

    Hemp never lost its connection with the cult of the dead.

    Even today in Poland and Lithuania, and in former times also
    in Russia, on Christmas Eve when it is believed that the
    dead visit their families, a soup made of hemp seeds, called
    ‘semieniatka,’ is served for the dead souls to savor. In
    Latvia and the Ukraine, a dish made of hemp was prepared for
    Three Kings Day.

    Since the plant was associated with religious ritual and the
    power of healing, magical practices were connected with its
    cultivation. In Europe, peasants generally believed that
    planting hemp should take place on the days of saints who
    were known to be tall in order to encourage the plant’s
    growth. In Germany, long steps are taken while sowing the
    seed which is thrown high into the air. In Baden the
    planting is done during the “high” hours, between 11:00 a.m.
    and noon. Cakes baked to stimulate hemp growth are known as
    ‘hanfeier.’

    Following the planting, magical means are applied to make
    the hemp grow tall and straight. The custom of dancing or
    jumping to promote the growth of the plant is known
    throughout Europe. In Poland, married women dance “the hemp
    dance” on Shrove Tuesday, leaping high into the air. The
    hemp dance (‘for hemp’s sake’) is also danced at weddings by
    the young bride with the ‘raiko,’ the master of ceremonies
    (Kolberg 1899). In the wedding rituals of the Southern
    Slavs, hemp is a symbol of wealth and a talisman for happiness.

    When the bride enters her new home after the wedding
    ceremony, she strokes the four walls of her new home with a
    bunch of hemp.

    She is herself sprinkled with hemp seeds to bring good luck.
    In Estonia, the young bride visits her neighbors in the
    company of older women asking for gifts of hemp. She is thus
    “showered” with hemp.

    The odor of European hemp is stimulating enough to produce
    euphoria and a desire for sociability and gaiety and
    harvesting of hemp has always been accompanied by social
    festivities, dancing, and sometimes even erotic playfulness.

    Women play a leading role in the festivities. In Poland,
    initiation ceremonies are held during the harvest. Young
    brides are admitted into the circle of older married women
    on payment of a token fee.

    Since the Catholic Church never deemed it necessary to
    interfere with these festivals, it must have regarded them
    as harmless and perhaps even socially benevolent.

    In Eastern Europe hemp is evidently not considered addictive
    and no case of solitary use among the peasants has been
    reported: it is always used in a context of group
    participation. In many countries, hemp gathering is an
    occasion for socializing. The Swiss call it ‘stelg’ (Hager
    1919). Young men come to the gathering wearing carnival
    masks and offer gifts to the girls.

    Hemp gathering rituals also reveal the sacred character of
    the plant. In certain areas of Poland, at midnight, a chalk
    ring is drawn around the plant which is then sprinkled with
    holy water. The person collecting the plant hopes that part
    of the flower will fall into his boots and bring him good
    fortune.

    The flower of a hemp plant gathered on St. John’s Eve in the
    Ukraine is thought to counteract witchcraft and protect farm
    animals from the evil eye.

    Although it is believed that witches can use the plant to
    inflict harm, they are not likely to do so in fact, and hemp
    is often used against persons suspected of witchcraft. In
    Poland, it is used for divination, especially in connection
    with marriage.

    The eve of St. Andrews (November 30th) is considered a most
    propitious time for divination about future husbands.
    Certain magical spells, using hemp, are believed to advance
    the date of marriage, perhaps even signal the very day it
    will occur. Girls in the Ukraine carry hemp seeds in their
    belts, they jump on a heap and call out:

    Andrei, Andrei,
    I plant the hemp seed on you.
    Will god let me know
    With whom I will sleep?

    The girls then remove their shirts and fill their mouths
    with water to sprinkle on the seed to keep the birds from
    eating them. Then they run around the house naked three times.

    The sacred character of hemp in biblical times is evident
    from Exodus 30: 22-33, where Moses was instructed by God to
    anoint the meeting tent and all its furnishings with
    specially prepared oil, containing hemp.

    Anointing set sacred things apart from the secular. The
    anointment of sacred objects was an ancient tradition in
    Israel: holy oil was not to be used for secular purposes.

    And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying,
    “This shall be a holy anointing oil unto me, throughout your
    generations.” (King James Version, Exodus 30:31).

    Above all, the anointing oil was used for the installation
    rites of all Hebrew kings and priests.

    Dr. R. Patai (1947) expresses the opinion that the use of
    sacred oil is based on the belief in its nourishing,
    conserving and healing powers. Dr. Patai discusses the
    spread of this custom from the ancient Near East to most of
    Africa where we find the ritual of anointing among other
    parallels in the rites of installation of kings.

    Almost all ancient peoples considered narcotic and medicinal
    plants sacred and incorporated them into their religious or
    magical beliefs and practices. In Africa, there were a
    number of cults and sects of hemp worship. Pogge and
    Wissman, during their explorations of 1881, visited the
    Bashilenge, living on the northern borders of the Lundu,
    between Sankrua and Balua. They found large plots of land
    around the villages used for the cultivation of hemp.
    Originally there were small clubs of hemp smokers, bound by
    ties of friendship, but these eventually led to the
    formation of a religious cult. The Bashilenge called
    themselves: Bena:Riamba — “the sons of hemp,: and their
    land Lubuku, meaning friendship. They greeted each other
    with the expression “moio,” meaning both “hemp” and “life.”

    Each tribesman was required to participate in the cult of
    Riamba and show his devotion by smoking as frequently as
    possible. They attributed universal magical powers to hemp,
    which was thought to combat all kinds of evil and they took
    it when they went to war and when they traveled. There were
    initiation rites for new members which usually took place
    before a war or long journey. The hemp pipe assumed a
    symbolic meaning for the Bashilenge somewhat analogous to
    the significance which the peace pipe had for American
    Indians. No holiday, no trade agreement, no peace treaty was
    transacted without it (Wissman et al. 1888). In the middle
    Sahara region, the Senusi sect also cultivated hemp on a
    large scale for use in religious ceremonies (Ibid).

    USE OF CANNABIS IN FOLK MEDICINE

    Hemp, both because of its psychoactive properties and its
    mystical significance, became a popular and widely-utilized
    plant in the folk medicine of Europe and Asia. Since ancient
    times its soothing, tranquilizing action has been known. The
    Atharva Veda (1400 B.C.) mentions hemp as a medicinal and
    magical plant. In the Zend-Avesta, hemp occupies the first
    place in a list of 10,000 medicinal plants given to a doctor
    Thrita.

    According to Dioscorides (100 A.D.), the resin of fresh hemp
    is an excellent treatment for earaches (Dioscorides 1902).
    In an old Germanic catalogue of medicinal plants, hemp is
    listed as a tranquilizer (Hoffer n.d.).

    An edition of Diocletian also mentions the use of cannabis
    as a medicament (Bretschneider 1881).

    Medieval Arab doctors considered hemp a sacred medicine
    which they called ‘schahdanach,’ ‘schadabach’ or ‘kannab’
    (Dragendorff 1898). Syrenius wrote in 1613 that ointment
    made from hemp resin is the most effective remedy for burns
    (Syrenius 1613) and that diseased joints could be
    straightened with the roots of hemp boiled in water.

    In Russia and Eastern Europe hemp was widely used in folk
    medicine, and references can also be found to its use in
    Western Europe. In Germany for example, sprigs of hemp were
    placed over the stomach and ankles to prevent convulsions
    and difficult childbirth, and in Switzerland hemp was also
    used to treat convulsions.

    In Poland, Russia and Lithuania, hemp was used to alleviate
    toothache by inhaling the vapor from hemp seeds thrown on
    hot stones (Biegeleisen 1929). Szyman of Lowic (16th
    century) gives the following prescription: “For worms in the
    teeth, boil hemp seeds in a new pot and add heated stones.
    When this vapor is inhaled the worms will fall out.” This
    method is varied somewhat in Ukrainian folk medicine, the
    fumes of cooked hemp porridge are believed to intoxicate the
    worms and cause them to fall out. In Czechoslovakia and
    Moravia, as in Poland, hemp was considered an effective
    treatment for fevers.

    In Poland, a mixture of hemp flowers, wax and olive oil was
    used to dress wounds.

    Oil from crushed hemp seeds is used as a treatment for
    jaundice and rheumatism in Russia. In Serbia, hemp is
    considered an aphrodisiac (Tschirch 1911). Hemp is also
    thought to increase a man’s strength. In the Ukraine there
    is a legend of a dragon who lived in Kiev, oppressing the
    people and demanding tribute. The dragon was killed and the
    city liberated by a man wearing a hemp shirt.

    Hemp is also used to treat animals. A cat that eats
    mukhomor, a poison mushroom, is kept in a hemp field to eat
    the plant until it “comes to its senses.” And if chickens
    are given hemp seeds on Christmas Eve, they will lay all
    year round.

    In central Asia, for cure or pleasure, hemp is eaten,
    chewed, smoked, rubbed over the body, inhaled and made into
    numerous elaborate concoctions.

    Since the Soviet Union leads a determined fight against the
    use of hashish, the subject is taboo, and the literature on
    ‘nasha,’ as hemp is called in central Asia, is virtually
    nonexistent. Prof. Antzyferov (1934) wrote a short but most
    interesting report on the use of hashish in central Asia.
    Hemp has also been used for the cure of chronic alcoholics
    in central Asia quite successfully, according to Dr. Antzyferov.

    At the time of his report, Prof. Antzyferov was the head of
    the State Hospital at Tashkent where he collected among his
    patients and their relatives and friends numerous recipes
    for ‘nasha.’ All of his informants believed that a great
    deal of fat taken in food counteracts any harmful effect of
    ‘nasha.’ Some recipes are family secrets, others are well
    known and used for centuries by the general public, native
    and European settlers alike.

    A mixture of lamb’s fat with ‘nasha’ is recommended for
    brides to use on their wedding night to reduce the pain of
    defloration. The same mixture works well for headache when
    rubbed into the skin; it may also be eaten spread on bread.

    A candy called ‘guc-kand,’ popular among women for a “happy
    mood,” is made of hemp boiled in water, put through a sieve
    with added sugar, saffron and several egg whites. The
    ingredients are mashed and formed into small balls and then
    dried in the sun.

    The candy is given to boys before circumcision to reduce
    pain and to children to keep them from crying. An ointment
    made by mixing hashish with tobacco is used by some women
    to shrink the vagina and prevent ‘fluor albus’
    ( = leucorrhea – vaginal discharge ).

    There is also “the happy porridge” made of the following
    ingredients:

    (1) almond butter mixed with ‘nasha’ ( Cannabis sativa ),
    (2) dried rose leaves,
    (3) root of Anacyclus pyrethrum ( Mount Atlas daisy ),
    (4) carnation petals ( clove Gilly-flowers ),
    (5) crocus ( Crocus sativa, saffron ),
    (6) muscat nut ( nutmeg ),
    (7) cardamom,
    (8) honey, and
    (9) sugar.

    This mixture is the most expensive of all hashish
    preparations. It is eagerly sought by men who consider
    it the strongest aphrodisiac.

    The use of hemp in Europe and Asia is, of course, much older
    than archaeological, historical or linguistic evidence would
    indicate. Early man roaming around in search of edible
    plants must have easily discovered the seeds and powerful
    odor of the ripened tips of the weeds.

    There is considerable difference of opinion concerning the
    place of origin of the plant and its diffusion,
    specifically, its appearance in Eastern Europe, but it is
    generally understood that it should be searched where it
    grows in the wild. (Editor’s note: see article by Schultes
    in this volume.)

    The Russian botanist, N. Vavilov (1926) considers the region
    where the greatest number of varieties of a particular plant
    grow is the center of its evolutionary differentiation and
    variation. The common mid-European hemp is known as
    “Russian” or “German” hemp. This variety is spread over
    most of Europe except for the southern part. Hemp belongs
    to the group of plants which are self-planting and
    self-fertilizing.

    Yanishevski observed that it draws to its fatty tissue a
    bug, Pirrhocoris apterus L., which clings to the base of
    the hemp seeds. The Pirrhocoris and birds contribute to the
    dissemination of hemp seeds. The Pirrhocoris and birds
    contribute to the dissemination of hemp seeds. De Candolle
    (1883), seeing the wild plant in the Black Sea and Aralian
    regions, concluded that this was the place of origin. We now
    know that hemp is also indigenous to the Russian plains, the
    Caucasus, Transcaucasia, the Crimea and the Urals, in fact,
    the whole area from China to the Balkan Peninsula (Vavilov
    1926).

    We must, therefore, conclude that there was not one but
    probably several origin sites and that whenever man
    discovered hemp he used it for food and probably as a
    stimulant. However, the ritual use of hemp as well as the
    name, cannabis, in my opinion originated in the Ancient
    Near East.

    .From there in the middle of the second millennium B.C.
    through trade contacts, migrations and wars, the ritual
    uses of the plant were carried to Egypt and Africa,
    westward to Europe, and eastward to central Asia.

    Whether India received the plant from China or central
    Asia is not clear.

    Hemp, as used originally in religious rituals, temple
    activities, and tribal rites, involves groups of people
    rather than the solitary individual. The pleasurable
    psychoactive effects of hemp were then, as now, communal
    experiences.

    I believe that the acceptance of tobacco in Europe was
    undoubtedly enhanced by European familiarity with smoking
    hemp. Tobacco was, in many ways a counterpart to hemp, all
    the familiar features were there. Brought to Spain from the
    New World as a medicinal plant, it came to be regarded as a
    cure-all; the Amerindian ritual use of tobacco may also have
    been known, and eventually also its psychoactive qualities.
    Even the use of pipes for smoking tobacco in the Near East
    was adopted from the water-pipes used for smoking hemp. Like
    hemp, tobacco is chewed, sniffed and smoked.

    Perhaps the spread of tobacco was so rapid and overwhelming
    in the Old World, because a receptive ground had been laid
    by the traditional folk uses of hemp.

    REFERENCES

    ANTZYFEROV, L.V. ~ Hashish in Central Asia. Journal of
    Socialist Health Care in Uzbekistan, 1934. Tashkent
    [in Russian].

    BENET, SULA (BENETOWA) ~ Le chanvre dans les croyances
    Et les coutumes populaires. Comtes Rendus de Seances de la
    Societe des Sciences et des Lettres de Varsovie XXVII,
    1936.

    BIEGELEISEN, H. ~ Lecznictwo ludu Polskiego [Polish folk
    medicine]. Cracow, 1929.

    BREITSCHNEIDER ~ Gotanicon sinicum. Journal of Northern
    China, Branch of the Royal Asia Society I: 569, 1881.

    DE CANDOLLE, ALPHONSE LOUIS P.P. ~ Origine des plantes
    cultivees. Paris: G. Bailliere, 1883.

    DEWEY, L.H. ~ Hemp. Yearbook of the Department of
    Agriculture. 289, 1913.

    DIOSCORIDES, ANAZARBEUS PEDACIUS ~ Arzneimittellehre
    [Pharmacology]. Translated by J. Berendes. Vol. III.
    Stuttgart: F. Enke, 1902.

    DRAGENDORFF, GEORG ~ Die Heilpflanzen der verschiedenen
    Volker und Zeiten [The medical plants of various peoples and
    times]. Stuttgart: F. Enke, 1898.

    DURANT, W. ~ Our oriental heritage. Vol. I. New York:
    Simon and Schuster, 1954.

    EMBODEN , WILLIAM A. ~ “Ritual use of Cannabis sativa L,”
    in Flesh of the Gods: the ritual use of hallucinogens.
    Edited by Peter T. Furst. New York: Praeger Publishers.
    pg. 223, 1972.

    HAGER, K ~ Flachs und Hanfund ihre verarbeitung im
    Bundner Oberland. Yahrbuch des Schweizer Alpenclub
    pg. 147, 1919.

    HOFLER n.d. Altgermanische Heilkunde [Old-Germanic
    medicine]. Neubuerger-Pogel’s Handbuch I: 466.

    KLEIN, SIEGFRIED ~ Tod und Begrabnis in Palistina.
    Berlin: H. Itzkowski, 1908.

    KOLBERG, O. ~ Mazowsze Lud. Towarzystwo Ludoznawcze
    V: pg. 206, 1899.

    MEISSNER, B. ~ Babylonien und Assyrian. II: 84.
    Heidelberg: von W. Foy, 1925.

    MINNS, ELLIS H. ~ Scythians and Greeks. Vol. I.
    New York: Biblo and Tannen, 1965.

    MOLDENKE, H., A. Moldenke ~ Plants of the Bible.
    Waltham, Massachusetts: Cronica Botanica Co, 1952.

    PATAI, R. ~ Hebrew installation rites.
    Hebrew Union College Annual XX, 1947.

    ROSTOVTZEFF, M. ~ Caravan cities. London: Oxford, 1932.

    SALZBERGER, G. ~ Salomons Tempelbau und Thron
    [The building of Solomon’s temple and throne].
    Berlin: Mayer and Muller, 1912.

    SYRENIUS, SZ. ~ “Zielnik [Medicinal plants],” in
    Typographia Basilii Skalski. Krakow: [in Polish],
    1613.

    TSCHIRCH, A. ~ Handbuch der Pharmakognosie
    [Pharmaceutical handbook]. II.
    Leipzig: Verlag von chr. Herm. Tauchnitz, 1912.

    VAVILOV, N. ~ Tzentry proiskhozhdenia kulturnksh rastenii
    [Centers of origin of domesticated plants]. Trudy no Prile
    Bot. I. Sel. XVI: 109 [in Russian], 1926.

    WISSMAN, H., et al. ~ Im innern Afrikas [In Inner
    Africa]. Leipzig: F.A. Brockhaus, 1888.

    http://tinyurl.com/qj6qh

    See also the Encyclopaedia Britannica of 1856 entry on cannabis:

    In China it is known as ma;
    in Sanskrit it is known as goni, sanu or shanapu;
    Persic, canna;
    Arabic, kannah or kinnub;
    Greek, kannabis;
    Latin, cannabis;
    Italian, canapa;
    French, chanvre or chanbre;
    Danish kamp or kennep;
    Lettish and Lithuanian, kannapes;
    Slavonic, konopi;
    Erse, canaib;
    Scandinavian, hampr;
    Swedish, hampa;
    German, hanf;
    Anglo-Saxon, haenep;
    and English hemp.

    Other terms for hemp include
    Japanese, asa;
    Bulgarian, kenevir;
    Turkish, nasha;
    Syrian, kanabira;
    Polish, konopi and penek and
    Albanian, canep.

    See also:

    Aitken. D., & Mikuriya, T.H. ~ The Forgotten Medicine, in
    The Ecologist, (1980), Vol.10, Nos. 8/9.

    Benet, Sula (as Sara Benetowa) ~ Tracing One Word Through
    Different Languages [ Konopie w Wierzeniach i Zwyczajach
    Ludowych, Prace etnolog. Inst. nauk antropol. i. etnolog.
    Towarz. 2 ], 1936; reprinted in The Book of Grass, 1967.)

    Malyon, T., & Henman, A. ~ No Marijuana: Plenty of Hemp,
    in *New Scientist* , 13/11/1980.

    La Barre, Weston ~ Culture in Context; Selected Writings
    of Weston La Barre, Duke University Press, 1980.

  1307. xxx on

    It’s pretty simple, Chris. As I told you, the fact that qne was used in a passage about wheat plants conclusively proves that qne means a thin stemmed reed or grass type plant. The fact that the passage states that the wheat qne grew in the Jerusalem area proves conclusively that it was not Cannabis, which even you say didn’t grow in Israel. The fact that the fragrant qne, Lemon Grass, had to be imported from a distant land proves that it was not Cannabis, which was available quite nearby, certainly no further than Syria or Turkey, which don’t qualify as a distant land like India obviously does. Now I know you’re not the brightest guy around, Chris, that’s abundantly obvious, buy even you must be able to grasp at least a little bit of what I just said, or are you just hopelessly stupid, Chris? That’s the only possible explanation now, isn’t it?

  1308. Anonymous on

    Yes, ignorance is appallingly widespread, isn’t it Chris? Many have been led astray by Sula and you. Most of the search results for Cannabis being qne bshm are things written by you or her. Sadly, you spread that stuff all over the Internet before you actually researched it enough to find out that it was really Lemon Grass. Now you will forever be known as one of the most incompetent researchers in the world, or willing ignorant of the true facts. I suspect that you found that page I linked too, long ago, and decided to ignore it and continue with your misinformation campaign. What’s your excuse now that I have posted the link right here? Have you suddenly lost the capacity to read or are your reading comprehension skills just about non-existent. Why don’t you tell me what exactly you fail to comprehend about that page, because it seems pretty straight forward to me.

  1309. Chris Bennett on

    Yah, well one guy that i know of, I haven’t looked into the matter further, but that “one guy” has written over a dozen books on the subject and is an identifiable expert – unlike the continual spurious unsourced and unidentified web quotes you put forth. No wonder your arguement is going all over the place and you have had to make stuff up, and even with that you have been forced to acknowledge your mistakes a few times.

  1310. Chris Bennett on

    Like this un-named guy’s theory has any academic backing, LMAO. How pathetic. The Hebrew’s would have made a distinct refercne to keneh-bosem being a blanket term for a number of plants. Numerous distinct botanical species are mentioned in the Bible.

    Keneh, comes from the IE root of cannabis, kann, as does Sanskrit sanna, Persian bhanga, German hanf, French Chanvre, etc., etc.

    Cannabis (etymology)
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to: navigation, search
    The plant name cannabis is from Greek ???????? (kánnabis), via Latin cannabis, originally a Scythian or Thracian word, also loaned into Persian as kanab. English hemp (Old English hænep) may be an early loan (predating Grimm’s Law) from the same Scythian source.

    The earlier etymology is unclear.

    Semitic etymologist Sula Benet has indicated the origin, Hebrew ?????????? (qannabbôs)kaneh bosm: Benet, aka Sara Benetowa of the Institute of Anthropological Sciences in Warsaw is quoted as saying:

    The astonishing resemblance between the Semitic ‘kanbos’ and the Scythian ‘cannabis’ lead me to suppose that the Scythian word was of Semitic origin. These etymological discussions run parallel to arguments drawn from history. The Iranian Scythians were probably related to the Medes, who were neighbors of the Semites and could easily have assimilated the word for hemp. The Semites could also have spread the word during their migrations through Asia Minor.
    Benet — in Book of Grass[1]

    The word ‘gan-zi-gun-nu’ is referenced from stone tablets (dating 700BC) that indicate a connection with eastern and near-eastern terms for the plant, (‘gan-zi’->’ganja’,’gun-nu’->’qaneh’). This substance was prescribed as a useful remedy for a variety of ailments including depression, impotence, and witchcraft.[2]

    Hebrew ?????????? (qannabbôs) < ????? ??????? (q?n?h bo?em) may derive from Sumerian kanubi.[citation needed] Raphael Mechoulam and co-workers at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem suggest an alternative etymology for cannabis: Greek cannabis < Arabic kunnab < Syriac qunnappa < Hebrew pannag (= bhanga in Sanskrit and bang in Persian). They explain that in Hebrew, only the consonants form the basis of a word and the letters p and b are frequently interchangeable. The authors think it probable that pannag, mentioned in the Bible by the prophet Ezekiel (27:17), is in fact Cannabis.[3] The Biblical Hebrew term q?n?h bo?em, literally "reed of balm", probably[4] refers to cannabis according to some etymologists,[1] but is more commonly thought to be lemon grass, calamus, or even sweet cane, due to widespread translation issues.[5] The Hebrew Bible mentions it in Exodus 30:23 where God commands Moses to make a holy oil of myrrh, cinnamon, q?n?h bo?em and cassia to anoint the Ark of the Covenant and the Tabernacle (and thus God's Temple in Jerusalem) [6]. Notably, this anointing oil is a special herbal formula that functions as a kind of polish and fragrance for the Ark and Tabernacle, and the Bible forbids its manufacture and use to anoint people (Exodus 30:31-33) with the exception of the Aaronic priesthood (Exodus 30:30). Elsewhere, the Hebrew Bible simply uses "reed" q?n?h as the name of a plant in four places whose context seems to mean "reed of balm" as a fragrant resin, Isaiah 43:24, Jeremiah 6:20, Ezekiel 27:19 and Song of Songs 4:14. The Hebrew name "reed of balm" comes from q?n?h (the noun construct form of q?neh) means a "reed" or "cane" and bo?em means "balm" or "aromatic" resin. Hebrew may have adapted the name qannabbôs from "reed of balm" q?n?h bo?em as a substitute for the ambiguous name "reed". This Biblical Hebrew term is often mistranslated as "calamus", also called "lemon grass" or "sweet flag", following an ancient misunderstanding in the Greek Septuagint translation. The Hebrew Bible was written across centuries well up to the 5th Century BCE. However, centuries later, by the time the Septuagint was written around the 2nd Century BCE, the archaic Hebrew word q?n?h bo?em appears to have already abbreviated into the later Hebrew form qannabbôs, which is attested in Post Biblical Hebrew literature. Thus, the Septuagint did not recognize the Hebrew expression "reed of balm" and mistook it to refer to some unidentified plant. As a dynamic equivalent, the Septuagint rendered it as "calamus" (Greek kalamos), which indeed is a "balmy" (scented) reed. The calamus plant was known in Greek mythology and processed into an aphrodisiac. Unambiguous Hebrew or Aramaic references to cannabis are rare and obscure. Syriac has qanpa (a loan from kannabis) and tanuma (see the Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon.) but neither is found in the Peshitta, the Syriac Bible. Late Syriac Ahiqar texts include qanpa as "ropes of hemp" (tunbei de-qanpa). The Hebrew word qanbes, a loan word from kannabis, is used in the Mishnah as hemp [Kilaim 2:5; 5:8; 9:1,7; Negaim 11:2] in the sense of a constituent of clothing or other items. Likely, the name 'cannabis', derives in the west from Semitic merchants who traded it as a commodity throughout the ancient trade routes of Southeast Asia, thus utilizing Indo-Iranian terms 'panang','banag', etc. in reference to the spice. [edit] See also Marijuana (etymology) [edit] References "Dealing With Drugs In European Drug Control", Dr. Tim Boekhout van Solinge (2004) Boom uitgevers Den Haag, pg. 7 "Cannabis: A History", pg. 27, Martin Booth (2005) Macmillan ^ a b Benetowa, Sara = (Sula Benet). 1936. Tracing one word through different languages. Institute of Anthropological Sciences, Warsaw. Reprinted 1967 In: The Book of Grass. George Andrews and Simon Vinkenoog (eds.) Grove Press, New York, "pp. 15-18. ^ Cannabis in Medical Practice: A Legal, Historical and Pharmacological Overview, Mary Lynn Mathre (1997) pg. 38 ^ Mechoulam, R., W. A. Devane, A. Breuer, and J. Zahalka. 1991. A random walk through a Cannabis field. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 40(3): 461-464. ^ Weston La Barre. 1980. Culture in Context; Selected Writings of Weston Labarre. Duke University Press ^ Immanuel Löw. 1924-1934. Flora der Juden, vol. I-IV. Reprinted 1967. Hildeshein: Georg Olms (source not confirmed) ^ Rabbi Kaplan. 1981. The Living Torah, pg. 40-41.

  1311. Chris Bennett on

    sure it is

    Check out thse google searches…

    36,200 for cannabis keneh bosem

    http://www.google.ca/search?hl=en&q=cannabis+keneh+bosem&meta=&aq=f&oq=

    and in comparison
    5 for calmaus keneh bosem

    http://www.google.ca/search?hl=en&q=calmaus+keneh+bosem&meta=&aq=f&oq=

    only 5?????????????

    24 for lemongrass keneh bosom

    only 24?????

    http://www.google.ca/search?hl=en&ei=hC5ZS7W_FYjysgOR1sSGDw&sa=X&oi=spell&resnum=0&ct=result&cd=1&ved=0CAYQBSgA&q=lemongrass+keneh+bosom&spell=1

    57,600 for jesus cannabis anointing

    http://www.google.ca/search?hl=en&q=jesus+cannabis+anointing&meta=&aq=f&oq=

    18,800 for jesus calamus anointing, (but then most of those were in articles regarding cannabis in the anointing oil, disclaiming calamus, an arguement you have strengthend…)

    http://www.google.ca/search?hl=en&q=jesus+calamus+anointing&btnG=Search&meta=&aq=f&oq=

    You can do the math right

    LMAO

    I planted a seed watch now it grow! 😀

  1312. Chris Bennett on

    wow, answering your own posts for back-up. What a kook.

  1313. xxx on

    It’s over, Chris. The qne bshm dream is dead. There, there. Smoke another bud and all will be well. That’s it, shhhh.

  1314. Chris Bennett on

    “You can run off to write your new blog post but I’m afraid that I have now proved that qne was not Cannabis. Here is the proof, passages from the Hebrew English interlinear Bible (search that phrase to find it). In the linked image I show Genesis 41:5 and Isaiah 17:5. Both mention “spikes”. Isaiah proves that these spikes are a grain plant which grew in the Jerusalem area. According to Chris Bennet, Cannabis didn’t grow there and had to be imported. ”

    Funny how the people who need weed the most fear it the most.

    Let me explain this to you, Spikes is just a term, its not a plant name, and spikes could refer to the spikes of a number of plants, like the Genesis reference to spikes of keneh (cannabis). Btw the Genesis reference occurs in dreamland not Israel silly. 🙂

  1315. xxx on

    I guess you missed the little detail that I just solved the qne mystery. All you got out of that was the part about Cannabis not being a spike growing grain plant? Wow. Now your whole Cannabis in the Bible theory is dead, though I’m sure that won’t stop you from flogging it for a few more years. Maybe there’s a couple people out there who didn’t read this blog.

  1316. Chris Bennett on

    “Of course, Cannabis tops are never referred to as spikes, being quite fat.”

    Silly Assynonomous

    yes cannabis buds are called spikes as well 🙂

    Cultivator’s Handbook of Marijuana? – Page 15
    William Drake – Social Science – 1993

    Round Ganja is produced by rolling the large mature flowering spikes of Cannabis between the hands until they become smooth, round, and tapered. …

    Wrong again Bucko 🙁

  1317. xxx on

    Reading that Lemon Grass page further, I see that some of those grasses, which were always imported from India, have amazing healing powers. Cinnamon also has numerous medicinal properties. The anointing oil would have been a potent medicine. Applying it to rheumatic joints would relieve the pain, allowing the lame to walk. Jesus got in trouble by using the holy oil on the commoners. That’s a death sentence offense in ancient Israel.

  1318. Anonymous on

    Well, I guess I should say that the author of that web page solved it, or whoever his source was. I also independently solved it though.

  1319. xxx on

    I figured it out. Genesis 41:5 was the key. We know he’s talking about a grain plant (that bears spikes) and he says they are “coming up in reed”. Obviously, qne means “stem”. He’s saying that the stems are growing. Calamus, or whatever it was, must have been a plant with a fragrant stem. Your mention of Lemon Grass was fortunate because it gives me an idea of what qne bshm really was. As the following quote from a page about Lemon Grass shows, it was almost certainly one of these fragrant grasses. That’s why qne also appears in the passage about the 7 spikes of grain, because it’s a plant which is mostly stem. Thanks, Chris, for inspiring me to solve a great mystery of the Bible.

    From http://www.planetbotanic.ca/fact_sheets/lemon_grass_fs.htm

    “There are a number of grasses that produce aromatic oils in their stems and leaves, fragrant oils that have been distilled and used as perfume for thousands of years. In the Bible one finds verses referencing sweet smelling grasses. Aromatic grasses, and the oils they produced, were common articles in the Holy Land and in other ancient civilizations. Though native to India, the dried plants and the distilled oils were brought west by the spice merchants long before the birth of Christ. Both the oil and the dried plants were used in medicine, food flavouring, perfume, incense and last but not least, cosmetics.

    Indeed, the ancients knew a number of sweet smelling grasses. There are in fact two grass families that produce fragrant oils on their leaves and stems. The first family is Cymbopogon and it has two members, C. citratus (lemon grass) and C. nardus (citronella). The second family, Andropogon, has several scented members, A. aromaticus, A. schoenanthus, and A. muricatus.

    The Hebrew word keneh means sweet canes, and all of these plants were considered sweet canes in the ancient days. No one knows exactly which of the fragrant grasses were used by the Israelites and other ancient civilizations. They were all grown in India and their canes and their distilled oils were sent to the western spice markets. In reality, the Israelites probably knew all of them. The term Kenah was likely a generic term for aromatic grasses. To really mess with your minds, these plants are so closely related they can interbreed. We can hardly separate the sweet canes today, there is no hope of knowing exactly which sweet cane the Israelites used. As I said, kaneh was probably a generic term for sweet smelling grasses of which lemon grass was one.

    There is evidence that the ancients used a variety of these sweet canes. When Pharaoh’s tombs dating to the twentieth and twenty-first dynasties were opened, the distinctive lemony smell of Andropogon Schoenanthus was smelled. 2000 years after the burial chambers were sealed, the perfume was still hanging around. That’s a long lasting perfume. Cymbopogon citratus was discovered in Gennesaret in an archaeological dig. The difference between the different grasses is down to their scents, which depends on the complex mixtures of the oils produced by the plants.”

  1320. Anonymous on

    It must be wheat or barley, whose tops are still called spikes. There’s a part where it says he gathers them in one arm and cuts them with the other, so it’s clearly a grass type plant rather than corn, as wrongly translated in modern Bibles. You would just pick the ears if it were corn. Of course, Cannabis tops are never referred to as spikes, being quite fat.

  1321. Anonymous on

    You can run off to write your new blog post but I’m afraid that I have now proved that qne was not Cannabis. Here is the proof, passages from the Hebrew English interlinear Bible (search that phrase to find it). In the linked image I show Genesis 41:5 and Isaiah 17:5. Both mention “spikes”. Isaiah proves that these spikes are a grain plant which grew in the Jerusalem area. According to Chris Bennet, Cannabis didn’t grow there and had to be imported. So what the hell were they growing around Jerusalem, Chris? Was it wheat or was it corn? Must be one or the other. My guess would be wheat, because it’s more spike-like. Of course, Cannabis isn’t spike-like at all, unless you’re talking about real thick spikes, which I believe would be called “trunks”. Sorry to burst the qne bshm bubble but somebody had to clear this case up once and for all.

    http://img29.imageshack.us/img29/3954/spikesn.png

  1322. Anonymous on

    All the Best
    and Make Way For The Tree Of Life!
    Chris

    Yay! A Christmas Tree

  1323. Chris Bennett on

    Mr. Assynonomous: “First you should take note of the words “probably” or “believed to be” before the words Lemon Grass in the quotes from the books.”

    yes it is all speculation till we invent a time machine. You just figured that out? pfffft

    Well since i beat your ass, and we are 3 pages into the comments, and my blog post is off the CC main page, we will have to pick this up when I post another blog…..

    But thanks for your help, and that Nigel Groom material does help. As well I am glad you have acknowledged some of your mistakes regarding in our discusssion. Next time try being a little more polite in your approach and I will as well 🙂

    All the Best
    and Make Way For The Tree Of Life!
    Chris

  1324. Chris Bennett on

    1) So if you can pronounce the modern Hebrew name for calamus, it is quite different than the ancient name to keneh-bosem, and closer too keneh-calamus. The later Mishna and still used name for cannabis is distincly similar ““the two words kaneh and bosm were fused into one, kanbos or kannabus, known to us from [the later] Mishna [200 C.E.], the body of traditional Hebrew law” (Benet 1975).

    2) Why did Jeremiah prohibit keneh?

    Mr Assynonomous: “He was expressing God’s displeasure with his people. It’s like saying to your wife “your roast beef no longer appeases me”. He was so angry that even Calamus couldn’t impress him anymore.”

    LMAO, you obviously didn’t read Jeremiah 44. “Roast beef doesn’t please me”, pfffft.

    3) Where is the ancient world evidence and references that high quality calamus was traded from India into Israel, in favour of the domestic product?

    Mr Assynonomous: “Same place as for Cannabis, which grew all over the Holy Lands. Or do you expect us to believe that it suddenly stopped growing at the Lebananon border?”

    Actually, cannabis had not started growing there yet, even in India there is no evidence of an indigenous cannabis crop untill the last centuries BC, it was imported. Do some actual research.

    4) Where are the ancient world references to calamus being used in sacred incenses and anointing oils? (Don’t quote the Biblical references, wanker!)

    Mr. Assynonomous “Not many people left their holy incense recipes lying around. Fortunately, the Hebrews did, and Cannabis wasn’t one of the ingredients. Who else gave recipes for their anointing oils? There is no law that said the Hebrews had to use some other culture’s recipe anyway. Calamus smelled good, chuck it in there”

    Well the nearby Assyrians did for incense and oils, as did the Chinese for incenese and other preperation, India left some distinct references. As well Abraham came from Ur right? What does that make him? from “some other culture”?

    5) Identify language researchers who are aware of the cannabis claims regarding calamus, but who argue in favor of calamus, and show how they explain this connection.

    Mr. Assynonomous: “Why would they care? That’s why only Sula bothered with it. This is not a promising line of research for most people to put time and effort into.”

    You care 🙂 and I have been getting more and more attention the more I dig into this, I am still kicking that ball down the field, and some creep from crying about it from the bleachers like you, hasn’t even had a good kick at that ball yet. Google keneh and cananbis, lots of people care, take a look through Wikki – and watch the growing acceptance of these logical ideas 🙂

    6) Identify references to seeds or grains of calmus being used for food, and coming from multi-heads of calamus (Genesis 41:22)

    Mr. Assynonymous: “Considering the subject of the passage was corn, why would Calamus come into the discussion?”

    So now keneh is corn, LMAO. 7 heads of corn on a single stalk, LMAO. Someone is dangerously low in THC levels…..

    7) Identify cloth being woven from the fibres of calamus in the ancient world.

    Mr. Assynonymous “They weren’t, hemp fibers were. See the Mishna Hebrew word for hemp here, along with several others.” http://www.freeimagehosting.net/uploads/ad151df983.png

    Wrongo Assynonomous: “Another piece of evidence regarding the use of word kaneh in the sense of hemp rather than reed [or calamus] is the religious requirement that the dead be buried in kaneh shirts. Centuries later linen was substituted for hemp (Klein 1908)” (Benet, 1975). (Calamus is not a fibre plant). Referring to Sigfried Klein’s TOD UND BEGRABNIS IN PALISTINA. There is also at least one apocryphal story that refers to cannabis fibres, in a tale of Solomon forcing a demon to spin hemp (Testament of Solomon, 4:12). But this work also mentions the hill of Golgotha and the cross of Christ, so most scholars agree that it is not of Hebrew origin or written during the days of Solomon.

    Mr. Assynonomous -Happy now that I answered your oh so difficult 7 questions Chris?

    Took you long enough, but unfortunately, even after all the time you spent thinking about it, your answers were pathetic. Took me 5 minutes to rip those apart.

  1325. Chris Bennett on

    Mr. Assynonomous: “I doubt if anybody can present the mayan incense formulas, and they burnt the stuff constantly and they probably had cannabis..”

    Mayans had cannabis? LMAO, wow do you often argue on subjects you know nothing about? Pretty clear why you stay anonymous. Hahaha

    Mr. Assynonomous:”as did the Chinese Taoists, Egyptians, Assyrians etc. etc..heck _every society who were literate in ancient times who had access to both religious incense and cannabis didn’t leave any record behind, although they left tecords of their dieties and their farm crop harvets, battles and balads beer recipes and jokes. But nope.. ”

    Ah…

    The Assyrians left numbers of such recipes “An Assyrian medical tablet from the Louvre collection (AO 7760)(Labat, 1950)(3,10,16) was transliterated as follows…, ‘ana min sammastabbariru sama-zal-la samtar-mus.’ Translating the French [EBR], we obtain, ‘So that god of man and man should be in good rapport: – with hellebore, cannabis and lupine you will rub him.’” (Russo 2005)

    See also https://www.erowid.org/references/refs_view.php?A=ShowDoc1&ID=7594
    This reference includes Egyptian and Indian references as well, but mostly medical

    Chinese Taoists
    http://books.google.ca/books?id=JvLroG7r2MYC&pg=PA213&dq=cannabis+ladywei+mao#v=onepage&q=&f=false

    The earliest reference to the use of marijuana as a medicine, however, is traditionally believed to have occurred sometime around 2,800 BCE (although this date may be considerably contentious ), in the medical compendium, the Pen Ts’ao of the legendary Chinese Emperor Shen-Nung. The Pen Ts’ao has it that by the time of its composition cannabis was already quite widespread, “hemp grows along rivers and valleys at T’ai-shan, but it is now common everywhere.” As Emperor, Shen-Nung was concerned that the priests were unable to effectively treat the maladies of his subjects by performing magical rites, and decided to find alternative remedies for the sick. Despite being emperor, Shen-Nung was apparently also an expert farmer, and had a thorough knowledge of plants. With this in mind, undoubtedly taken alongside a knowledge of indigenous folk remedies, Shen-Nung decided to explore the curative powers of plants, using himself as the test subject. History turns to myth here, as ancient compilers state that Shen-Nung was aided in his studies by having the superman like power of being able to see through his abdominal wall and into his stomach, enabling the Emperor to observe the effects of the plants he experimented with on his digestive system! In relation to such testing by imperial methods it is interesting to note that the Pen Ts’ao also mentions ma-pho, a term that means a sudden change of mood, such as intoxication.

    Throughout the ancient world, medicine held all sorts of magical connotations in people’s minds; thus not surprisingly, “The Chinese pharmacopeia Rh-Ya, compiled in the 15th century B.C. contains the earliest reference to Cannabis for shamanistic purposes” (Langenheim, 2003). Ancient Chinese Shamans showed their awareness of cannabis medical powers symbolically, by carving serpents into a stalk of hemp and using it as a magic wand for healing ceremonies. In reference to shamanism it is important to note that China’s ancient use of cannabis flowers and leaves was not limited to medicine, “…in ancient China…medicine had its origin in magic. Medicine men were practicing magicians” (Li, 1978). Emperor Shen-Nung stated that beyond medical use, cannabis: “If taken over a long term, it makes on communicate with spirits and lightens one’s body.” In relation to this it is interesting to note that the use of the glyph for Hemp, Ma in combinations with other characters appears in glyphs with supernatural connotations, as with Mo devil and this gives clear indications of the awareness of cannabis’ use in Chinese sorcery, which, as we discuss shortly, cannabis had a long history of use in. “In these early periods, use of cannabis as an hallucinogen was undoubtedly associated with Chinese shamanism” (Schultes and Hoffman, 1992).

    Around 200 BCE a variety of new aromatic plants and resins appeared in the Chinese marketplace, accompanied by a new kind of incense burner, known as the boshanlu (po-shan-lu) ‘magic mountain’ brazier, and these braziers have been specifically associated with cannabis use. Not surprisingly this method became quite popular for some centuries and cannabis “occurs in various… prescriptions for gaining visionary powers” (Needham, 1974).

    Egyptians:
    Up until recent times, many Egyptologists, failed to acknowledge much of a role for cannabis in ancient Egypt beyond that of a source of fiber for ropes, but recent research identifying a plant in the Egyptian texts with fibrous and medicinal properties, as well as edible seeds, under the name shemshemet, or sm-sm-t, are now generally regarded as identifying cannabis. In ancient Egypt the healing herb shemshemet was believed to have been a creation of the Sun God Ra. Besides this linguistic source, pollen analysis of ancient soil layers and deep tissue samples from Egyptian mummies, have indicated that in Egypt, like much of the rest of the ancient world, cannabis held an important role.

    In fact from about around 3000 BC onward there is evidence of cannabis pollen in Egypt. According to the CODEX OF ANCIENT EGYPTIAN PLANT REMAINS, (1997) pollen has been identified at Egyptian sites dating from the Predynastic period (c.3500-3100 BCE); the 12th Dynasty (c.1991-1786 BCE) includes not only pollen, but also a hemp “fibre (ball)”; from the 19th Dynasty (c.1293-1185 BCE) found on the Mummy of Ramses II; and the Ptolemaic period (323-30 BCE) (Vartavan & Asensi, 1997).

    Mr. Assynonomous: “None of the rest of the world wasted good pot on some alter hoping God would talk to them and reveal where the snacks were hidden .. not when pot is so damn easy and easy to grow and so convenient to eat a little wad and get off for heavens sake.”

    Ah, yah right
    http://www.opposingviews.com/i/cannabis-has-always-played-an-important-role-in-religion
    Going back 5500 years in Indo-European culture, from where the name cannabis originated
    http://books.google.ca/books?id=qmVqm9El_MQC&pg=PA27&dq=Andrew+Sherratt+cannabis+romania&lr=#v=onepage&q=&f=false

    4000 year old cannabis temple near Afghanistan
    http://ejvs.laurasianacademy.com/ejvs0901/ejvs0901d.txt

    The Afghan temple got their weed from these guys in China, and they sent it off to India and throughout the ancient world
    IE use in China
    http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/12/11/ancient.cannabis/index.html

    Persia
    http://books.google.ca/books?id=X8waCmzjiD4C&pg=PA96&dq=Zoroaster+hemp+eliade&as_brr=3&cd=4#v=onepage&q=hemp&f=false
    http://books.google.ca/books?id=Qq-A4A0KB0kC&pg=PA88&dq=zoroaster+bhanga&lr=&as_brr=3#v=onepage&q=&f=false

    Hinduism
    http://www.druglibrary.org/Schaffer/library/studies/inhemp/7relhemp.htm
    http://www.cannabisculture.com/v2/content/churning-ocean-milk

    Sikhism
    http://www.cannabisculture.com/v2/node/21460

    Islamic Sufis
    http://books.google.ca/books?id=scgUAAAAIAAJ&pg=PP9&dq=the+herb+franz+rosenthal&as_brr=3#v=onepage&q=the%20herb%20franz%20rosenthal&f=false

    Africa
    http://www.druglibrary.org/Schaffer/hemp/history/first12000/7.htm

    Now lets see your list for your sacred calamus, LMAO

    Mr. Assynonomous:
    “Normal rational confident people have as little need of priests now as they did then.. God has always been everywhere, like take a look around and see for yourself.. but the priest class seem to want to try and hoax us into believing only they know how to reach God.. the Creator.. the Sky Father.. our super pal Capt Eternity.”.

    More progress, yes you are right, and that is why Hebrew figures like Jeremiah, the Catholic Church and folks like Augustine and Theodosius, Zoroaster, Manu in India adn others have fought so hard to prevent cannabis falling into the hands of the “common folks”

    God is now once again working through God’s most favoured plant, cannabis – the Tree of Life.

    Capeche?

  1326. Chris Bennett on

    “You can see some similarity between the Hebrew words for hemp and calamus, which is probably because they are both cane type plants, but they are obviously two different words.”

    More progress, you now acknowledge cannabis is cane like.

  1327. Anonymous on

    item 4*)
    that not many people left their formulas for incense laying around
    Thats for sure- I doubt if anybody can present the mayan incense formulas, and they burnt the stuff constantly and they probably had cannabis..as did the Chinese Taoists, Egyptians, Assyrians etc. etc..heck _every society who were literate in ancient times who had access to both religious incense and cannabis didn’t leave any record behind, although they left tecords of their dieties and their farm crop harvets, battles and balads beer recipes and jokes. But nope..

    None of the rest of the world wasted good pot on some alter hoping God would talk to them and reveal where the snacks were hidden .. not when pot is so damn easy and easy to grow and so convenient to eat a little wad and get off for heavens sake.

    Normal rational confident people have as little need of priests now as they did then.. God has always been everywhere, like take a look around and see for yourself.. but the priest class seem to want to try and hoax us into believing only they know how to reach God.. the Creator.. the Sky Father.. our super pal Capt Eternity..
    amen. amon’ almond Osbourne —whatever

  1328. Anonymous on

    You can see some similarity between the Hebrew words for hemp and calamus, which is probably because they are both cane type plants, but they are obviously two different words.

  1329. xxx on

    1) What are the modern hebrew terms for ‘calamus’ and ‘cannabis’?

    http://www.freeimagehosting.net/uploads/ad151df983.png

    2) Why did Jeremiah prohibit keneh?

    He was expressing God’s displeasure with his people. It’s like saying to your wife “your roast beef no longer appeases me”. He was so angry that even Calamus couldn’t impress him anymore.

    3) Where is the ancient world evidence and references that high quality calamus was traded from India into Israel, in favour of the domestic product?

    Same place as for Cannabis, which grew all over the Holy Lands. Or do you expect us to believe that it suddenly stopped growing at the Lebananon border?

    4) Where are the ancient world references to calamus being used in sacred incenses and anointing oils? (Don’t quote the Biblical references, wanker!)

    Not many people left their holy incense recipes lying around. Fortunately, the Hebrews did, and Cannabis wasn’t one of the ingredients. Who else gave recipes for their anointing oils? There is no law that said the Hebrews had to use some other culture’s recipe anyway. Calamus smelled good, chuck it in there.

    5) Identify language researchers who are aware of the cannabis claims regarding calamus, but who argue in favor of calamus, and show how they explain this connection.
    Why would they care? That’s why only Sula bothered with it. This is not a promising line of research for most people to put time and effort into.

    6) Identify references to seeds or grains of calmus being used for food, and coming from multi-heads of calamus (Genesis 41:22)

    Considering the subject of the passage was corn, why would Calamus come into the discussion?

    7) Identify cloth being woven from the fibres of calamus in the ancient world.

    They weren’t, hemp fibers were. See the Mishna Hebrew word for hemp here, along with several others. http://www.freeimagehosting.net/uploads/ad151df983.png

    Happy now that I answered your oh so difficult 7 questions Chris?

  1330. xxx on

    First you should take note of the words “probably” or “believed to be” before the words Lemon Grass in the quotes from the books. That is one man anyway. Seems rather suspicious that only one guy thinks that. I’ll get to your 7 questions shortly.

  1331. Anonymous on

    the spammers flogging shoes and jeans seem to love your blog..but then again, they love everybody

  1332. Chris Bennett on

    thus you admit defeat 🙂

    I did my homework, that is why you got your ass whooped.

    Face it your calamus theory is dead. Long live keneh-cannabis the Tree of Life.

    Thanks again for your help in finding that Nigel Groom reference!

  1333. Anonymous on

    you present a quiz show without prizes…
    well how about
    no thanks?
    You want all this wacky stuff
    then you look it up

    you are as bright as your t shirts-

  1334. Chris Bennett on

    Once again the silly chimp is posting without reading, Nigel Groom acknowledges the modern spikenard and says the ancient world plant was different. Groom has written a number of well respected books dealing with the ancient world role of perfume plants.

    http://books.google.ca/books?q=+inauthor:%22Nigel+Groom%22

    groom is an excellent source. Watch how fast this new information I found from Groom, (thanks to you) attaches itself to the keneh-cannabis meme.

    Does this unnamed web source you cite above have the expertise of Nigel Groom in this area? Why do you always post such spurious references?

    The new perfume handbook –
    Nigel Groom – Science – 1997 – 435 pages
    http://books.google.ca/books?id=UYrDPqLVD-kC&dq=plants+mideast+calamus&as_brr=3&source=gbs_navlinks_s
    “The first edition of this unique book established itself as an unparalleled source of information on perfume. Although it is primarily aimed at perfumers and others in the perfume industry, it has also found substantial sales among a wide range of others including aromatherapists, botanists, and many others who wanted to learn more about this faceted subject. ”

    Ancient calamus “was probably the plant now known as Lemon Grass”
    http://books.google.ca/books?id=UYrDPqLVD-kC&pg=PA46&dq=calamus+lemon+grass&cd=10#v=onepage&q=calamus%20lemon%20grass&f=false
    In reference to Lemon Grass (Cymbogon citratus) “It is believed to be the Calamus* of the Greeks and Romans and was the Nard or Spikenard of the Old Testament (Song of Solomon), known as Nerd in Hebrew and Nardos Pistike to the ancient Greeks”

    http://books.google.ca/books?id=UYrDPqLVD-kC&pg=PA189&dq=plants+mideast+calamus&as_brr=3&cd=10#v=snippet&q=calamus%20nard&f=false

    See also spikenard
    http://books.google.ca/books?id=UYrDPqLVD-kC&pg=PA189&dq=plants+mideast+calamus&as_brr=3&cd=10#v=onepage&q=spikenard&f=false

    According to perfume expert Nigel Groom, the New Testament Spikenard was different than the Old Testament hebrew plant name,

    “Nardostachys jatamansi.. was the precious or pure nard of the New Testament, used by Mary to anoint Jesus, but the Nard or Spikenard of the Old Testament applied to a different plant, Camel Grass (see under Lemon Grass oil)”
    http://books.google.ca/books?id=UYrDPqLVD-kC&pg=PA189&dq=plants+mideast+calamus&as_brr=3&cd=10#v=onepage&q=spikenard&f=false

    have you started on those 7 questions yet? where is the evidence of calamus edible “grains” and fibre?

  1335. Chris Bennett on

    face it, calamus was nard, Nigel Groom was right. If calamus was keneh you could easily answer these questions you are running from:

    1) What are the modern hebrew terms for ‘calamus’ and ‘cannabis’?

    2) Why did Jeremiah prohibit keneh?

    3) Where is the ancient world evidence and references that high quality calamus was traded from India into Israel, in favour of the domestic product?

    4) Where are the ancient world references to calamus being used in sacred incenses and anointing oils? (Don’t quote the Biblical references, wanker!)

    5) Identify language researchers who are aware of the cannabis claims regarding calamus, but who argue in favor of calamus, and show how they explain this connection.

    6) Identify references to seeds or grains of calmus being used for food, and coming from multi-heads of calamus (Genesis 41:22)

    7) Identify cloth being woven from the fibres of calamus in the ancient world.

    I’ll add a new one..

    8)Find a scholar who says the well known ancient world perfume expert Nigel Groom is wrong in regards to his theories regarding the Greek calamus plant and Nard, or evidence that shows Groom is a spurious researcher (like those lame-ass unsourced web references you keep posting, LMAO)

  1336. Anonymous on

    30 seconds on Google reveals that Spikenard is a product of N India, the Himalayia Mt regions and Nepal.. and trhis same spikenard was well known to the…ANCIENT EGYPTIANS…

    Egypt is a 72 hr sail to ancient Jerusalem..three day delivery of any perfume or pail of medicinal crocodile dung — however at a high price.. but completely suitable for anointing the Son of Gods feet– in the lands of the Jews.. just like the Bible says..

    So we have here a well known perfume base — Himalyian Spiknard available all over Egypt before, during and after the time of the OLD testament..the NEW testament

  1337. Chris Bennett on

    Re”If spikenard was Calamus then what was the substance we call spikenard called then? Then what was THAT plant or substance called when its name was given to something else? Etc, etc until you get to at least 1000 plants or substances.”

    I don’t need to answer that for my theory, you do for yours. Read Nigel Groom’s book and see what he says 🙂

    Now that you have given me a cherry for my arguement via nard-calamus, how about you stop running and answer these simple 7 questions regarding your calamus theory:

    1) What are the modern hebrew terms for ‘calamus’ and ‘cannabis’?

    2) Why did Jeremiah prohibit keneh?

    3) Where is the ancient world evidence and references that high quality calamus was traded from India into Israel, in favour of the domestic product?

    4) Where are the ancient world references to calamus being used in sacred incenses and anointing oils? (Don’t quote the Biblical references, wanker!)

    5) Identify language researchers who are aware of the cannabis claims regarding calamus, but who argue in favor of calamus, and show how they explain this connection.

    6) Identify references to seeds or grains of calmus being used for food, and coming from multi-heads of calamus (Genesis 41:22)

    7) Identify cloth being woven from the fibres of calamus in the ancient world.

  1338. Chris Bennett on

    There you go again, showing what a angry chimp you are by not checking the references I listed before banging away like a nutbar with 3 new spazzy responses. We are dealing with large spans of time here, things change.

    According to perfume expert Nigel Groom, the New Testament Spikenard was different than the Old Testament Hebrew plant named as such,

    “Nardostachys jatamansi.. was the precious or pure nard of the New Testament, used by Mary to anoint Jesus, but the Nard or Spikenard of the Old Testament aplied to a different plant….”

    as noted above, the Greek plant calmus 🙂

    see:
    http://books.google.ca/books?id=UYrDPqLVD-kC&pg=PA189&dq=plants+mideast+calamus&as_brr=3&cd=10#v=onepage&q=spikenard&f=false

    Nigel Groom, unlike you, is an expert
    http://books.google.ca/books?q=+inauthor:%22Nigel+Groom%22

    cannabis has a beautiful fragrance and has had a historical role as an additive to perfumes, see above.

    You still haven’t answered those 7 questions, where is the evidence of calamus fibre? calamus seed? as in the keneh references cited? Why did Jeremiah prohibit calamus? God didn’t like the smell?

    Books by Nigel Groom

    The new perfume handbook?
    Nigel Groom – Science – 1997 – 435 pages

    The first edition of this unique book established itself as an unparalleled source of information on perfume.
    Limited preview – About this book – Add to my library

    Frankincense and Myrrh: A Study of the Arabian Incense Trade?
    Nigel Groom – 2006 – 285 pages

    A Dictionary of Arabic Topography and Placenames: A Transliterated Arabic …?
    Nigel Groom – Foreign Language Study – 1983 – 370 pages

    Perfume: The Ultimate Guide to the World’s Finest Fragrances?
    Nigel Groom – Health & Fitness – 1999 – 192 pages

    This authoritative guide also includes a detailed account of ingredients, bottle designs, and various manufacturing processes.

    The perfume handbook?
    Nigel Groom – Health & Fitness – 1992 – 323 pages

    This book is a comprehensive, encyclopaedic reference covering all aspects of perfumery,past and present.

    The perfume companion: a connoisseur’s guide?
    Nigel Groom – Perfumes – 1999 – 192 pages

    The frankincense region?
    Nigel Groom – 1977 – 11 pages

    Eastern Arabia in ptolemy’s map?
    Nigel Groom – 1986 – 12 pages

    Parfüüm: teekond lõhnamaailma?
    Nigel Groom – 2002 – 192 pages

    Parfum: alle informatie voor de liefhebber?
    Nigel Groom, Wilma Hoving, Eveline Deul – 2000 – 192 pages

    Overzicht van ca. honderd parfumhuizen met hun geschiedenis en beroemdste
    parfums.

    Parfémy: p?íru?ka pro znalce?
    Nigel Groom – 2000 – 192 pages

    Parfumy?
    Nigel Groom – 2000 – 192 pages

    Perfume- desde Chanel N 5 hasta Tresor?
    Nigel Groom – Perfumes – 2000 – 192 pages

    Parfums: le guide de référence des senteurs les plus raffinées du monde?
    Nigel Groom – 1999 – 192 pages

    Répertoire alphabétique documenté des parfums les plus raffinés au monde. Avec en
    sus, une histoire de la parfumerie, de l’Antiquité à nos jours.

    A dictionary of arabic topography and placenames: a transliterated arabic …?
    Nigel Groom – 1983 – 369 pages

    ???????
    Nigel Groom – Perfumes – 2000 – 192 pages

    Parfum.: Von Chanel No 5 bis Tresor.?
    Nigel Groom – 2000 – 192 pages

    ??????/???????/The perfume companion?
    ???, Nigel Groom – Perfumes – 2000 – 191 pages

  1339. Anonymous on

    God made Cannabis
    God made Calamus
    God made Chris Bennett

    – 2 out of 3 ain’t bad

  1340. Anonymous on

    If spikenard was Calamus then what was the substance we call spikenard called then? Then what was THAT plant or substance called when its name was given to something else? Etc, etc until you get to at least 1000 plants or substances.

  1341. Anonymous on

    You’re insane, Chris. Nard was one of the costliest of all perfumes, which is why the disciples got mad when Mary Magdalene put some on Jesus’ feet. Why would a common swamp reed be that costly? Didn’t think that through very well, did you Chris? Not only that, but how could you spread a reed or its root on somebody’s feet? It would be a little itchy, wouldn’t it Chris? Oh my god you’re gullible. That’s probably why those two drug dealers were able to talk you into joining their little cover church.

    It’s sweet fragrant cane, exactly as it is spelled. What’s so hard to understand about that? And whatever you may think some people may have called Calamus, the Hebrews quite clearly called the sweet smelling cane from Syria, Arabia and Egypt Qne Bahm, can of perfume. Notice it doesn’t say cane of pleasant dreams or cane of healing or cane of nutritious seeds or cane of fiber. Any one of those would have been more appropriate because pleasant fragrance is not Cannabis’ most distinctive trait, which is obviously what you would base a name on.

  1342. Chris Bennett on

    The new perfume handbook? –
    Nigel Groom – Science – 1997 – 435 pages
    Ancient calamus “was probably the plant now known as lemon Grass”
    http://books.google.ca/books?id=UYrDPqLVD-kC&pg=PA46&dq=calamus+lemon+grass&cd=10#v=onepage&q=calamus%20lemon%20grass&f=false
    In reference to Lemon Grass (Cymbogon citratus) “It is believed to be the Calamus* of the Greeks and Romans and was the Nard or Spikenard of the Old Testament (Song of Solomon), known as Nerd in Hebrew and Nardos Pistike to the ancient Greeks”

    http://books.google.ca/books?id=UYrDPqLVD-kC&pg=PA189&dq=plants+mideast+calamus&as_brr=3&cd=10#v=snippet&q=calamus%20nard&f=false

    See also Spikenard, which came to refer to other plants later, and in the New Testament
    http://books.google.ca/books?id=UYrDPqLVD-kC&pg=PA189&dq=plants+mideast+calamus&as_brr=3&cd=10#v=onepage&q=spikenard&f=false

    This guy is an expert
    http://books.google.ca/books?q=+inauthor:%22Nigel+Groom%22

    so “nard (calamus) and saffron, keneh (cannabis) and cinnamon, with every kind of incense tree, with myrrh and aloes and all the finest spices” Songs 4:14)

  1343. Chris Bennett on

    calamus grew all over the mid-east in swampy areas, and there seem to be some sources who saw calamus as the Hebraic nard….. and there was even confusion about the identity of “calamus” as the Greeks, where the name “calmus” originates, saw Lemon Grass as Calamus.

    Ancient calamus “was probably the plant now known as Lemon Grass”
    http://books.google.ca/books?id=UYrDPqLVD-kC&pg=PA46&dq=calamus+lemon+grass&cd=10#v=onepage&q=calamus%20lemon%20grass&f=false

    The new perfume handbook? – Page 189
    Nigel Groom – Science – 1997 – 435 pages

    “It is believed to be the Calamus* of the Greeks and Romans and was the Nard or Spikenard of the Old Testament (Song of Solomon), known as Nerd in Hebrew and Nardos Pistike to the ancient Greeks”

    Nardos Pistike, ie Spikenard

    http://books.google.ca/books?id=UYrDPqLVD-kC&pg=PA189&dq=plants+mideast+calamus&as_brr=3&cd=10#v=snippet&q=calamus%20nard&f=false

    Thanks for helping me find this, this helps me so much you won’t believe it! I’m going to have to add this to my new book! This strengthens the keneh – cannabis connection greatly, nice work!

    🙂

  1344. Chris Bennett on

    calamus grew all over the mid-east in swampy areas, and there seem to be some sources who saw calamus as the Hebraic nard….. and there was even confusion about the identity of “calamus” as the Greeks, where the name “calmus” originates, saw Lemon Grass as Calamus.

    Ancient calamus “was probably the plant now known as Lemon Grass”
    http://books.google.ca/books?id=UYrDPqLVD-kC&pg=PA46&dq=calamus+lemon+gr

    The new perfume handbook? – Page 189
    Nigel Groom – Science – 1997 – 435 pages

    “It is believed to be the Calamus* of the Greeks and Romans and was the Nard or Spikenard of the Old Testament (Song of Solomon), known as Nerd in Hebrew and Nardos Pistike to the ancient Greeks”

    Nardos Pistike, ie Spikenard

    http://books.google.ca/books?id=UYrDPqLVD-kC&pg=PA189&dq=plants+mideast+

    as keneh (cannabsi and nard appear beside wach other in the Song of Songs, it seems calamus as a candidate is excluded as it already appears.

    Nigel groom is an expert
    This guy is an expert
    http://books.google.ca/books?q=+inauthor:%22Nigel+Groom%22

  1345. Chris Bennett on

    yes, calamus grows all over India and the mid-east, what is your point exactly? as that does not make it keneh, which as i have shown is cannabis.

    Disagree? then answer these questions 🙂 that you keep running from

    1) What are the modern hebrew terms for ‘calamus’ and ‘cannabis’?

    2) Why did Jeremiah prohibit keneh?

    3) Where is the ancient world evidence and references that high quality calamus was traded from India into Israel, in favour of the domestic product?

    4) Where are the ancient world references to calamus being used in sacred incenses and anointing oils? (Don’t quote the Biblical references, wanker!)

    5) Identify language researchers who are aware of the cannabis claims regarding calamus, but who argue in favor of calamus, and show how they explain this connection.

    6) Identify references to seeds or grains of calmus being used for food, and coming from multi-heads of calamus (Genesis 41:22)

    7) Identify cloth being woven from the fibres of calamus in the ancient world.

  1346. Chris Bennett on

    “No, that was different “anonymous” who wrote that post calling you fat and crabby. I guess I should sign a name from now on to avoid confusion. I’ll be known as “XXX”.”

    Sure it was…. I know you and I know how you create multiple selves to back your lone “loser” self up.

    “Now, in regard to your replies, firstly, if you want to be a book author you really should learn the difference between the words “loose” and “lose”. The former is what your belt isn’t and the latter is what happens to you when you try to debate with me.”

    Sure it is, get started on that 7 question you phoney baloney “loser”. Unfortunately, you need to work more on content than spelling LMAO.

    Cannabis perfumes
    http://www.google.ca/search?hl=en&source=hp&q=cannabis+perfume&meta=&aq=f&oq=

    historical
    http://books.google.ca/books?id=aW6V2zKcMCUC&pg=PA145&dq=cannabis+perfume&as_brr=3&cd=6#v=onepage&q=cannabis%20perfume&f=false

    as well the assyrian and Queen of Heaven referneces referred to,

    “the name of the herb called Sim.Ishara’armoatic of the Goddess Ishtar,’ which is equated with the Akkadian qunnabu, ‘cannabis’, may indeed conjure up an aphrodisiac through the association with Ishara, goddess of love, and also calls to mind the plant called ki.na Istar.” (Reiner, 1995)

    and Egyptian Kyphi according to some sources

    Kyphi, the Scent ‘Welcome to the Gods’

    Fig 3: Offering Incense
    Some sources have suggested that cannabis was an ingredient in the ancient incense and perfume of the Pharaohs, known as kyphi. Kyphi was used as an offering to the Gods. As the sun set, Egyptian worshippers would burn this fragrant mind altering preparation to the Sun God RA (who created cannabis) praying for his return the following morning. Indicating the medical qualities of it’s ingredients, Kyphi was applied on the skin to heal wounds. It was also considered to be a potent relaxant and an aphrodisiac. Unlike the ointments of the Assyrians, the Kyphi was a rather solid and wax like concoction. A cone of kyphi was placed on the top of the head, and as the hot Egyptian Sun and body temperature of the devotee warmed it, the potent ingredients of the preparation would slowly melt and drip down off the head and onto the body.

    Researchers have suggested more than 50 natural ingredients for making the Kyphi, the most popular probably being: Aloeswood, Benzoin, Cannabis Resin, Cardamom Seeds, Cassia, Cedar, Cinnamon, Copal, Frankincense, Galangal Root, Ginger, Honey, Juniper, Lemongrass, Mastic, Mint, Myrrh, Orris, Pistachio, Raisins, Red Wine, Rose Petals, Saffron, Sandalwood, Storax Balsam. Archeologist Joel Zias, who has found evidence of the use of psychoactive substances at sites of ancient Near Eastern cultures, notes that “the Egyptians wrote a lot about medicine however the formula is always a bit of this a bit of that etc., therefore one can never know the exact method of replicating it. Hash was very common as was opium” (Zias, 2005).

    Writing in 1920, the Occultist Oliver Bland, after naming many of the suggested ingredients of the Kyphi and demonstrating some knowledge of its preparation, put forth the following unverified, but interesting, etymological suggestion:

    The clue to the secret of the ancient incense lies not in what we have been able to recover from the papayri, but in the word itself. Kyphi is recognizable to-day in “keef,” the popular name for the smokeable variety of the herb Cannabis Indica or Indian Hemp.

    Cannabis Indica is none other than our friend hashish…. It is not after all, a far cry from the mysteries of Osiris, in Egypt…. Osiris… “died” annually, and mimicry of the symbolic event was the basis of all ritual. In the mysteries the initiate “died,” too: but the death was no mere formula, but an actually induced state of stupor or deep trance brought about by the fumes of keef. (Bland, 1920)

    More recently, a European news story reported on the efforts of a well known perfume company to recreate the Ancient Kyphi: ANANOVA, Monday, 7th October, 2002, ‘Scientists recreate the perfume of the pharaohs.’

    Scientists in France say they have recreated the perfume of the pharaohs which they believe was used by the ancient Egyptians to boost their love-lives.

    But as the ingredients of Kyphi perfume, said to be an aphrodisiac which helps wearers relax, include cannabis it cannot be commercially produced.

    Experts from L’Oreal and C2RMF, the Centre for Research and Restoration of French Museums, succeeded in recreating the legendary Kyphi perfume.

    French researcher Sandrine Videault, who for years had attempted to recreate the aroma, was finally able to do so with the help of Greek historiographer Plutarch.

    The Greek writer had written that Kyphi had the power “to send someone to sleep, to help them have sweet dreams, to relax them, to drive away the worries of the day and to bring peace.”

    The numerous ingredients include pistachios, mint, cinnamon, incense, juniper and myrrh.

    Videault says all previous attempts to use traces of the perfume found in Egyptian museums had failed because not enough was provided for analysis.

    The expert says the recreation of the aroma is a long process because there are many different recipes for it: “In some samples only ten ingredients are used, in others up to 50,” she said.

    According to written documents, the perfume, which came in block form and unlike modern-day scents was not alcohol based, was worn by ancient Egyptians in their hair and in intimate places to boost their sex lives.

    But Videault said: “Kyphi will never be sold because some of the ingredients are illegal substances. In any case the smell is probably much too pungent for the modern world.”

    Now you still haven’t answered that in regards to your own pale theory
    4) Where are the ancient world references to calamus being used in sacred incenses and anointing oils? (Don’t quote the Biblical references, wanker!)

    Here are those questions you can not answer.

    1) What are the modern hebrew terms for ‘calamus’ and ‘cannabis’?

    2) Why did Jeremiah prohibit keneh?

    3) Where is the ancient world evidence and references that high quality calamus was traded from India into Israel, in favour of the domestic product?

    4) Where are the ancient world references to calamus being used in sacred incenses and anointing oils? (Don’t quote the Biblical references, wanker!)

    5) Identify language researchers who are aware of the cannabis claims regarding calamus, but who argue in favor of calamus, and show how they explain this connection.

    6) Identify references to seeds or grains of calmus being used for food, and coming from multi-heads of calamus (Genesis 41:22)

    7) Identify cloth being woven from the fibres of calamus in the ancient world.

  1347. Anonymous on

    Egypt, Syria and India weren’t part of Israel, so the Calamus had to be imported. Guess I was right after all, huh Sparky? You lose! Translation for you; you loose!

  1348. XXX on

    “sweet calamus. Kenaih bosem, calamus aromaticus, or odoriferous cane, is a reed growing in Egypt, Syria, and India, about two feet in height, bearing from the root a knotted stalk, quite round, containing in its cavity a soft white pith. It is said to scent the air while growing; and when cut down, dried, and powdered, makes an ingredient in the richest perfumes.”
    same link as above.

  1349. Anonymous on

    “sweet calamus-or sweet cane, a product of Arabia and India, of a tawny color in appearance; it is like the common cane and strongly odoriferous.”
    http://bible.cc/exodus/30-23.htm

  1350. XXX on

    No, that was different “anonymous” who wrote that post calling you fat and crabby. I guess I should sign a name from now on to avoid confusion. I’ll be known as “XXX”.

    Now, in regard to your replies, firstly, if you want to be a book author you really should learn the difference between the words “loose” and “lose”. The former is what your belt isn’t and the latter is what happens to you when you try to debate with me.

    Song of Solomon 4:13

    “14 Spikenard and saffron, calamus and cinnamon, with all trees of frankincense; myrrh and aloes, with all the chief spices.”

    As in the case of the anointing oil formula, what do the above mentioned items have in common? They are all spices or perfume type items. So what is the evidence that Cannabis was used as a spice or perfume in Biblical times and lands? Nowhere in history has it ever been suggested that Cannabis was used in this way, probably because it doesn’t smell that great. Calamus smells pretty good though.

  1351. Chris Bennett on

    as for dead theories, well I have been riding with mine for 20 years and all I am seeing is more and more acceptance of it.

    as for other dead theories, shows how much you know, again.

    http://www.amazon.com/Sacred-Mushroom-Cross-Christianity-Fertility/dp/0340128755
    NEW 40TH ANNIVERSARY EDITION! The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross: A Study of the Nature and Origins of Christianity within the Fertility Cults of the Ancient Near East (Hardcover)

    http://www.amazon.com/Holy-Mushroom-Mushrooms-Judeo-Christianity-re-evaluation/dp/1439215170
    The Holy Mushroom: Evidence of Mushrooms in Judeo-Christianity: A critical re-evaluation of the schism between John M. Allegro and R. Gordon Wasson over … in The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross (Paperback)
    Jack Herer (Contributor), Jan Irvin (Contributor)

    Failed God: Fractured Myth in a Fragile World By Prof. John A. Rush
    http://books.google.ca/books?id=eK8MkkYY_LEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=failed+god+rush&source=bl&ots=SufpWUij6L&sig=rUX2gziYkKvlIB4wnWqqWFMcNq0&hl=en&ei=rl5XS6OcKIziswO4nL3GBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=&f=false

  1352. Chris Bennett on

    So now you have shown yourself to be a Liar, a coward, not very smart and a sore looser!

    So face it, you can’t answer these questions in regards to your unsubstantiated calamus theory.

    1) What are the modern hebrew terms for ‘calamus’ and ‘cannabis’?

    2) Why did Jeremiah prohibit keneh?

    3) Where is the ancient world evidence and references that high quality calamus was traded from India into Israel, in favour of the domestic product?

    4) Where are the ancient world references to calamus being used in sacred incenses and anointing oils? (Don’t quote the Biblical references, wanker!)

    5) Identify language researchers who are aware of the cannabis claims regarding calamus, but who argue in favor of calamus, and show how they explain this connection.

    6) Identify references to seeds or grains of calmus being used for food, and coming from multi-heads of calamus (Genesis 41:22)

    7) Identify cloth being woven from the fibres of calamus in the ancient world.

    Keneh is cannabis 🙂 Victory is another name of hemp as well.

    You would be smarter if you smoked weed.

    Keep watching, as I know you are obsessed with me, and who can blame you, its damned interesting stuff!

    A court decision will be reflective of the judge or court, not on myself, nor the Tree of Life. Life and activism continue on win or lose.

    As for you, you lose, you loser! LMAO.

    Go smoke some more calamus 😉

  1353. Anonymous on

    bcause there is more than enough evidence to
    put a reasonable doubt on his theories/
    remember “The Sacred Mushroom & The Cross” –
    that fantastic theory died outfast
    due to non credible assumptions book lapsed out of print
    same for ” Chariots of the Gods” same deal
    add to this list 10,000 fad diets
    a host of conspiracy theories
    Atlantis, monkey face of Mars
    fake moon landings
    Paul McCartneys secret death and his stand in actor
    the China Syndrome
    various Hollow Earths
    Time travel
    Reptile Overlords running the world from underground cities
    heaps of old decayed bones , all of them ” missing links ”

    here’s hoping that the nuts who download crap from the internet will be persuaded to buy a stoner book
    dripping in vague and unsearchable footnotes
    and follow the parade confused angry revisionist history projections
    the book illustration glimpses we have seen here look like placemats, postcards or tourist gifts= nothing self evident

    It is no crime to publish whatever theory one wishes..
    however, using all this literary landfill as the basis for a charter claim– to allow one fat crabby guy from vancouver special privileges to get stoned because he wants to worship some lost culture sky puppet that can only be accessed by huffing smouldering controlled substances that street gangs shoot each other over– well good luck.
    Nobody else asks the Government of Canada to approve their religion, millions of other Canadians who wants to get stoned manages to do so,without tying up the courts.
    SWe ask, if his petition to use cannabis for religious reasons is not grated by the courts , will Rev Bennett thus refrain from the use cannabis to commune with his Astropatre of choice? We will be watching that one.

    As for seeking permission- yes means yes and no means no

  1354. Chris Bennett on

    So looks like you can’t answer those questions, LMAO

    Here they are again.

    1) What are the modern hebrew terms for ‘calamus’ and ‘cannabis’?

    2) Why did Jeremiah prohibit keneh?

    3) Where is the ancient world evidence and references that high quality calamus was traded from India into Israel, in favour of the domestic product?

    4) Where are the ancient world references to calamus being used in sacred incenses and anointing oils? (Don’t quote the Biblical references, wanker!)

    5) Identify language researchers who are aware of the cannabis claims regarding calamus, but who argue in favor of calamus, and show how they explain this connection.

    6) Identify references to seeds or grains of calmus being used for food, and coming from multi-heads of calamus (Genesis 41:22)

    7) Identify cloth being woven from the fibres of calamus in the ancient world.

    Keneh is cannabis 🙂 Victory is another name of hemp as well.

    You would be smarter if you smoked weed.

    You loose. LMAO.

  1355. Chris Bennett on

    Hey I am 48 this year and husky, i am also quite a strong guy as well. Stop by my shop, I would be glad to give your weasle ass a hands on demonstration 🙂 LMAO.

    As you are scared of daylight and cast your curses from the shadow, we can only imagine that you have reason to hide your own appearance.

    Also, I am neither a coward, as my out-of-the-closet activism shows, nor a liar. You are both a liar and a coward as your posts here well document, live with that.

  1356. Chris Bennett on

    Hey Chimp, the reference cited to the name “sweet cane” above, is from the Hebrew references we are discussing, LMAO, not a new modern name.

    “which was made up by a scientist who lived quite some time after the Hebrews wrote the Bible, I’m assuming”

    well when you assume, you make an ass out of u not me. Hahahaha.

    You are going in circles, you just don’t have the mental capicity for this dabate.

    Back to the jungle you de-evolved chimpanzee!

  1357. Chris Bennett on

    Myself and other researchers disagree with Benet’s view on that. Likely more etymological research regarding the IE emerged, as well as archeological evidence indicating the IE use of cannabis going back 5500 years. I discuss this in detail in my book, with referenced sources explaining the case:

    This author’s view differs in this respect, and I would suggest the term ‘keneh bosem’, also rendered q’neh bosem’ is the Hebrew transliteration of an earlier Indo-European term for the plant ‘kanna’ combined with the Hebrew term for fragrance ‘bosem’. The Indo-European term ‘kanna’, was spread around the ancient world by nomadic Scythian tribes, and has left traces through the vernacular ‘an’ seen in various modern terms for cannabis in Indo-European family languages, such as the Indian bhang, the Persian bhanga, the Greek kannabis, the French chanvre, the Dutch canvas and the German hanf. This is also the view of Prof. Carl Ruck who has commented that “kaneh bosem in Hebrew… is now recognized as the Scythian word that Herodotus wrote as kannabis (or cannabis)” (Ruck, 2009). Anthroplogist Weston La Barre noted in regards to this as well:

    …[T]he word would seem very old in Indo-European, rather than multiply borrowed… [I]f as the anthropologist Sula Benet proposes, the cannabis terms are borrowed from a Semitic language, then there is the problem of a seemingly pan-Indo-European term diffused from ancient northern Eurasia. And cannabis, of course grows wild in north central Eurasia, whence the Indo-Europeans came. That the terms [in IE languages for cannabis] are manifest dialectic equivalents would constitute the solidest possible evidence for the antiquity of the word, since the undivided Neolithic Indo-Europeans began to migrate (spreading prehistorically all the way from Ireland to Ceylon) and to break up dialectically in the early Bronze Age. (La Barre, 1980)

    This use of an Indo-European word in the Semitic language shows that the ritual use of cannabis came to the Hebrews from foreign sources and, as an item of trade, likely via the Scythians, it retained the core aspects of its original name. Indeed, in both the Jeremiah 6:20 and Ezekiel 27:19 references referred to by Benet, cannabis is identified as coming as an item of trade from a foreign land, and indeed as the additional references noted by Benet tell when put into the context of the Biblical storyline, this foreign association with the plant may in fact have been the cause of its disfavour amongst the ancient Hebrews. Certain researchers, who claim the designation of ‘calamus’ as keneh bosem stands correct, have failed to note that The plant kaneh is clearly described as an item of trade in the Ezekiel and Jeremiah and these references disallow the Septuagint identification with calamus, as calamus is indigenous to the area in question and can commonly be found throughout the Middle East (Bennett & McQueen, 2001). Further, as has been shown elsewhere (Benet 1975; Bennett & MCQueen, 2001), and shall be further demonstrated here, evidence for this connection goes far beyond a mere linguistic theory.

    As well, there was no indigineous ganja industry in Inida in Biblical times, it was imported from China, as has been documented.

    I will not be taking any more of your questions.

    You didn’t and couldn’t answer the 7 qestions, game over, you LOOSE.

    keneh is cannabis, live with that.

  1358. Anonymous on

    Alright, the scientists probably got the name from the Greeks who probably got it from the Sythians. But what about this?

    “Likely, the name ‘cannabis’ was known from the Semitic merchants who sold this commodity throughout the ancient trade routes of Southeast Asia.”
    http://encyclopedia.stateuniversity.com/pages/3612/cannabis.html#ixzz0d9yMgOJG
    http://encyclopedia.stateuniversity.com/pages/3612/cannabis.html

    The Hebrews sold the stuff, Chris, they didn’t import it, which was one of your key arguments against fragrant reed meaning Calamus, which would have been imported from India and Nepal. You don’t just go outside and cut down some reeds growing in a swamp to make the holy oil. You have to get the good stuff from distant lands, like India/Nepal.

  1359. Anonymous on

    “Calamus Essential Oil

    (Sweet Flag, Sweet Cane)

    Scientific Name: Acorus calamus

    Country of Origin: Nepal

    Distillation Method: Steam Distilled

    Safety: F, H (Toxic, Carcinogenic) When used as a fragrance ingredient it should not exceed .01% of the total finished product.

    Quality Control Tested: Yes

    Free of Pesticide and Chemical Residue: Yes

    One of the ingredients in the holy anointing oil. It is also called “sweet flag” or “sweet cane”. Used in cosmetics and perfumes as a fixative. Some also believe that Calamus could be what is now known as lemongrass or ginger grass.

    Therapeutic Uses: None. Calamus oil should only be used as a perfume ingredient. Calamus oil is toxic. Ancient herbal remedies used only the dried root of the plant not the concentrated essential oil from the plant.”

    If the Hebrews had used Cannabis, firstly they wouldn’t have called it “sweet cane” (a name for Calamus still used to this day, see above text), because that would be like calling a tomato a pear. You, Chris Bennet, will take any word that sounds vaguely similar to the modern name for a plant (Cannabis), which was made up by a scientist who lived quite some time after the Hebrews wrote the Bible, I’m assuming. Did that scientist get the name from some ancient mideast culture? I gotta think that’s highly doubtful.

  1360. Anonymous on

    Oh, okay, so you want to stay in the gutter do you? Alright, well then I can play by your rules. You’re a stupid dick who joined a stupid made up church by two really weird looking dope dealers/prison convicts who clearly have some serious psychological issues. You don’t have the mental capacity to solve the easiest puzzle on earth, what does “sweet aromatic reed” mean? A dame chimpanzee could figure that out and, in fact, numerous people already had figured it out and published the results so you have no excuse whatsoever. Your court case is doomed to failure because of your extreme lack of good judgment, as clearly illustrated by your religious affiliations. Was that post more your style, Chris? Oh, I forgot to mention that you are a liar and a coward and not very physically fit judging from your rather bloated appearance. You’re the total package, ain’t ya fitness boy.

  1361. Chris Bennett on

    “I wasn’t lying, I just thought I saw that same quote somewhere else with the word Calamus instead of hemp. Could have been wrong. No need to jump to the worst possible conclusion, or do you just naturally assume the worst?”

    You were just making shit up about me, i.e., that it was my interpretation alone that qunubu was cannabis, and you were making up shit about other researchers, saying they said qunubu was calamus, and that my little troll is Lying.

    After some of the accusations you have been throwing around at real people from your anonymous position it is pretty clear that lying like this is a pattern for you. and as “you just naturally assume the worst” of good people, you will make shit up about others when you have nothing on them and feel justified in doing so.

    The truth and reality is your are both a liar and a coward.

  1362. Chris Bennett on

    Cannabis is an aromatic cane. Accept it. The Indo-European term kann, which orignainated with cannabis, came to be used as a temr aplied to other plants with similar stalks. Lots of words came to be aplied to other things far form their original meaning.

    Re: “Maybe “seedy cane” or “stinky cane”, something like that. It’s Calamus, accept it. It makes perfect sense. No reason at all to think it’s Cannabis.”

    Interesting point, but as i have shown already, cannabis is considered fragrant. Here are soem more sourcs on that:

    The elements of materia medica and therapeutics, Volume 2? – Page 334
    Jonathan Pereira 1854
    “One of these (Cannabis tativa) is remarkable for the tenacity of its fibre, … and its fragrant oil, whose vapor is soporific. 115. CANNABIS SATIVA . …

    Therapeutics and materia medica: a systematic treatise on the action and …? – Page 955
    Alfred Stillé – Medical – 1874
    “… has a fragrant narcotic odor, and a bitter and acrid taste. … By prolonged distillation of water on large proportions of cannabis a volatile oil is …”

    Materia medica and therapeutics, for physicians and students? – Page 76
    John Barclay Biddle 1886
    “Narcotic virtues were formerly thought to exist only in the Cannabis Indica, … Extract of hemp is of a dark olive-green colour, a fragrant narcotic …”

    Cannabis in medical practice: a legal, historical, and pharmacological …? – Page 44
    Mary Lynn Mathre 1997
    “Although African slaves may have known about cannabis intoxication, … muscle spasms of tetanus and rabies with the fragrant resin [Mikuriya, 1973]. …

    Now about those seeds you mention, keneh had seeds……

    In Genesis 41:22 keneh is translated “stalk.” “In my dreams I also saw seven heads of grain, full and good, growing on a single keneh”.

    Does calamus produce heads of seeds that were identified as a grain in the ancient world?

    The Heads of cannabis have been referred to as heads of grain. 7 heads on a marijuana plant would be a sign of super-abundance, indeed this imagery brings to mind the menorah, which itself looks very much like a blossoming and glistening hemp plant.

    The hemp seed’s use as a food and oil source can be traced back to the very beginnings of civilization. In China hemp was celebrated as one of the “seven main grains”, and was popularly used up until the sixth century AD in a variety of oriental recipes. The German researcher Immanuel Low referred to a sixth century Persian name for a preparation of cannabis seed, Sahdanag — Royal Grain; or King’s Grain, which demonstrates the high regard the ancient Persians held for the nutritious oil rich seeds that came from the same plant which provided them with their only means of religious revelation in the form of the drinks banga and haoma.

    Sahdanag was generally prepared in the form of a heart shaped cookie, possibly indicating that the ancient Persians recognized the seed’s close relationship with health and vitality(Low, 1925; reprinted 1967).

    Sometime after the Persian Empire took control of the ancient world, the Jews adopted this Persian preparation of hemp seed and retained its name of Sahadanag, which is really not so surprising as like their Persian benefactors, the Hebrews already had a long and beneficial relationship with the useful plant, known to them as q’neh. Immanuel Low also suggests that the formerly unidentified Hebrew word, Tzli’q, (Tzaddi, Lamed, Yod, Quoph), makes reference to a Jewish meal of roasted Hemp seeds that was popular into medieval times and was sold by Jews in European markets. (The first part of the name simply means roasted, the final Quoph, an abbreviation of q’aneh).

    Another piece of evidence regarding the use of word kaneh in the sense of hemp rather than reed is the religious requirement that the dead be buried in kaneh shirts. Centuries later linen was substituted for hemp (Klien 1908). Can you identify references to fibres of calamus being used for making cloth?

    Wikki has the etymolgy close to right…. why don’t you go in and change the Wikki answer to suit your view?

    Cannabis (etymology)
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to: navigation, search
    The plant name cannabis is from Greek ???????? (kánnabis), via Latin cannabis, originally a Scythian or Thracian word, also loaned into Persian as kanab. English hemp (Old English hænep) may be an early loan (predating Grimm’s Law) from the same Scythian source.

    The earlier etymology is unclear.

    Semitic etymologist Sula Benet has indicated the origin, Hebrew ?????????? (qannabbôs)kaneh bosm: Benet, aka Sara Benetowa of the Institute of Anthropological Sciences in Warsaw is quoted as saying:

    The astonishing resemblance between the Semitic ‘kanbos’ and the Scythian ‘cannabis’ lead me to suppose that the Scythian word was of Semitic origin. These etymological discussions run parallel to arguments drawn from history. The Iranian Scythians were probably related to the Medes, who were neighbors of the Semites and could easily have assimilated the word for hemp. The Semites could also have spread the word during their migrations through Asia Minor.
    Benet — in Book of Grass[1]

    The word ‘gan-zi-gun-nu’ is referenced from stone tablets (dating 700BC) that indicate a connection with eastern and near-eastern terms for the plant, (‘gan-zi’->’ganja’,’gun-nu’->’qaneh’). This substance was prescribed as a useful remedy for a variety of ailments including depression, impotence, and witchcraft.[2]

    Hebrew ?????????? (qannabbôs) < ????? ??????? (q?n?h bo?em) may derive from Sumerian kanubi.[citation needed] Raphael Mechoulam and co-workers at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem suggest an alternative etymology for cannabis: Greek cannabis < Arabic kunnab < Syriac qunnappa < Hebrew pannag (= bhanga in Sanskrit and bang in Persian). They explain that in Hebrew, only the consonants form the basis of a word and the letters p and b are frequently interchangeable. The authors think it probable that pannag, mentioned in the Bible by the prophet Ezekiel (27:17), is in fact Cannabis.[3] The Biblical Hebrew term q?n?h bo?em, literally "reed of balm", probably[4] refers to cannabis according to some etymologists,[1] but is more commonly thought to be lemon grass, calamus, or even sweet cane, due to widespread translation issues.[5] The Hebrew Bible mentions it in Exodus 30:23 where God commands Moses to make a holy oil of myrrh, cinnamon, q?n?h bo?em and cassia to anoint the Ark of the Covenant and the Tabernacle (and thus God's Temple in Jerusalem) [6]. Notably, this anointing oil is a special herbal formula that functions as a kind of polish and fragrance for the Ark and Tabernacle, and the Bible forbids its manufacture and use to anoint people (Exodus 30:31-33) with the exception of the Aaronic priesthood (Exodus 30:30). Elsewhere, the Hebrew Bible simply uses "reed" q?n?h as the name of a plant in four places whose context seems to mean "reed of balm" as a fragrant resin, Isaiah 43:24, Jeremiah 6:20, Ezekiel 27:19 and Song of Songs 4:14. The Hebrew name "reed of balm" comes from q?n?h (the noun construct form of q?neh) means a "reed" or "cane" and bo?em means "balm" or "aromatic" resin. Hebrew may have adapted the name qannabbôs from "reed of balm" q?n?h bo?em as a substitute for the ambiguous name "reed". This Biblical Hebrew term is often mistranslated as "calamus", also called "lemon grass" or "sweet flag", following an ancient misunderstanding in the Greek Septuagint translation. The Hebrew Bible was written across centuries well up to the 5th Century BCE. However, centuries later, by the time the Septuagint was written around the 2nd Century BCE, the archaic Hebrew word q?n?h bo?em appears to have already abbreviated into the later Hebrew form qannabbôs, which is attested in Post Biblical Hebrew literature. Thus, the Septuagint did not recognize the Hebrew expression "reed of balm" and mistook it to refer to some unidentified plant. As a dynamic equivalent, the Septuagint rendered it as "calamus" (Greek kalamos), which indeed is a "balmy" (scented) reed. The calamus plant was known in Greek mythology and processed into an aphrodisiac. Unambiguous Hebrew or Aramaic references to cannabis are rare and obscure. Syriac has qanpa (a loan from kannabis) and tanuma (see the Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon.) but neither is found in the Peshitta, the Syriac Bible. Late Syriac Ahiqar texts include qanpa as "ropes of hemp" (tunbei de-qanpa). The Hebrew word qanbes, a loan word from kannabis, is used in the Mishnah as hemp [Kilaim 2:5; 5:8; 9:1,7; Negaim 11:2] in the sense of a constituent of clothing or other items. Likely, the name 'cannabis', derives in the west from Semitic merchants who traded it as a commodity throughout the ancient trade routes of Southeast Asia, thus utilizing Indo-Iranian terms 'panang','banag', etc. in reference to the spice. End I disagree with the conclusion of the wikki entry, and suggest that the I.E. root for 'cannabis' that became utilized as the generic "cane", "kann" was adopted by the semites from the Indo-European trade caravans that were transporting high grade cannabis from China to India via the Silk Road. Other evidence of the mistranslation of botanical names from Hebrew into Greek are known from this same period JONAH AND THE “GOURD” AT NINEVEH: CONSEQUENCES OF A CLASSIC MISTRANSLATION Jules Janick Department of Horticulture & Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, 625 Agriculture Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2010 Harry S. Paris Agricultural Research Organization, Newe Ya’ar Research Center, P. O. Box 1021, Ramat Yishay 30-095, Israel ADDITIONAL INDEX WORDS. Citrullus colocynthis, Lagenaria siceraria, Ricinus communis, plant iconography ABSTRACT. The fast-growing plant referred to in the biblical Book of Jonah is most often translated into English as “gourd.” However, this is a mistranslation that dates to the appended Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, in which the Hebrew word qiqayon (castor, Ricinus communis,Euphorbiaceae) was transformed into the somewhat similar-sounding Greek word kolokynthi (colocynth, Citrullus colocynthis). In translation of the Greek into Latin, kolokynthi became the similar-sounding cucurbita (gourd). This is reflected in early iconography, the plant most often depicted being a long-fruited Lagenaria siceraria (bottle or calabash gourd), a fast-growing climber. end Numerous experts agree with this interpretation of keneh as cannabis, as I have shown. One of Anthropologist Sula Benet’s, original articles regarding the keneh bosem theory http://books.google.ca/books?id=CBXxnaGk0hwC&pg=PA40&dq=exodus+30:23+can…

    As Sula Benet herself notes: “In the original Hebrew text of the Old Testament there are references to hemp, both as incense, which was an integral part of religious celebration, and as an intoxicant” (Benet 1975: 1936). Through comparative etymological study, Benet documented that in the Old Testament and in its Aramaic translation, the Targum Onculos, hemp is referred to as keneh bosem (variously translated as kaneh bosem, kaniebosm, q’neh bosm ) and is also rendered in traditional Hebrew as kannabos or kannabus. The root “kana” in this construction means “cane~reed” or “hemp”, while “bosm” means “aromatic”. This word appeared in Exodus 30:23, whereas in the Song of Songs 4:14, Isaiah 43:24, Jeremiah 6:20, Ezekiel 27:19 the term keneh (or q’aneh) is used without the adjunct bosem.

    Anthropologist Vera Rubin (Jewish, so she knows the language) http://www.thereedfoundation.org/rism/Rubin.html
    Vera Rubin noted, that cannabis “appears in the OLD TESTAMENT because of the ritual and sacred aspect of it” (Rubin 1978).

    The German researcher Immanuel Low, in his DIE FLORA DER JUDEN (1926\1967) identified a number of ancient Hebrew references to cannabis, here as an incense, food source, as well as cloth, noting the keneh, and keneh bosem references amongst others in this regard, independent of Benet . Interestingly, Immanuel Löw, referred to an ancient Jewish Passover recipe that called for wine to be mixed with ground up saffron and hasisat surur, which he saw as a “a kind of deck name for the resin the Cannabis sativa” (Low, 1924). Low suggests that this preparation was also made into a burnable and fragrant concoction by being combined with Saffron and Arabic Gum (Low, 1926\1967).

    Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan, a noted American Orthodox rabbi and author. In THE LIVING TORAH, Kaplan notes that “On the basis of cognate pronunciation and a Septuagint reading, some identify Keneh bosem with English and Greek cannabis, the hemp plant” (Kaplan, 1981). Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan has also noted of early Kabalistic magical schools who used magic and other means of communion for mystic exploration, that “some practices include the use of ‘grasses,’ which were possibly psychedelic drugs” (Kaplan, 1993). The Kabalistic text the Zohar records:

    “There is no grass or herb that grows in which G-d’s wisdom is not greatly manifested and which cannot exert great influence in heaven” and “If men but knew the wisdom of all the Holy One, blessed be He, has planted in the earth, and the power of all that is to be found in the world, they would proclaim the power of their L-rd in His great wisdom.” (Zohar.2,80B) Like the Zoroastrian royalty and priesthood, there are indications that early Kabbalists enjoyed the use of the herb, but prevented its consumption by the common people. In the P’sachim, “Rav Yehudah says it is good to eat… the essence of hemp seed in Babylonian broth; but it is not lawful to mention this in the presence of an illiterate man, because he might derive a benefit from the knowledge not meant for him.- Nedarim, fol. 49, col. 1” (Harris, et al., 2004). Other sources have noted a Kabbalistic comparison to the effects of cannabis with divine perception, noting an “intriguing reference to cannabis in the context of a fleeting knowledge of God: Zohar Hadash, Bereshit, 16a (Midrash ha-Ne’elam)” (Gross, et al., 1983). Thus, evidence for the use of cannabis in Jewish mysticism does exist,and this fits in well with the suggestions for the role of q’neh in pre-reformation Israel and Judea.

    In 1980 the respected anthropologist Weston La Barre (1980) referred to the Biblical references in an essay on cannabis, concurring with Benet’s earlier hypothesis. In that same year respected British Journal New Scientist also ran a story that referred to the Hebrew OLD TESTAMENT references: “Linguistic evidence indicates that in the original Hebrew and Aramaic texts of the Old Testament the ‘holy oil’ which God directed Moses to make (Exodus 30:23) was composed of myrrh, cinnamon, cannabis and cassia” (Malyon & Henman 1980).

    As well, William McKim noted in DRUGS AND BEHAVIOUR, “It is likely that the Hebrews used cannabis… In the OLD TESTAMENT (Exodus 30:23), God tells Moses to make a holy oil of ‘myrrh, sweet cinnamon, kaneh bosem and kassia’” (McKim, 1986). A MINISTER’S HANDOOK OF MENTAL DISORDERS also records that “Some scholars believe that God’s command to Moses (Exodus 30:23) to make a holy oil included cannabis as one of the chosen ingredients” (Ciarrocchi, 1993).

    Independent support for Benet’s view of the Semitic origins of the term kaneh can be found in THE WORD: THE DICTIONARY THAT REVEALS THE HEBREW SOURCE OF ENGLISH, by Isaac E. Mozeson. In reference to Hebrew kaneh, Mozeson follows a similar view to Benet’s that the “so-called IE root kanna… is admitted to be “of Semitic origin”….the IE word kannabis (hemp – a late IE word borrowed from an unknown source)” (Mozeson, 1989)….KANBOOS is an early post biblical term for hemp… The word HEMP is traced to Greek kannabis and Persian kannab… The ultimate etymon is conceded by Webster’s to be “a very early borrowing from a non-IE, possibly Semitic language…. In seeking related words… consider Aramaic… KENABH… and [Hebrew] KANEH…” (Mozeson, 1989) Interestingly Mozeson makes no reference to calamus in the context of the term kaneh.

    Prof. Carl Ruck, Classical Mythology, Boston University , (also a linguist)

    Cannabis is called kaneh bosem in Hebrew, which is now recognized as the Scythian word that Herodotus wrote as kannabis (or cannabis). The translators of the bible translate this usually as ‘fragrant cane,’ i.e., an aromatic grass. Once the word is correctly translated, the use of cannabis in the bible is clear. Large amounts of it were compounded into the ointment for the ordination of the priest. This ointment was also used to anoint the holy vessels in the Inner Sanctum or Tabernacle (‘tent’). It was also used to fumigate the holy enclosed space. The ointment (absorbed through the skin) and the fragrance of the vessels (both absorbed by handling and inhaled as perfume) and the smoke of the incense in the confined space would have been a very effective means of administering the psychoactive properties of the plant. Since it was only the High Priest who entered the Tabernacle, it was an experience reserved for him, although as the chrism of priestly ordination it was probably also something experienced in a different way by the whole priesthood. This same psychoactive chrism was later used for the coronation of the kings.

    As well, my co-author of Sex, Drugs, Violence and the Bible, Neil McQueen, who has a Masters in religious Studies and a degree in Hebrew, is also a supporter of Benet’s theory

    So you see, over the last few years I have been pushing the issue, the consensus is going in favour of cannabis as keneh bosem. The Hebrews, like other ancient cultures, used cannabis to fascilitate the conversation with God.

    IN CONCLUSION….

    You keep going back to the same lame points as before, which i continualy diprove: “I think its calamus, blah, blah” with no worthwile back up references beyond spurious unverified website sources. I have answered lots of your questions, with great source material. Now you answer my questions, or your ass is kicked 🙂

    i.e. – I am growing bored and you need to back some of the crap up you are putting forth to keep this going.

    1) What are the modern hebrew terms for ‘calamus’ and ‘cannabis’?

    2) Why did Jeremiah prohibit keneh?

    3) Where is the ancient world evidence and references that high quality calamus was traded from India into Israel, in favour of the domestic product?

    4) Where are the ancient world references to calamus being used in sacred incenses and anointing oils? (Don’t quote the Biblical references, wanker!)

    5) Identify language researchers who are aware of the cannabis claims regarding calamus, but who argue in favor of calamus, and show how they explain this connection.

    6) Identify references to seeds or grains of calmus being used for food, and coming from multi-heads of calamus (Genesis 41:22)

    7) Identify cloth being woven from the fibres of calamus in the ancient world.

    I’ll get back to you, when you answer these questions, otherwise consider yourself beaten.

  1363. Anonymous on

    I translated the “qne” from the pdf linked above and it means

    ” (botany) stem, cane, stalk ; (weaponry) barrel ; arm (of a candelabra) ; reed ; (talmudic) windpipe, trachea”

    I used this page http://www.lexilogos.com/english/hebrew_dictionary.htm# and copied the Hebrew characters from the pdf and entered them.

    No matter how you look at it, Cannabis is not an aromatic stalk. The buds are aromatic, but the stalk would have been of little use for fragrant resins and I don’t think the fragrance would have been the basis for whatever the name was for Cannabis. Cannabis Indica smells like a friggin dead skunk or something. Sweet or aromatic would not be a good description to use as the name. Maybe “seedy cane” or “stinky cane”, something like that. It’s Calamus, accept it. It makes perfect sense. No reason at all to think it’s Cannabis.

  1364. Anonymous on

    I did it myself. It doesn’t look the same as the words in Exodus 30:23. I guess it’s a modern version. I did find a good parallel Hebew/English version of Exodus though, and the word “u.qne” means “and reed of” and “bahm” means “aromatic”. Last I heard, Cannabis isn’t a reed. http://www.scripture4all.org/OnlineInterlinear/OTpdf/exo30.pdf

  1365. Anonymous on

    “Ah, progress, before you were saying Assyrian ‘qunubu’ was a reference to calamus, and you even lied and said i made up the connection to cannabis myself. Why did you lie? Do you lie a lot?”

    I wasn’t lying, I just thought I saw that same quote somewhere else with the word Calamus instead of hemp. Could have been wrong. No need to jump to the worst possible conclusion, or do you just naturally assume the worst? I’m trying to find the truth of the matter, which should be your goal too. The Bible lists the ingredients of the holy incense and Cannabis isn’t one of them. It has in no way been amply proved that the “fragrant cane” or reed listed as an ingredient in the anointing oil was Cannabis. Calamus is the still by far the most likely plant being indicated.

    I’ll tell you what, show me what the Hebrew word for Calamus was and if it isn’t “Kanneh Bosm”, or something very similar, then you may have some reason to identify that name with Cannabis. You’re a great researcher, right? Should be easy enough to find the Hebrew word for Calamus.

  1366. Chris Bennett on

    We are Gnostics, God is consciousness, Yahweh, Asherah, Shiva are all projections of consciosness. I already explained that to you and as i handed in my books as evidence, it is all apart of the court record.

    God-consciousness, seeking self-realization, descends into matter via the Big Bhang, loosing itself in creation, and through the expanding Universe, the development of life, and the evolution to the point of consciousness it begins thhe journey of self realization. Or as the Gnostics explained:

    From Sex, Drugs, Violence and the Bible
    http://www.forbiddenfruitpublishing.com/SexDrugs/Book

    As much as the Judaic priestly elite, and the later Roman Catholic church were interested in repressing thought and syncretism, the Gnostics sought to expand them. This often led into areas of varied and extreme speculations , but some of the surviving Gnostic fragments, give indications of the profound insights that these early psychonauts were able to come to through mysticism, which as we shall show later, often involved the use of entheogens. Rather than the simplistic tribal cosmological explanation of creation offered by their Hebrew predecessors, at some point certain Gnostic groups took on cosmological speculations that are uncannily paralleled by the findings of modern physicists and cosmologists. The fragmented writings of the Gnostic teacher, Basilides, who taught around 120-130 A.D., found in the early Church father Hippolytus’ refutations of Gnostic teachings , give us a taste of the radical Gnosis which was already popular by this early time . Referring to the pre existent state before the Universal Seed took form and gave birth, and sounding like a physicist trying to describe the pre-omega state before the Big Bang, Basilides explained the Gnostic creation cosmology;

    “There was when naught was; nay, even that “naught” was not ought of things that are…. But… conjecture and mental quibbling apart, there was absolutely not even the One… And when I use the term “was”, I do not mean to say that it was [that is to say, in any state of being]; but merely to give some suggestion of what I wish to indicate, I use the expression “there was absolutely naught”. For that “naught” is not simply so-called the ineffable; it is beyond that .”

    Hippolytus,(Died 235 A.D.), summarized Basilides’ explanation of non-being, which transcends all being, and its eventual will to create the Seed of Universality, or Mother Source, of the created Universe.

    “Naught was, neither matter, nor substance, nor voidness of substance, nor simplicity, nor impossibility-of-composition, nor inconceptibilty, nor imperceptibility, neither man, nor angel, nor god… neither anything at all for which man has ever found a name, nor any operation which falls within the range either of his perception or conception. Such, or rather far more removed from the power of man’s comprehension, was the state of non-being, when [if we can speak of “when” in a state of beyond time and space] the Deity beyond being without thinking, or feeling, or determining, or choosing, or being compelled, or desiring, willed to create universality.”

    Returning to the words of the Gnostic master Basilides, Hippolytus recorded:

    “When I use the term “will”, I do so merely to suggest the idea of an operation transcending all volition, thought or sensible action. And this universality also was not [our] dimensional and differentiable universe, which subsequently came into existence and was separated [from other universes], but the Seed of all universes.”

    “This universal Seed contained everything in itself, potentially, in some such fashion as the grain of mustard seed contains the whole simultaneously in the minutest point–roots, stem, branches, leaves, and the innumerable germs that come from the seed of the plant, and which in their turn produces still other and other plants in manifold series.”

    “Thus the Divinity beyond being created universality beyond being from elements beyond being, positing and causing to subsist a single something… containing in itself the entire all-seed-potency of the Universe.”(Basilides 120-130 A.D.)

    Writing in 1900, G.R.S. Mead, from whose work we got the above excerpts, summarized:
    “From such a ‘Seed’, which is everywhere and nowhere, and which treasures in its bosom everything that was or is or is to be, all things must come into manifestation in their ‘proper natures and cycles’ and times, at the will of the Deity beyond all”(Mead 1900). Basilides is unclear as to what brings this about, and refers to an indefinable “supplementary development”;

    “For of what sort of emanation is there need, or of what sort of matter must we make supposition, in order that God should make the universe, like as a spider weaves its web [from itself], or mortal man takes brass or timber or other matter out of which to make something? But ‘He spake and it was’, and this is what is the meaning of the saying of Moses, ‘Let there be light, and there was light’. Whence then, was the light? from naught. For it is not written whence, but only from the voice of the Speaker of the word. And he who spake the word, was not, and that which was, was not. For the Seed of the universe, the word that was spoken, “Let there be light”, was from the state beyond being. And this was what was spoken in the Gospel, “it was the true light which lighteth every man that cometh into the world”. Man both deriveth his principles from that Seed and is also enlightened by it.”(Basilides 120-130 A.D.)

    this is slightly more complex and closer to scientific theories than the old Eden myth, don’t ya think?

    You are clearly threatned by the views of the COU. Why is that?

    Make way for the Tree of Life.

    And maybe get back to me after you have actually read the Bible, i.e. stop faking it you wannabe.

  1367. Chris Bennett on

    wow 4 posts before I even wake, slow down little fella. Something has really got your goat doesn’t it?

    Re:”Oh, so before that Yahweh thought it was a good idea for the Israelites to use the same incense ingredient as the pagans?”

    Well Isreal grew out of paganism, so yah.

    Did you know the people burned incense to the pagan image Moses made?

    After ridding the land of the high places and Asherahs, the next step taken by King Hezekiah is a very radical and surprising one: “He broke into pieces the bronze snake Moses had made, for up to that time the Israelites had been burning incense to it. (It was called Nehushtan)” (2 Kings 18:4). This is the first we learn of this brazen serpent forged by Moses since the Exodus, created after his involvement with the Midianite “sons of the snake”. We need not speculate on the type of incense that the Israelites had been burning to the figure, as it was obviously qaneh-bosm incense. From the account here it had been worshipped by the Israelites continuously in the interceding centuries. Here in the Temple of Jerusalem itself, with the image of the serpent, the Ashera, the Cherubim, and the Menorah-representing the Tree of Life, we can clearly see the images of the fabled Garden of Eden that had been so demonized in the Genesis tale, continuing as regular aspects of Hebrew cultic worship! Obviously these figures all played an important role in the ritual dramas practiced in the Hebrew kingdom since the time of Solomon.

    “Seems a little odd for him to want his people to burn the sacred plant of Ashara (supposedly). That would make Ashara think the incense was being burned for her. Nope, doesn’t make sense.”

    Oh really? Did you know Yahweh and Asherah were married?

    Figurines of Asherah are strikingly common in the archaeological record, indicating the popularity of her cult from the earliest times[5] to the Babylonian exile. More rarely, inscriptions linking Yahweh and Asherah have been discovered: an 8th century BCE ostracon inscribed “Berakhti etkhem l’YHVH Shomron ul’Asherato” was discovered by Israeli archeologists at Quntilat ‘Ajrud (Hebrew “Horvat Teman”) in the course of excavations in the Sinai desert in 1975, prior to the Israeli withdrawal from this area. This translates as: “I have blessed you by YHVH of Samaria and His Asherah” (or perhaps “… by YHVH our guardian and His Asherah”, if “Shomron” is to be read “shomrenu”). Another inscription, from Khirbet el-Kom near Hebron, reads: “Blessed be Uriyahu by Yahweh and by his Asherah; from his enemies he saved him!”.[6] The first person to identify the pillar figurines with Asherah was Raphael Patai,[7] in The Hebrew Goddess.

    Throughout most of the Kingdom period Israel and Judea were polytheistic, read the Book of Kings.

    “… Apparently, Solomon did not limit his use of incense, to the temple of Yahweh, or the Lord’s worship. “Solomon loved Yahweh: he followed the precepts of David his father, except that he offered sacrifice and incense on the high places.” (I Kings 3:3). Here we can see references to Solomon’s worship of Astartre\Ishtar , who was conventionally worshipped on mountains and hilltops. The Old Testament itself testifies to this fact, telling us that Solomon’s “foreign wives led him astray” and that through them the Hebraic king had began “following Astarte, the goddess of the Sidonians…” (1 Kings 11:3-5).” (Bennett & McQueen, 2001)

    “The Assyrians may have used Cannabis in their incense but the Jews weren’t the Assyrians and there’s no evidence that their religion was derived from them, that I know of.”

    Ah, progress, before you were saying Assyrian ‘qunubu’ was a reference to calamus, and you even lied and said i made up the connection to cannabis myself. Why did you lie? Do you lie a lot?

    Try the story of Eden and Noah and the Floodfor a wider Mesopatamian influence in the Bible.
    http://books.google.ca/books?id=mkWWo3WokjMC&pg=PA176&dq=noah+enki&cd=8#v=onepage&q=noah%20enki&f=false

    Even the Bible acknowledges this influence:

    Nehemiah 9:7 “You are the LORD God, who chose Abram and brought … … Thou art He, O Jehovah God, who didst fix on Abraham, and didst bring him out
    from Ur of the Chaldeans, and didst make his name Abraham, …
    //bible.cc/nehemiah/9-7.htm – 15k

    Capeche?

    You really don’t know much about the Bible, as you have shown again and again. You are a Faker.

  1368. Anonymous on

    So when is the big announcement scheduled in which the “brothers”, in a tape recorded from their prison cells, state that they have severed all ties with Yahweh and now consider Yahweh their enemy, as they must if they choose to do anything at all that another god likes. I expect they will say that the COU is now a pagan religion, no Yahweh sympathizers welcome. Until then, Chris Bennet is a fraud.

  1369. Anonymous on

    Which is it, Chris, the god of the COU or the god of Assyria? Can’t have it both ways. You screwed up big by being dumb enough to become a member of a drug dealing cartel that chose to pretend to be a church based on the Biblical God, to give it a speck of credibility with the average westerner, and then getting the bright idea to try to get a court to grant you special rights because you are a member thereof when, in fact, all of your research shows that the God chosen by COU for their cover church is 100% against the use of Cannabis containing products due to its pagan associations, you know, Ashera and Shiva, both of which are the enemies of the God of the COU/Jews/Christians/Muslims. Maybe you’ll get real lucky and the judges won’t be smart enough to figure that out, but I doubt it.

  1370. Anonymous on

    In fact, come to think of it, since you have shown that the god of Israel, which is the god of COU, is highly offended by the burning of Cannabis incense and specifically commanded against it because it is not his incense but another god’s. Now if only you convert to the religion of the Assyrians sometime between now and your court appearance, and tell the judges to ignore all the stuff you put in your submissions about how devoted you are to the god of Israel (say you were just kidding) then you may have a case. You gotta make a choice, Chris. Is it Yahweh or is it Ashera? Just can’t make up your mind can you? Too bad Yahweh doesn’t go for the “hedging your bet” form of worship, as he made amply clear.

  1371. Anonymous on

    Oh, so before that Yahweh thought it was a good idea for the Israelites to use the same incense ingredient as the pagans? Seems a little odd for him to want his people to burn the sacred plant of Ashara (supposedly). That would make Ashara think the incense was being burned for her. Nope, doesn’t make sense. The Assyrians may have used Cannabis in their incense but the Jews weren’t the Assyrians and there’s no evidence that their religion was derived from them, that I know of.

  1372. Chris Bennett on

    You are faking it buddy.

    Calamus from india is the best? who says? What evidence do you have of calamus incense being traded in the anicent world from India in the surounding kingdoms? source evidence and not spurious web stuff like you keep citing. Provide some ancient world references to calamus from India being traded into Israel where cannabis grew, as well as a reference to the superiority of the foriegn product over the domestic. and what were some of those other ancient world names for calamus? References to those signifying the same thing as modern calamus and Biblical keneh need to be cited.

    As well, you need to provide some ancient world references to calamus incense and ointments. (and don’t cite the Bible you weenie)

    Again not spurious web references, cite ancient texts and referenced books by respected writers…

    At this same time period in question cannabis was being traded all the way from China into India along the silk road and had been since about 1200 BC.

    There is more to Jeremiah 6;20 than just the identification of keneh as an item of trade. For what reason are you sugesting that “calamus” was rejected in Jeremiah 6:20, what was the problem with calamus? Especially since earlier it was so sacred (Exodus 30:23) and in God not getting enough in Isaiah 43:24? : “Thou hast bought me no sweet smelling cane (keneh) with money, neither hast thou filled me with the fat of thy sacrifices.”

    You need to answer some of these questions….

    Jewish prohibition of keneh – cannabis, goes way back. this goers back to cannabis’ use in other temples than that of Yahweh, the jealous god.

    The ties between cannabis and the Queen of Heaven are probably most apparent in Jeremiah 44, where the ancient patriarch seems to be concerned by the people’s continuing worship of the Queen of Heaven, especially by the burning of incense in her honour, and pouring out drink offerings.

    The Queen of heaven’s incense was clearly cannabis. Referring to the difficulties in deciphering plant identification from the vague and long forgotten names found in the ancient texts, respected Assyriologist Erica Reiner reveals an interesting connection with the ancient world Goddess and “qunnabu,” that few other Assyriologists have noted:

    “Sometimes the etymology of the name is transparent, While ‘sunflower’ (u.UTU sammi samas) probably describes any heliotrope, that is a flower that always looks at the sun: ‘the flower of Samas that faces the setting sun,’ other names composed with the name of a god or goddess are more suggestive. We do not know to what botanical species for example the herb called ‘Ninurta’s aromatic’ (Summerian sim. Ninurta, equated in Akkadian with nikiptu) refers, both varieties of which, masculine and feminine, are mentioned in recipes; however, the name of the herb called Sim.Ishara’armoatic of the Goddess Ishtar,’ which is equated with the Akkadian qunnabu, ‘cannabis’, may indeed conjure up an aphrodisiac through the association with Ishara, goddess of love, and also calls to mind the plant called ki.na Istar.” (Reiner, 1995)

    As we shall see later, this is a valuable piece of information when trying to understand the ritual practices and beliefs of ancient Mesopotamia, especially regarding the considerably widespread worship of Goddesses such as Ishtar, Ishara, Ninurta. Curiously few Assyriologists discuss the qunubu references in the ancient cuneiform tablets, and when they do, it is usually just in a passing reference, such as Reiner’s citation above. Until serious research is done explaining such passages in the context of the ancient documents in which they originally appear, their full implications will not be understood.

    “…[T]he multifaceted goddess Ishara. She does not appear to be a native Mesopotamian deity, but was worshipped by many people throughout the ancient Near East, which has led to a confusing array of attributions – she is known as a great goddess to the Hurrians, the wife of Dagon among the West Semites, and to the Akkadians she was a goddess of love with close affinities to Istar, whose sacred plant cannabis (qunnabu) was known as the aromatic of Ishara… from her widespread worship she is also known as the queen of the inhabited world.” (White, 2008)

    This association was likely widespread and considerably ancient, as the continuous worship of the Goddess, under a variety of evolving and related names, and images, can be traced back far into the Stone Age. “The worship… of the ‘Syrian Goddess,’ be she Astarte, or known by whatever other name… was full of… rites, in which the effects on the mind could only have been produced by narcotic stimulants” (Brown, 1868). William Emboden Jr. has also pointed to the use of cannabis amongst the cult of another popular Near Eastern Goddess, Ashera, whom we will have reason to discuss in Chapter 16 in relation to her association with Hebraic cannabis use and its later prohibition:

    “There is a classic Greek term, cannabeizen, which means to smoke Cannabis. Cannabeizen frequently took the form of inhaling vapors from an incense burner in which these resins were mixed with other resins, such as myrrh, balsam, frankincense, and perfumes; this is the manner of the shamanistic Ashera priestesses of pre-reformation Jerusalem, who anointed their skins with the mixture as well as burned it.” (Emboden 1972)

    The reason for Jeremiah’s prohibition of the sacred keneh (cannabis)

    “This is what the LORD Almighty, the God of Israel says: “You saw the great disaster I brought on Jerusalem and on all the towns of Judah. Today they lie deserted and in ruins because of the evil they have done. They provoked me to anger by burning incense and by worshipping other gods… Again and again I sent my servants the prophets, who said, ‘Do not do the detestable things I hate!’ But they did not listen or pay attention; they did not turn from their wickedness or stop burning incense to other gods. Therefore my fierce anger was poured out; it raged against the towns of Judah and the streets of Jerusalem and made them the desolate ruins they are today.”

    “….Then all the men which knew that their wives had burned incense unto other gods, and all the women that stood by, a great multitude, even all the people that dwelt in the land of Egypt, in Pathros, answered Jeremiah, saying, “As for the word that thou hast spoken unto us in the name of the Lord, we will not hearken unto thee. But we will certainly do whatsoever thing goeth forth out of our own mouth, to burn incense unto the queen of heaven, and to pour drink offerings unto her, as we have done, we, and our fathers, our kings, and our princes, in the city of Judah, and in the streets of Jerusalem: for then we had plenty of victuals, and were well, and saw no evil. But since we left off to burn incense to the queen of heaven, and poured out drink offerings to her, we have wanted all things, and have been consumed by sword and by famine.”

    “The women added “When we burned incense to the queen of heaven, and poured out drink offerings unto her, did we make her cakes to worship her, and pour our drink offerings to her, without our men?”

    ” Then Jeremiah said unto all the people, to the men, and to the women, and to all the people which had given him that answer saying, The incense that ye burned in the cities of Judah, and in the streets of Jerusalem, ye, and your fathers, your kings, and your princes, and the people of the land, did not the Lord remember them, and came it not into his mind? So that the Lord could no longer bear, because of the evil of your doings, and because of the abominations which ye have committed; therefore is your land a desolation, and astonishment, and a curse, without an inhabitant, as at this day. Because ye have burned incense and because ye have sinned against the Lord, and have not obeyed the voice of the Lord, not walked in his law, nor in his statutes, not in his testimonies; therefore this evil has happened to you, as at this day. (Jeremiah 44:1-23)

  1373. Anonymous on

    The “hemp” obviously was in the form of cloth and cordage. Only the finest hemp robes were acceptable unto Adad.

    In regard to the bible passages;

    “King James Bible
    Jeremiah 6:20
    To what purpose cometh there to me incense from Sheba, and the sweet cane from a far country? your burnt offerings are not acceptable, nor your sacrifices sweet unto me.”

    Obviously, the finest Calamus is produced in India. That’s well known.

    Ezekiel 27:19
    Dan also and Javan going to and fro occupied in thy fairs: bright iron, cassia, and calamus, were in thy market.

    What’s your point?

  1374. Chris Bennett on

    Books identifying cannabis as an incense
    http://books.google.ca/books?q=cannabis+incense

    it is also important to note the flamable Holy Oil was poured on the altar of incnese and likely helped it burn.

    “Then use it to anoint… the altar of incense” Exodus 30:27

    THE HOLY INCENSE
    From Sex, Drugs, Violence and the Bible
    http://www.forbiddenfruitpublishing.com/SexDrugs/Book

    The Lord said to Moses, “I am going to come to you in a dense cloud….”
    (Exodus 19:9)

    It was after his initiation into the Midianite priesthood that Moses heard the “angel of the Lord…in flames of fire from within a bush “, and the first biblical use of cannabis for oracular trance, is recorded . In light of this, it is not to surprising to find that the use of hemp in EXODUS, both as an incense and as a psychoactive anointing oil seems to be connected with the image of the serpent. The Nehushtan, or brazen serpent image made by Moses stayed in the Temple for five or six hundred years, and for that period of time “the people of Israel had burned incense to it.” Combined with the THC rich holy ointment, “the fume from the sacred incense of the chapel, if made to the Biblical formula, would assist the process of hypnosis.”(Allegro 1980)
    When the Midianite trained craftsmen Bezaleel makes the incense altar of shittam wood overlaid with pure gold, according to the instructions Moses received from the Lord to “make an altar to burn incense upon,” Bezaleel also “made the holy anointing oil, and the pure incense of sweet spices, according to the work of apothecary.” (Exodus 37:29).
    [T]he Lord said to Moses, “Take fragrant spices–gum resins, onycha and galbanum–and pure frankincense [generic incense], all in equal amounts, and make a fragrant blend of incense…. grind some of it to powder and place it in front of the Testimony in the Tent of Meeting, where I will meet with you. It shall be most holy to you. Do not make an incense with this formula for yourselves; consider it holy to the Lord. Whoever makes any like it to enjoy its fragrance must be cut off from his people.
    EXODUS 30:34-38

    The Lord’s altar is to be saved for this specific incense, as can be seen by the holy commandment that: “Ye shall offer no strange incense thereon, nor burnt sacrifice, nor meat offering; neither shall ye pour drink offerings thereon.”(Exodus 30:9). That the incense was believed to be imbued with similar magical properties to that of the anointing oil can be seen in the identical prohibitions placed over both. The Biblical scholar John Allegro noted, according to later traditions; “That these ingredients formed only part of the sacred incense formula is well known. Josephus says there were thirteen elements and the Talmud names eleven, plus salt, and a secret ‘herb’ which was added to make the smoke rise in a vertical column before spreading outwards at the top.”(Allegro 1970) ; exactly the way the smoke from a burning piece of hashish reacts and rises. Maimonides, (1134-1204) a medieval Jewish philosopher commented that “The object of incense was to animate the spirits of the priests”, which would again indicate an entheogenic preparation. As the authors and editors of the ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA have noted; “The ceremonial use of wine and incense [in contemporary ritual] is probably a relic of the time when the psychological effects of these substances were designed to bring the worshipper into closer contact with super natural forces” .

    In the Judaic world, the vapors from burnt spices and aromatic gums were considered part of the pleasurable act of worship. In Proverbs (27:9) it is said that “Ointment and perfumes rejoice the heart.”…. Stone altars have been unearthed in Babylon and Palestine, which have been used for burning incense made of aromatic woods and spices. While the casual reader today may interpret such practices as mere satisfaction of the desire for pleasant odors, this is almost certainly an error; in many cases, a psychoactive drug was inhaled. In the islands of the Mediterranean 2,500 years ago and in Africa hundreds of years ago, for example, leaves and flowers of a particular plant were often thrown upon bonfires and the smoke inhaled; the plant was marijuana.(Preble & Laurey 1967)

    Commenting on the word frankincense, which means pure-incense and which appears in the Exodus recipe for the Holy incense, aromatherapy expert Susanne Fischer-Rizzi noted that; “We once called all herbs burnt as incense ‘frankincense'”(Fischer-Rizzi 1990). “The article now known as frankincense is the resin called thus, a common, inodorous article, little better than common white rosin. The article once so highly valued…must have been some other drug more precious than pine or spruce resin” . Today the word frankincense has come to specify the gum resin from the North African tree Boswellia and Fischer-Rizzi, points out that this modern source also contains psychoactive properties, and is still used in churches to instill a chemically induced feeling of religious awe:

    In the last few years, scientists have grown interested in frankincense. They were intrigued by reports that inhaling certain fragrances became addictive for some people, such as altar boys. Some members of the Academy of science in Leipzig, Germany, found in 1981 that when frankincense is burned, another chemical is produced, trahydrocannabinole. This psychoactive substance expands the subconscious .
    The Australian scientist Dr. Michael Stoddard found something else in frankincense. It seems that frankincense, according to Stoddard, awakens sexual, ecstatic energy sources within people. Traditional religious ritual tap and rechannel these energies .(Fischer-Rizzi 1990)

    Despite the fact that modern frankincense is psycho-active, what the original preparation was is left to speculation. With the abundance of natural, burnable and easily collectible fragrant resin found in cannabis and as cannabis is listed directly as an incense elsewhere in the Bible, (along with the Talmudic references to the secret ‘herb’ used in the Temple incense), it is a likely candidate for the ancient generic ‘frankincense’ of Exodus.

    Elsewhere in the Old Testament, when q’aneh appears, it is clearly associated with incense. According to Immanuel Low in his German work, DIE FLORA DER JUDEN, the Hebrews of later times when celebrating their successful invasion and takeover of the land of Canaan with the Holy Day Passover, utilized a preparation including cannabis. Low referred to a recipe for the Passover altar incense that included a hasisat surur, and claimed that the surur was a secret name for the resin of cannabis sativa. The recipe for the special Passover incense had cannabis resin (hasisat surur) ground into powder, mixed with wine, and then made into a burnable and fragrant concoction by being combined with Safran and Arabic Gum. (Low 1926\1967). As George Andrews, editor of the classic texts, THE BOOK OF GRASS,(1967 and DRUGS AND MAGIC, (1975\1997), wrote after some thirty years of research into the subject;

    In recent years many eminent scholars have expressed the opinion that, far from being a minor or occasional ingredient, hashish was the main ingredient of the incense burned in temples during the religious ceremonies of antiquity, and was also routinely used in Hebrew ceremonies until the reign of King Josiah in 621 B.C., when its use was suddenly suppressed in the Hebrew tradition. (Andrews 1997).

    Regardless of what the constitute ingredients of the holy incense were, the whole preparation would have been made psycho-active by its combination with the Holy Anointing Oil: “Then use… [the anointing oil] to anoint… the table and all its articles, the lampstand and its accessories, the alter of incense, the alter of burnt offering and all its utensils.”(EXODUS 30:22-28) .
    Whether as a result of burning in conjunction with the hempen holy oil, as suggested by Exodus 30:27, or independently, the importance of these preparations can be seen in the Lord’s commandment that the altar of incense, after being first consecrated for use with the Holy Oil, be placed “before the veil that is by the ark of testimony, before the mercy seat that is over the testimony, where I will meet with thee.” It was from behind this veil of smoke, which Moses interpreted the words of the Lord, and according to the Lord’s decrees, the incense which produced it was to burn perpetually;
    “And Aaron shall burn incense every morning: when he dresseth the lamps, he shall burn incense upon it. And when Aaron lighteth the lamps at even, he shall burn incense upon it, a perpetual incense before the Lord throughout your generations.”
    EXODUS 30:8-10

    Moses, and his priests used the volatile holy ointment and burned cannabis in a portable, ‘Tent of Meeting’. Lacking the invention of pipes, it was the practice of some ancient cults to burn cannabis in tents, so that more smoke could be retained and inhaled. Such a group was the ancient Scythians, a group credited with spreading cannabis knowledge throughout the ancient world and who “participated in both trade [likely including cannabis] and wars alongside the ancient Semites for at least one millennium before Herodotus encountered them in the fifth century B.C.. The reason for confusion and the relative obscurity of the role played by the Scythians in world history is that they were known to the Greeks as Scythians, but to the Semites as Ashkenaz … The earliest reference to the Ashkenaz people appears in the Bible in Genesis 10:3, where Ashkenaz, their progenitor, is named the son of Gomer, the great-grandson of Noah” (Benet 1975).

    Both archeological and written records , attest to the Scythian\Ashkenaz practice of inhaling cannabis burned in large bronze censers, from within Tee-pee like tents, which served to hold in the valuable intoxicating smoke. Sula Benet believed that the Scythians adopted this technique of ecstasy and even the name cannabis from the people of the Near East, particularly the Semetic people like Hebrews.

    Like the Scythian shaman who burned cannabis from within enclosed tents; “Moses placed the gold altar in the Tent of Meeting in front of the curtain and burned fragrant incense on it, as the Lord commanded him. Then he put up the curtain at the entrance to the tabernacle. “(EXODUS 40:26).

    Religious scholar, Dr. Marinus de Waal, has commented that parts of the holy sanctuary made by Moses, under the Lords command, utilized the fibres of the hemp plant;

    “Fabric from hemp fibre was used by the ancient Israelites for clothing, but was later replaced for this purpose by cotton and linen. It was more often cultivated for its strong fibers and hemp seed, used in carpets and rope. The latter was used in the days of Moses for making the sanctuary:”
    ‘And let every wise-hearted man among you come, and make all that the Lord hath commanded…the hangings of the court, the pillars thereof, and their sockets, and the screen for the gate of the court; the pins of the tabernacle, and the pins of the court, and their cords…’-(Exodus 35:10,17,18)” (De Waal 1994)

    The ancient Hebrew utilized cannabis seed-oils for lighting (Herer 1993) and food (Low 1926\1967), its fibers for ritual cloth and clothing (Klein 1908, de Waal 1994), as well as its resins and flowers for shamanistic ecstasy and divine inspiration.(Creighton 1903, Low 1926\1967, Benetowa 1936, Benet 1975, Bennett et. al. 1995) For the ancient Semites, this very useful plant was a literal Tree of Life. To the nomadic Hebrews, cultivated cannabis was a very valuable commodity, and this is part of the reason why its use was restricted to a few individuals. If everybody got High there wouldn’t be enough to go around for very long. Wars and raids conducted on more agricultural peoples, may have in part been made in an attempt to acquire the cannabis which had become so important in Hebrew worship. Perhaps the Sacred Ark of the Covenant was used to carry the Hebrew’s stash of valuable cannabis as well as the Bronze Serpent it was said to contain, and which people of Israel burned incense to for centuries after the time of Moses .

    Hebrew scholar Ralph Patai points out that Yahweh traveled in a cloud which was produced from copious incense smoke;

    “That gods ride on clouds is an old mythologem, traces of which can be found among many peoples. Among the Canaanites it is attested in the 14th century BCE Ugaritic myths, in which “Rider of the Clouds” is one of Baal’s . The same epithet, “Rider in the clouds,” refers to Yahweh in one of the Psalms….In fact, the desert sanctuary was called the Tabernacle (Hebrew, mishkan; literally, “dwelling place”) because of the divine cloud that abode (shakan) over it and in it….It (EXODUS 40) says that that God’s presence in the Tabernacle was indicated by a cloud which both seemed to hover over the tent and to fill it, and which at night glowed like fire. This conception of the manifest presence of God in the Tabernacle closely parallels that of God’s presence on Mt. Sinai: there too, cloud covered the mount, and in that cloud was God: “He came to Moses out of the midst of the cloud”.(Patai 1967)

    Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church Brother, Jeff Brown, connected the many smoke and cloud references in the Old Testament, with the use of cannabis incense in his influential and well researched booklet MARIJUANA AND THE BIBLE:

    “Scriptures make it abundantly clear that the cloud and the smoke are related to the burning of incense. Exodus 40:26 describes Moses burning incense, a cloud covering the tent of the congregation and the glory of the Lord filling the tabernacle. Leviticus 16:2-13 describes how God appeared in a cloud and refers to it as the cloud of incense… Numbers 11:25 describes how God was revealed to Moses and the seventy elders in a cloud; that the spirit rested upon them and that they prophesied and ceased not. … In fact it was in the clouds of smoke that God was revealed to the ancient Israelites. The words “smoke” and “smoking” appear fifty times in the King James version of the Bible.”(Brown 1980)

    Similar to the oracle of Delphi in Greece who also issued forth prophecies from a cloud of smoke, Yahweh only spoke to Moses in the smoke filled chamber of “… the Tent of Meeting: he was a visiting deity whose appearance in or departure from, the Tent was used for oracular purposes.”(Patai 1967). When the cloud of smoke was not present, the voice of Yahweh fell silent. Although others were terrified to enter into the smoke filled chamber, Moses “is not consumed by the daemonic power when he physically associates with Yahweh and enters into the midst of the cloud (Exodus 24:15-18)”. (La Barre 1970). Further, according to STRONG’S EXHAUSTIVE CONCORDANCE OF THE BIBLE the Hebrew word for cloud, anan,(Ayin, nun, nun), also has the meaning “to cloud over…i.e. practice magic:-X bring, enchanter, Meonemin, observe(-r of) times, soothsayer, sorcerer.”(Strong 1979) “When Moses entered the Tent of Meeting to speak with the Lord, he heard the voice speaking to him from between the two cherubim above the atonement cover on the ark of the Testimony. And he spoke with him.”(Numbers 7:89)

    Now Moses used to take a tent and pitch it outside the camp at some distance away calling it the “tent of meeting”. Anyone requiring of the Lord would go to the tent of meeting outside the camp. And whenever Moses went out to the tent, all the people rose and stood at the entrances of their tent, the pillar of cloud would come down and stay at the entrances to their tents, watching Moses until he entered the tent. As Moses would enter the tent, the pillar of cloud would come down and stay at the entrance, while the Lord spoke with Moses. Whenever the people saw the pillar of cloud standing at the entrance to the tent, they all stood and worshipped, each at the entrance to his tent. The Lord would speak to Moses face to face, as a man speaks to his friend. Then Moses would return to the camp, but his young assistant Joshua son of Nun did not leave the tent.
    EXODUS 33:7-11

    The resulting insights from the experience induced by cannabis smoke, inhaled in the Tent of Meeting, as well the effects from the topically applied THC rich holy ointment, were interpreted by Moses to be divine messages from God, in much the same way as modern shamans interpret their experiences with plant hallucinogens as containing divine revelations. Cannabis can be seen to activate the very area of the brain in which ideas, and thinking take place. There are unique receptor sites located in the areas governing higher thinking and memory, possibly, as Jack Herer has suggested, indicating a precultural link between man and marijuana.(Herer 1985) As a thought inducer, Harvard Medical School Professor, Dr. Lester Grinspoon, has commented that marihuana “can help the user to penetrate conceptual boundaries, promote fluidity of associations, and enhance insight and creativity. Some people find it so useful in gaining new perspectives or seeing problems from a different vantage point that they smoke it in preparation for intellectual work. I suspect these people have learned to make use of the alteration in consciousness produced by cannabis. “(Grinspoon 1995). Indeed, this ancient and mysterious herb may have facilitated the step into higher consciousness for the Semetic and other races.

    It is our ability for subjective interior verbalization which most differentiates us from other species; “I think therefore I am” . This evolutionary step from non-conscious-dreamtime into self-reflective-experiential-time marks the inception of all world religions. Psychologist Julian Jaynes’ book, THE ORIGIN OF CONSCIOUSNESS IN THE BREAKDOWN OF THE BICAMERAL MIND offers some interesting theoretical explanations of how the development of subjective consciousness may have taken place and how this is connected with religion. Although Jaynes failed to fully recognize the important role plant-drugs have played in the development of consciousness, he did come up with a most revolutionary concept. Basing his hypothesis on scientific studies of the brain, combined with a close reading of the archeological evidence, Jaynes’ demonstrated that ancient humanity could not think as we do today, and was therefore not conscious in the way we are now.

    Jaynes referred to the mental state of pre-consciousness man as the Bicameral-Mind. The Bicameral human, as animals still are, was in a state of continual interaction with their environment, and the “world would happen to him and his action would be an inextricable part of that happening with no consciousness whatever.”(Jaynes 1976). It was not until well into the development of language, (originally a means of interaction like the yips and yelps of a wolf pack), that reflective-consciousness could have even been able to start to take place. Anybody who would question how non-reflective man could perform such complicated tasks as farming, animal herding, home building, construction of towns, etc.?, need only look at the completely instinctually driven insect world, where ranching, farming, storage of grains, home and hive building, all take place with no sign of reflective consciousness what-so-ever.

    Jaynes explains that being unable to introspect, ancient humans heard their first thoughts as auditory hallucinations, and took these to be the voice of God , as Moses does in the story of Exodus, or as Abraham did when he went to sacrifice Isaac. Humanities transition into consciousness was an evolutionary step, and the voices which the first ‘thinkers’ heard, came from the brains right-hemisphere, and told them what to do in times of novelty or stress. “Only catastrophe and cataclysm forced mankind to learn consciousness, and that happened only 3000 years ago.”(Jaynes 1976)

    Entheogen pioneer Terence McKenna comments on Jayne’s book in his own brilliant FOOD OF THE GODS: “what we call ego was for Homeric people ‘god’. When danger threatened…the god’s voice was heard in the individuals mind…This psychic function was perceived by those experiencing it as the direct voice of god…Merchants and traders moving from one society to another brought the unwelcome news that god was saying different thing in different places, and so cast early seeds of doubt.”(McKenna 1992) This last comment can be seen as especially true of the ancient Jews, as a good deal of the Old Testament is obsessed with the abomination of worshipping other gods.

    McKenna states that Jaynes’ large and interesting book failed it’s potential by neglecting to discuss the paramount role that “hallucinogenic plants or drugs” played in the development of consciousness “nearly entirely”. The mushroom Bard expanded on Jaynes’ theory by pointing out that; “The impact of hallucinogens in the diet has been more than psychological; hallucinogenic plants may have been the catalyst for everything about us that distinguishes us from other higher primates, for all the mental functions that we associate with humanness.”(McKenna 1992) The visual images and voices heard by the early shamanistic ingestor of such substances, were interpreted by them, as actual events with the gods, (In a similar way to that which the Australian Aborigines and other “primitive” cultures interpret dreams as reality).

    Could the Commandments given by God to Moses and other Biblical Prophets (Shaman), have been early ideas, relevant to the development of humanity at that time and place? If one comes to see consciousness itself as divine, then seeing the development of it in the shamanistic revelations of Moses, need not make those revelations any less holy, but perhaps less relevant as rules of conduct in our modern day. Indeed, it could be that reflective thought, and much religious literature, grew out of a combination of language and the use of psychoactive plants like magic mushrooms and hemp in a marriage of shamanistic revelation.

    God said to Moses,, “I AM WHO I AM. This is what you are to say to the Israelites: ‘I AM has sent me to you.”
    EXODUS 3:14.

    These are the words Moses first heard after his initiation into the Midianite priesthood, and his first encounter with the Burning Bush. In light of this information is not the above statement more believable as the birth words of Judaic consciousness through shamanistic revelations, rather than as the commandments of some omnipotent God? Especially such a God as the jealous Yahweh of the Old Testament, who’s rantings at times, sound more like the ravings of an angry tribal chieftain, rather than those of the all powerful Creator of the Universe. As famed anthropologist Weston La Barre has commented “‘God’ is often clinically paranoiac because the shaman’s ‘supernatural helper’ is the projection of the shaman himself. The personality of Yahweh, so to speak, exactly fits the irascible personality of the sheik-shaman Moses; the voices of Yahweh and Moses are indistinguishable.”(La Barre 1972)

    Moses is… a visionary shaman…in whom the god (imperious id of the vatic) repeatedly speaks….Psychologically, Moses and Yahweh are one…Magic power, derived from Yahweh on direct instruction and contact is Moses’ strength…The relationship is made explicit when Moses complains that he is a man of poor speech, whereupon he is made a god to Aaron “and thou shall speak unto him, and put words in his mouth: and I will be with thy mouth, and with his mouth, and will teach you what ye shall do. And he shall be thy spokesman unto the people: and he shall be to the instead of a mouth, and thou shalt be to him instead of God.”(EXODUS 4:15-16). The divine Patriarch and the human patriarch are here as one.(La Barre 1970)

    Like Yahweh, Dagon took part in the affairs of the state through his prophets, who gave their trance induced utterances with a “formal similarity to the prophets of the Old Testament”(Ringgren 1973). These “psychic states were characteristic of the prophecies delivered in the Temple; the evidence suggests trance of the lucid type in which the medium does not loose all consciousness of self and surroundings”(Pritchard 1975). A state which can be attributed to marijuana intoxication, produced by the cannabis incense and holy anointing oil that was used by both Dagon’s cult, and later adopted by the shaman Moses and the Levites, the “sons of the Great Serpent”.

    The ancient Mesopotamians believed that each person had their own personal god known as a tutelary deity, which was invoked with offerings of incense, likely containing cannabis . The Tutelary deities originally represented a person’s capacity “for thinking and acting…without a [tutelary] god man cannot earn his living or be courageous in battle, and again: When thou dost plan ahead, thy god is thine, When thou dost not plan ahead, thy god is not thine”(Ringgren 1973) . For the sons of Dagon, their inner voice, or thoughts were heard as advice from the ancient fish-god, and he was their tutelary deity, as he was for a number of ancient kings. Dagon’s cult developed the shamanistic use of cannabis in initiation ceremonies directed at the participant receiving divine messages, this facilitated the evolutionary step into higher thought. The Levite, sons of the Great Serpent, adopted this technique from the Midianite worshippers of Dagon, along with other hierarchical and cultic practices.

    Yahweh was the tutelary deity of the shaman Moses and eventually of the whole people. “Indeed, the shaman-led communal cult of a tutelary deity is only a more developed form of the shaman and his individual familiar…Under Moses and his simulacrum in the divine tutelary-spirit sheik-patriarch, scattered Habiru [Hebrew] tribelets become the whole ritual-contractual… people of Israel, initiated into the secret society of Yahweh-worshippers.”(La Barre 1970) Through the shamanistic visions of Moses, these divided tribes became united, and their differing mythologies and local legends, joined together in a holy new religious vision.

    The early thoughts of Moses and the Levites, being received as divine revelations, were written down, and account for many of the tribal laws of the ancient Hebrews. The act of writing itself, was a magical act , and was usually used for religious purposes. Writing was also amongst the arts and crafts that the ancient Hebrews adopted from their Midianite teachers. Religious inscriptions from around 1500 BCE, were incised by smith-miners, [likely Midianites], high up in the Rocky wastes of Sinai. (Jaynes 1976) Not so coincidentally, Moses went up Mount Sinai, and came back down again with the chiseled stone tablets known as the Ten Commandments . It should also be noted that in the mythology of the Midianite’s god, Dagon, under the earlier Mesopotamian name of Enki, the ancient deity is accredited with inventing the characters used in writing.(Budge 1925).

    Reading itself, may have facilitated step into mental verbalization, for when we read an accompanying dialogue is “heard” within the mind. The interior vocalization that accompanies reading, is often heard by the reader as a different voice than their own, taking on the projected voice of the author or character, narrating the story or book. Similarly, when the ancients read the holy inscriptions which covered sacred statues and phallic pillars, they likely imaginatively “heard” the interior vocalization of the words narrated back to them in the voice of the particular god in question.

  1375. Chris Bennett on

    Re “Budge was right, it’s a giant wheat head.”

    Gee, you got an example of an ear of wheat is big as budding pot plant? Lets see that.

    Re “In this quote , “the main items…. for the rites are fine oil, water, honey, odorous plants (and) hemp [qunubu]”, that’s your translation. Everywhere else it reads Calamus.”

    My translation? someone is full of shit, and that would be you. Stop with the outright lying already will yah?

    Royal correspondence of the Assyrian empire, Volume 17? – Page 257
    Leroy Waterman, Robert Francis Harper – Assyro-Bablyonian letters – 1936 –
    “the main items …. for the 15 rites are fine oil, water (?), honey, odorous
    plants, myrrh (and) hemp”

    The term hemp is a translation of “qunubu”

    Qunubu is hemp
    http://books.google.ca/books?um=1&q=qunubu+hemp

    Hemp Seed was the Royal Grain

    http://www.cannabisculture.com/articles/1425.html

    the hemp seed’s use as a food and oil source… can be traced back to the very beginnings of civilization. The German researcher Immanuel Low referred to a sixth century Persian name for a preparation of cannabis seed, Sahdanag — Royal Grain; or King’s Grain, which demonstrates the high regard the ancient Persians held for the nutritious oil rich seeds that came from the same plant which provided them with their only means of religious revelation in the form of the drink banga.

    Sahdanag was generally prepared in the form of a heart shaped cookie, possibly indicating that the ancient Persians recognized the seed’s close relationship with health and vitality(Low, 1925; reprinted 1967).

    Sometime after the Persian Empire took control of the ancient world, the Jews adopted this Persian preparation of hemp seed and retained its name of Sahadanag, which is really not so surprising as like their Persian benefactors, the Hebrews already had a long and beneficial relationship with the useful plant, known to them as qaneh-bosm, (the root name for our cannabis). Immanuel Low also suggests that the formerly unidentified Hebrew word, Tzli’q, (Tzaddi, Lamed, Yod, Quoph), makes reference to a Jewish meal of roasted Hemp seeds that was popular into medieval times and was sold by Jews in European markets. (The first part of the name simply means roasted, the final Quoph, an abbreviation of q’aneh).

  1376. Chris Bennett on

    Cannabis is a pretty fragrant plant, no?

    Keneh means cane, and come from the IE root kann, as already discussed
    http://books.google.ca/books?id=m1UKpE4YEkEC&pg=PA474&dq=cannabis+kann&cd=2#v=onepage&q=cannabis%20kann&f=false

    Cannabis: the genus Cannabis? – Page 30
    David T. Brown – Science – 1998
    The species name Cannabis is stated by Bloomquist (1971) to mean “canelike”
    whilst the genus name “sativa” has the meaning “planted or sown”

    Cannabis (plant genus) — Britannica Online EncyclopediaBritannica online encyclopedia article on Cannabis (plant genus), plant genus … A tall, canelike variety is raised for the production of hemp fibre, …

    Cannabis sativa (Bhang)In Asia for instance, Cannabis Sativa also known as Indian hemp, is a tall cane like plant

    Cannabis fragrant references in books
    http://books.google.ca/books?cd=2&q=cannabis+fragrant

    Re: “calamus was grown throughout Palestine”

    Yes, calamus is indigenous to the area in and around Israel, where as “keneh bosem” was an item of trade, as I already noted 🙂 but those folks, like you, missed, see: Jeremiah 6:20, Ezekiel 27:19

    Try paying attention and keeping up 🙂

    Make Way For The Tree Of Life

  1377. Anonymous on

    “Calamus. This was a tall reed-like grass with hollow stems. The Hebrew term for this plant (Keneh bosem) means “reed of fragrance.” It is indeed a very sweet-smelling plant (Song 4:14).

    The oil extracted from this grass was an ingredient in the anointing oil of Exodus 30:23. The calamus was grown throughout Palestine.” http://www.angelfire.com/sc3/wedigmontana/Plantsp7.html

  1378. Anonymous on

    Yup, that’s exactly what it is in the Egyptian relief. Budge was right, it’s a giant wheat head. You can tell because the central part is solid, not a slender stem. That’s exactly what an ear of wheat looks like and wheat is what they made the bread with. Hemp seeds don’t make bread because they don’t contain any gluten. Case closed. And that’s the star Sirius over Seshat’s head.

    In this quote , “the main items…. for the rites are fine oil, water, honey, odorous plants (and) hemp [qunubu]”, that’s your translation. Everywhere else it reads Calamus.

  1379. Chris Bennett on

    Many plants and trees were used by the ancients, and DMT containing Acacia may have been one of them, I refer to te possibility of Ayahuasca like preperation via Acacia and Syrian Rue in Sex, Drugs, Violence and the Bible http://www.forbiddenfruitpublishing.com/SexDrugs/Book .

    But what evidence do you have that the Egyptians referred to this tree-image as the tree of Life, and that these images are associated with the Eden myth?

    Alternatively, a Mesopatamian influence on Genesis is well known
    http://meta-religion.com/World_Religions/Ancient_religions/Mesopotamia/genesis_and_enuma_elish_creation.htm#ixzz0d0sxWnKZ

    Getting back into the Garden of Eden? – Page 10
    Edward Conklin – Religion – 1998 – 154 pages
    Ea (Enki), earlier a serpent spirit, but here anthropomorphized as the … to be a land of primal innocence, very similar to the Hebrew Garden of Eden. …
    http://books.google.ca/books?id=jwddi0p4jQkC&pg=PA10&dq=Enki+Eden+serpent&cd=1#v=onepage&q=Enki%20Eden%20serpent&f=false

    This connection is particularly true of the popular Assyrian god known Enki, Ea, Oannes and Dagon, and his association with the kiskanu Tree, as discussed in Cannabis and the Soma Solution:

    The Men in the Fish costumes in numbers of the Assyrian tree of Life images are identified as priests of Oannes, a Babylonian deity developed out of the earlier Summerian God known variously as the ‘crafty’ god, Ea, Enki, Dagon, who is discussed at great length in, SEX, DRUGS, VIOLENCE AND THE BIBLE for his association with the Crafty Serpent in the Eden myth. A number of researchers have seen an identification of this God with Vishnu “…[C]learly Vishnu is connected to Enki, Dagon and Oannes…” (Twyman & Metzger, 2005). The view regarding the identity of Vishnu with Oannes has been held by different religious scholars for more than a century. In the VEDAS, Vishnu is the younger brother and Soma drinking companion of Indra, (RV.6.69). Under the name Ea, in his temple ‘the house of Apsu’ in Eridu “there was a notable tree, kiskanu, whose branches were used in ritual sprinklings…The incantation priest was the representative of Ea” (Ringgren 1973). The ancient texts record that the roots of the kiskanu reached into the abyss (apsu) and branches stretched to the heavens. Like Soma, the kiskanu tree held both sacramental and medicinal qualities. “The kiskanu-plant, according to tradition, grew in Eridu when the gods were nearer to mankind than in after days, and it was they who originally plucked it for medicinal use… and performed with it certain ceremonies…” (Thompson, 1903).

    …[T]he Sumerian name of the tree, kiskanu… serves as our connection between the Tree of Life and cannabis. The kiskanu tree “was the central point of various rites. A holy grove in the temple is…mentioned” (Ringgren 1973). The second part of the name of this notable tree, kis-kanu has phonetic similarities with the early names for cannabis, through the linguistic root an, “which is found in various cannabis related words” (Abel 1980); such as the ancient Sanskrit name for hemp kana, or kene, Persian canna, and of course the original Assyro-Babylonia name for hemp kannab, (later becoming qunubu). (Benetowa 1936). (Bennett & McQueen, 2001)

    Apparently it was quite prevalent as the ancient texts refer to the the “kiskanu, which ‘grows like a forest’ or ‘grove’” (Thompson, 1903). Referring to an incantation text regarding the kiskanu R. Campbell Thompson described:

    “This document… indicated to the magician, who was about to treat his afflicted patient, that a certain kind of plant or tree, the original which… grew in Eridu, and… contained magical qualities; and acting on this information the magician was directed to make use of a potion of the kiskanu plant or tree on behalf of the said patient. The text actually states the gods themselves made use of this plant to work a miracle of healing, and the implication is that the kiskanu plant was on this occasion of great benefit, it may again be made to perform the healing of a sufferer… provided that suitable words of power were recited… and appropriate ceremonies were performed, before the plant itself was used as a remedy. (Thompson, 1903)

  1380. Chris Bennett on

    Well the Sun, Moon and venus are all more important than the Bible in my cosmological view.

    “They may have used it as one ingredient but there’s nothing to suggest that it was required or anything.”

    Obviously you once again have shown your lack of reading skills.

    “In a letter written in 680 BC to the mother of the Assyrian king, Esarhaddon, reference is made to qu-nu-bu. In response to Esarhaddon’s mother’s question as to “What is used in the sacred rites”, a high priest named Neralsharrani responded that “the main items…. for the rites are fine oil, water, honey, odorous plants (and) hemp [qunubu].”

    Cannabis was one of the “main items” recquired for the “sacred rites”.

    “They may have used it as one ingredient but there’s nothing to suggest that it was required or anything. Doesn’t matter much in your case because you only claim allegiance to one modern day religion made up by two wackos. ”

    recognition of the Assyrian role of cannabis is part of COU religion: http://www.iamm.com/man-cu.htm

    My view is that there is a much greater Assyrian influence ont he Bible than Egyptian, Abraham came from the Summerian city of Ur after all.

    but regarding Egyptian images, here are some that look a lot like cannabis:
    http://www.recoveredscience.com/const288seshatluxor.htm
    http://www.recoveredscience.com/const201seshathempmath.htm

    and scroll up a page and check out the plants being harvested with a scythe (a hemp harvesting tool that takes its name from the hemp smoking and drinking and dealing scythians) in an Egyptian stele: http://books.google.ca/books?id=cP4dJfZrILMC&pg=PA252&dq=maat+plant+budge&cd=4#v=onepage&q=&f=false

    In Cannabis and the Soma Solution I comment on this image:
    Another possible source of Egyptian use of cannabis may be indicated in inscriptions regarding the Maat Plant, depicted in the lower parts of the following stele being tended by devotees and eyed by a waiting harvester with the traditional Scythian hemp harvesting tool the Scythe in hand. Generally this stele has been interpreted as identifying the activities of the dead in the after-world, but often such myths were acted out by devotees on the material plane, so indications of some sort of sacred rite involving earthly offerings of the Maat Plant cannot be easily dismissed.

    Fig 5: Egyptian Stela with the Soma like Maat Plant – scroll up one page http://books.google.ca/books?id=cP4dJfZrILMC&pg=PA252&dq=maat+plant+budge&cd=4#v=onepage&q=&f=false

    “The Egyptians associated the Maat plant with Osiris, as we see here from the scenes and texts which are here reproduced from the alabaster coffin of Seti I… In the middle register we see the wicked tied to the jackal headed standards… In the register below we see figures of men engaged in tending a plant… and one figure has a scythe, which indicates he was the reaper of the plant. In the register above we some men carrying on their heads a loaf, and others a feather, symbolic of Maat, the goddess of Truth. The former group of beings (Second Register) are the blessed whose ‘Kau (i.e. dispositions) have been washed clean,’ and who have been chosen by Osiris to live with him in the house of ‘holy souls’. The latter group of beings (Third Register) are the ‘labourers in the wheat field of the Tuat’ (i.e. Other World), and the plants they tended and reaped are said to be ‘the members of Osiris’. The plant was Osiris, and Osiris was the plant, and the blessed in eating ‘the bread of everlastingness’ which was made from the grain of the plant ate Osiris. But Osiris was Maat, i.e. Truth, therefore in eating the bread they ate Truth. In eating his body they became one with him and therefore eternal…” (Budge, 1925)

    Curiously, Budge interpreted the plant image in the lower part of the Egyptian stele, along with similar depiction in Mesopotamian art (Chapter 10, Fig 16) as a “colossal ear of wheat.” More likely it represents some other plant, one that was harvested with the Scythian tool the Scythe, one which held divine properties and an association with immortality as well as rites for the dead. In relation to this depiction and the suggestion that the Maat plant was prepared into some sort of sacramental loaf, the body of the lord Osiris, it is important to note that in Persia cannabis was also known by the name Sahdanag – Royal Grain; or King’s Grain, and was prepared in a number of confections (Low, 1926).

    In the account of the Maat Plant and its association with the dead, one is again reminded of the role of cannabis in Scythian funerary rites, as does the Eucharistic elements involving it invoke the mythology of the Soma and Haoma, the original Eucharistic sacrament. It should also be noted that Maat’s symbol was a green feather, and this symbolism has also been used to identify the Soma. “In RV X.89.5 the Soma is called simivat. In the context it should be translated as feathered, literally it means ‘like simi or sami’… The pinnate leaves of the sami… look like a feather…The feather in relation to the Soma-Plant is mentioned in RV IV.27.4” (Richter-Ushanas, 1997). As Homer Smith noted in MAN AND HIS GODS:

    Those who lived by the laws of Maat took a sacramental drink, comparable to the Hindus’ Soma or its Persian counterpart Haoma, which conferred ritual purity… Egyptian scribes writing in the third millenium B.C. wrote: “My inward parts have been washed in the liquor of Maat.” (Smith, 1952)

  1381. Anonymous on

    Actually, looking at that image from the Ramesium, I can see from the leaf structure that it’s an Acacia tree. Try this for your Soma, Chris;

    “As mentioned previously, Acacias contain a number of organic compounds that defend them from pests and grazing animals.[6] Many of these compounds are psychoactive in humans. The alkaloids found in Acacias include dimethyltryptamine (DMT), 5-methoxy-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) and N-methyltryptamine (NMT). The plant leaves, stems and/or roots are sometimes made into a brew together with some MAOI-containing plant and consumed orally for healing, ceremonial or religious uses. Egyptian mythology has associated the acacia tree with characteristics of the tree of life (see the article on the Myth of Osiris and Isis).”
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acacia

  1382. Anonymous on

    I’ll reply down here instead of continuing further up, so it’s easier to find. Maybe the Assyrians used Cannabis in their incense and religious rites, but then you’re not an adherent of Assyrian religious tenets, unless you worship the sun, moon and Venus. Yes we know that certain peoples from the Biblical lands used Cannabis for religious purposes or just for kicks but I don’t believe it was the ToL or that it was particularly important in those religions that did use it. They may have used it as one ingredient but there’s nothing to suggest that it was required or anything. Doesn’t matter much in your case because you only claim allegiance to one modern day religion made up by two wackos.

    I could make up a religion right now and call it the “I need to smoke weed to commune with my god” church. Then I could ask the Supreme Court to give me an exemption from Cannabis prohibition, please and thank you. After they stopped laughing, about 15 minutes later, they would say “no”. That’s exactly what’s going to happen to you when you try the same thing. I doubt if the fact that it was two convicted drug dealers who made up your religion instead of you yourself will have much influence on the judges rulings, other than negative.

    Now here’s a picture of the ToL as known to the Egyptians in Rameses time, and it doesn’t look a thing like Cannabis http://josephalmighty.multiply.com/journal/item/900

  1383. Chris Bennett on

    you might have a point if the case was based soley on a hypothesis regarding imagery, but it is not. The Biblical Tree of Life and the Assyrian tree of Life, are derived from the Avestan Haoma, and Vedic Soma, sacred names of cannabis.

    From Cannabis and the Soma Solution:
    http://www.cannabisculture.com/v2/content/big-bhang
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-r2mN1pl4Gg
    http://www.amazon.com/Cannabis-Soma-Solution-Chris-Bennett/dp/0984185801

    Lenormant referring to the “Soma plant of the Aryans of India and the Haoma of the Iranians…the celestial drink of immortality”, noted that “the sacred plant assumes a conventional decorative aspect which corresponds exactly with no type in nature… it is precisely this wholly conventional figure, borrowed by the Persians from Assyro-Babylonian art, which represents Haoma on the gems, cylinders or cones of Persian workmanship, engraved during the period of Achaemenidae” (Lenormant, et al., 1881).

    That Assyrian kings included in Assyrian images of the tree of life used cannabis sacramentally is a well established fact.

    Recipes for cannabis, qunubu, incense, regarded as copies of much older versions, were found in the cuneiform library of the legendary Assyrian king Assurbanipal (b. 685 – ca. 627 BC, reigned 669 – ca. 631 BC). Cannabis was not only sifted for incense like modern hashish, but the active properties were also extracted into oils. “Translating ‘Letters and Contracts, no.162’ (Keiser, 1921), qu-un-na-pu is noted among a list of spices (Scheil, 1921)(p. 13), and would be translated from French (EBR), ‘(qunnapu): oil of hemp; hashish’” (Russo, 2005).

    An ancient Babylonian inscription reads: “The glorious gods smell the incense, noble food of heaven; pure wine, which no hand has touched do they enjoy.” According to Mackenzie, in Babylonian religious rites, “inspiration was derived by burning incense, which, if we follow evidence obtained elsewhere, induced a prophetic trance. The gods were also invoked by incense” (Mackenzie, 1915). A view that was shared by even earlier researchers:

    The Chaldean Magus [Mesopotamian holy men of the Chaldean kingdom, circa 400-500 BC] used artificial means, intoxicating drugs for instance, in order to attain to [a] state of excitement acts of purification and mysterious rituals increased the power of the incantations Among these mysterious rituals must be counted the use of enchanted potions which undoubtedly contained drugs that were medically effective. (Lenormant 1874)

    Records from the time of Assurbanipal’s father Esarhaddon (reigned 681 – 669 BC) give clear evidence of the importance of such substances in Mesopotamia, as cannabis, ‘qunubu’ is listed as one of the main ingredients of the paramount ‘Sacred Rites’.

    In a letter written in 680 BC to the mother of the Assyrian king, Esarhaddon, reference is made to qu-nu-bu. In response to Esarhaddon’s mother’s question as to “What is used in the sacred rites”, a high priest named Neralsharrani responded that “the main items…. for the rites are fine oil, water, honey, odorous plants (and) hemp [qunubu].” Many of the Assyrian Tree of Life images depict these sacred rites. “It would indeed be extraordinary if a substance, [cannabis] the use of which was to have a considerable effect on the social and politico-religious development of the peoples of Asia acquainted with it, had not left many traces in the monuments left behind by thinkers of those days” (Bouquet, 1950).

    This situation left its most obvious mark on one of the last stories composed in the OLD TESTAMENT, the tale of the fabled and prohibited trees in Eden. Both the Tree of Life and the Tree of knowledge have long been associated with the Iranian Haoma and its Vedic counterpart the Soma. As scholar E.K. Bunsen pointed out as long ago as 1867:

    The records about the “Tree of Life” are the sublimest proofs of the unity and continuity of tradition, and of its Eastern tradition. The earliest records of the most ancient Oriental tradition refer to a “Tree of Life”, which was guarded by spirits. The juice of the sacred tree, like the tree itself, was called Soma in Sanskrit, and Haoma in Zend; it was revered as the life preserving essence. (Bunsen 1867)

    As also noted in THE LEGENDS OF THE OLD TESTAMENT by Thomas Lumisden Strange:

    The tree of life is traceable to the Persian Paradise. “The haoma is the first of the trees planted by Ahura Mazda in the fountain of life. He who drinks its juice never dies” (Muir, Sansk. Texts,II…)… The original is the Soma of the Hindus, early deified by them, the sap of which was the beverage of the gods, and when drank by mortals made them act like gods immortal…The Hebrews have exactly adopted the idea: “And Jahveh Elohim said, ‘Behold the man has become one of us to know good and evil; and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live forever: therefore Javeh Elohim sent him forth from the garden of Eden, … and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden cherubim, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life”…. (Strange, 1874)

    Joseph Campbell’s description of the mythical white Hom certainly brings to mind the tree of Life as well: “the…White Haoma Tree arose, which counteracts old age, revives the dead, and bestows immortality. At its roots Angra Mainyu [the Persian Devil] formed a lizard” (Campbell 1964). One can only speculate that the lizard lost his legs in this mythical transition and became the Biblical serpent. “The concept of the tree of life is found among many ancient people… In the Zoroastrian religion of the Persians the sacred tree was called haoma, which grew in a garden from which all the waters of the earth flowed (cf. Gen. 2:10)” (Gray, 1969).

    Like the Semetic adoption of the Indo European name of cannabis, ‘Kann’, as ‘keneh’, so to was the mythology of cannabis as the plant of immortality, Soma/Haoma adopted with it,via the tree of ife mythology.

    Make way for the Tree of Life!

  1384. Anonymous on

    Never read the book of revelation before, huh? I admit it was a novel idea, though a rather obvious one for someone to consider. Probably everyone else who considered it quickly realized the folly of that idea, because Cannabis Indica is not at all tree-like, being about 3 feet tall, and that’s the only kind that would have been growing in Biblical lands. Not one of the known images of the ToL actually portrays a Cannabis plant in an accurate way. You will, of course, say that’s because they wanted to keep its true identity secret. Now why would the Sumerians want to keep that secret? Also, that argument could be used to claim that any depiction of any plant actually depicts Cannabis, just in an altered way to protect its true identity. Look at any of the Sumerian depictions of it and you’ll see that the leafs have smooth edges and rounded tips. Granted they a similar number of leaflets but that’s not even an uncommon feature of plants. Lots of plants have leaves like that, such as the Japanese Maple, which actually has leaves identical to Cannabis. Since there is no compelling reason for the Sumerians to purposely alter the features of the ToL, it is quite clear that it is actually a mythical tree and not a real one. There simply is no real plant that could have a valid case made for its being the ToL. The ToL is not a real plant. It’s a metaphor for some religious idea. So face reality, Chris, and accept the fact that your great epiphany was, in fact, your brain on drugs.

  1385. Chris Bennett on

    One of the really fascinating things I learned when researching my new book Cannabis and the Soma Solution http://www.cannabisculture.com/v2/content/big-bhang http://www.amazon.com/Cannabis-Soma-Solution-Chris-Bennett/dp/0984185801 was the prominent role of cannabis laced wines in the ancient world, and the cannabis was clearly added to increase the effects of wine

    Immanuel Löw, referred to an ancient Jewish Passover recipe that called for wine to be mixed with ground up saffron and hasisat surur, which he saw as a “a kind of deck name for the resin the Cannabis sativa” (Low, 1924). Low suggests that this preparation was also made into a burnable and fragrant concoction by being combined with Saffron and Arabic Gum (Low, 1926\1967). Such preparations were also noted by the 19th century Biblical scholar John Kitto, and like the Hebrew references to cannabis, such concoctions went through periods of Hebraic free use and strict prohibition. “Woe to you who make your neighbors drink, who mix in your venom [i.e. drugs or herbs] even to make them drunk so as to look on their nakedness!” (Habakkuk 2:15).

    The palm wine of the East… is made intoxicating… by an admixture of stupefying ingredients, of which there was an abundance… Such a practice seems to have existed amongst the ancient Jews, and to have called down sever prohibition (comp. Prov xxii. 30; Isa. i.22; v. 11, 22…)” (Kitto, 1861)

    In relation to this it is interesting to note that the 19th century scholar John Kitto also put forth two different potential Hebrew word candidates for the origins of the term “hashish” in A CYCLOPAEDIA OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE. Kitto pointed to the Hebrew terms Shesh, which originates in reference to some sort of “fibre plant”, and the possibly related word, Eshishah (E-shesh-ah?) which holds a wide variety of somewhat contradictory translations such as “flagon” “sweet cakes”, “syrup”, and also interestingly for our study “unguent.” According to Kitto, this Eshishah was mixed with wine. “Hebrew eshishah… is by others called hashish…. this substance, in course of time, was converted into a medium of intoxication by means of drugs” (Kitto 1845: 1856). With the cognate pronunciation similarities found between the Hebrew Shesh and Eshishah one can only speculate on the possibility of two ancient Hebrew references to one plant that held both fibrous and intoxicating properties.

    In light of this it is interesting to note that “Some high biblical commentaries maintain that the gall and vinegar or myrrhed wine… was a preparation, in all probability, of hemp, which was… occasionally given to criminals before punishment or execution… it is possibly spoken of… by the prophet Amos as the ‘wine of the condemned’” (Simpson, et al. 1856).

    Another possibility for Ezra’s infusion might also be found in Biblical descriptions of “strong drink” (shekar): “An inebriating Potion described in the Old Testament; but distinct from Wine; probably a Soporific or visionary vinous infusion, analogous to ancient Greek Wines, of one or many Psychoactive plants” (Ott, 1995).

    … Like the ancient Greeks, the ancient Israelites did not know distillation technology, but possessed an inebriant other than wine, which apparently was more potent. Was the Biblical shekar, ‘strong drink,’ not an inebriating potion analogous to the ancient Greek wines, some of which were entheogenic potions? Down through history there are innumerable instances of the addition of psychoactive plants to wines and other alcoholic beverages. (Ott, 1993)

    ….it is interesting to note the nepenthe, a drug which the Egyptians were said to have used to ease the grieving of mourners for the dead. THE ODYSSEY OF HOMER (9th-8th century BC) describes the Nepenthes which came to the Greeks from Egyptian Thebes:

    Then Helen, daughter of Zeus… cast a drug into the wine whereof they drank, a drug to lull all pain and anger, and bring forgetfullness of every sorrow. Whoso should drink a draught thereof, when it is mingled in the bowl, on that day he would let no tear fall down his cheeks, not though his mother and his father died, not though men slew his brother or dear son with the sword before his face, and his own eyes beheld it. Medicines of such virtue and so helpful had the daughter of Zeus, which Polydamna, the wife of Thon, had given her, a woman of Egypt, where earth the grain-giver yields herbs in greatest plenty, many that are healing in the cup, and many baneful. There each man is a leech skilled beyond all human kind…

    The historian Diodorus Siculus, who lived in the 1st century B.C., noted that still in his time, more than 7 centuries after the composition of Homer’s ILIAD, “people say that the Egyptian women make use of the powder (of this plant, scil. the nepenthes) and they say from ancient times only those women who lived in the ‘Town-of-Zeus’ [i.e. Thebes, which was also known as Diospolis] had found medicines which cure wrath and grief” (1, 97, 1-9; Eus. PE 10, 8, 9-12; cf. also Ps.Iustinus, Cohort. ad gent. 26e).

    “It is generally assumed that the drug, which Helen is supposed to have learned in Egypt, was opium, but the effects as described in the poem are much more like Cannabis, which was also widely employed in Egypt and throughout the Near East” (Ruck, et al., 2007). Numerous researchers have seen nepenthe as a cannabis concoction. An idea first put forth by the French Pharmacist Joseph Virey (1775—1846) who suggested in 1813 that hasheesh was Homer’s nepenthe (Bulletin de Pharmacie). Many others have since concurred: “The opinions entertained by the learned, on the nature of the Nepenthe of the ancients have been various. By Th. Zwinger, and… by Sprengel, in his history of botany, it is supposed to be opium… But the best authorities, with whom our author coincides, are of opinion that the Nepenthe was derived from the Cannabis sativa of Linnaeus” (Christen, 1822); “the famous nepenthe of the ancients is said to have been prepared by decocting the hemp leaves” (Watt, 1853); “nepenthe which may reasonably be surmised was bhang from the far east” (Benjamin, 1880). As the authors of THE MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS also concluded: “Nepenthes… Perhaps the Bust or Hasheesh, a preparation of the Cannabis sativa” (Wilkinson & Birch, 1878). See also (Walton, 1938; Burton, 1894; Lewin, 1931; Singer and Underwood, 1962; Oursler, 1968; Wills, 1998). It is clearly the Nepenthe that Prof Richard Evans Schultes and Prof. Albert Hofmann are referring to when they wrote in a chapter on cannabis “In ancient Thebes the plant was made into a drink with opium like effects” (Schultes & Hofmann, 1979).

    ….As the Nepenthe was infused in wine, it is important to note that ancient Amphorae, clay wine vessels from an Egyptian site, from the time period in question, revealed evidence of cannabis. In the 2004 paper, POLLEN ANALYSIS OF THE CONTENTS OF EXCAVATED VESSELS—DIRECT ARCHAEOBOTANICAL EVIDENCE OF BEVERAGES, Manfred Rosch refers to vessels collected from a site in ?Saruma/Al-Kom Al-Ahmar in Middle Egypt on the Nile:

    At this place the Institute of Egyptology of the University of Tubingen is excavating a graveyard which was used from the 6th Dynasty until the Roman period… Here some wine amphorae were excavated, from the bottom of which we obtained samples of organic material for pollen analytical investigations…. The useful plants, Cerealia and Humulus/Cannabis were present. (Rosch, 2004)

    …Luigi Arata of the University of Genoa, in his essay NEPENTHES AND CANNABIS IN ANCIENT GREECE notes; “Given the connection made in medical tradition between the effects of cannabis and wine and taking into consideration that cannabis was used as a stupefacient by Scythians, as we have seen in Herodotus, we must suspect that ancient Greeks knew that cannabis could have neurological effects because they observed it. In fact, cannabis was firstly burnt or toasted and then reduced to powder in almost all medical receipts” (Arata, 2004).

    ….The Encyclopedic Jonathon Ott states that Dionysus is “erroneously regarded to be the god only of alcoholic inebriation owing to a misunderstanding of the natures of Greek Wines, potent infusions of numerous Psychoactive plants, in which the alcohol served as a preservative, rather than as inebriating principle, and which often required dilution to be drunk safely” (Ott,1995). “Dionysus actually possessed his followers, and Euripides’ Greek audience clearly equated this act with the use of mind-altering drugs” (Hillman, 2008).

    Dale Pendell wrote; “Dionysus’s home was usually assumed to be Thrace… whose shamans used hemp smoke to induce visions and oracular trances. Hemp probably came to Thrace through Central Asia and the Caucasus. A…similar route may have been followed by the grapevine…It is…possible that…Dionysus carried not only the vine but ganja as well” (Pendell 1995)

    Nawal Nasrallah, in ‘Annals of the caliphs’ kitchens: Ibn Sayy?r al-Warr?q’s tenth-century’ writes that “It is also significant that another offering to Dionysus was Indian hemp (qinnab Hindi)”(2007)

    Such infusions, believed to contain hemp, under the names “thalassaegle,” “potammaugis” and “gelotophyllis” were recorded by Democritus (c.a. 460 B.C.) (Walton, 1938). “Democritus’s famous recipe for a hemp wine is suitable for internal use: Macerate 1 teaspoon of myrrh… and a handful of hemp flowers in 1 litre of retsina or dry Greek white wine… strain before drinking.”(Ratsch, 2005) “The gelotophllis of Pliny… a plant drunk in wine among the Bactrians, which produced immoderate laughter, may very well be identical with hemp, which still grows willd in the country around the Caspian and Aral Seas” (Houtsma, et al., 1936/1993). Pliny (23-79 A.D.) quotes the following description from Democritus:

    Taken in drink it produces delirium, which presents to the fancy visions of a most extraordinary nature. The theangelis, he says, grows upon Mount Libanus in Syria, upon the chain of mountains called Dicte in Crete, and at Babylon and Susa in Persia. An infusion of it imparts powers of divination to the Magi. The geolotophyllis, is a plant found in Bactriana [i.e. BMAC] , and on the banks of the Borysthenes. Taken internally with myrhh and wine all sorts of visionary forms present themselves, excite the most immoderate laughter.

    Zoroastrian heroes were known to use cannabis laced wines for their visionary experiences

    E.J. BRILL’S FIRST ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF ISLAM 1913-1936, records; BENG, (Sanskr. bhanga, Avest. Banha, Pahl. bang, mang, hemp), strictly the name of various kinds of hemp” (Houtsma, et al., 1987). In reference to Zoroastrian expeditions into the world of the afterlife, Shaul Shaked noted that “The preparation of this journey was done… by administering to the officiant a dose of mang (hemp), mixed with wine” (Shaked, 1999). “Zoroaster is commonly said to have spiked the haoma with mang, which was probably hashish. It would have prolonged the intoxication and further stimulated the imagination of the drugged man. Of such are the wonders of Heaven” (Oliver, 1994). In the Zoroastrian tale “…the Artak Viraz Namak… Hell, Purgatory, and Heaven, the rewards bestowed on the good, and the punishment awaiting the sinner are here described in a vision induced by hashish” (Campbell, 2000). Referring to this same account, van Baaren and Hartman also noted the hero “imbibes an intoxicant composed of wine and hashish and after this his body sleeps for seven days and nights while his soul undertakes the journey” (van Baaren & Hartman,1980). 19th century author James Francis Katherinus also refers to the “enlightening prophet drug Bangha (Cannabis Indica), the Hashish by which the Zoroastrian priests were inspired” (Hewitt, 1901) This was also the view of Nyberg (1938), whose work we have discussed, and the German Iranist, Geo Widengren (1965), as well as more recent researchers:

    The Zend-Avesta, the holy book of Zoroastrianism, which survives in fragments, dating from around 600 BCE in Persia, alludes to the use of Banga in a medical context, identified as hemp. (Russo, 2005)

    This filtered into Islam:

    the pre-Islamic use of cannabis laced wines in Persia is well established. The 19th century work, THE HISTORY OF ANCIENT AND MODERN WINES by Dr. Henderson, indicates that such combinations continued in the Islamic world for some centuries: “The Jews and Armenians prepare wine on purpose for the Mahomedans, by adding lime, hemp, and other ingredients, to increase its pungency and strength; for the wine that soonest intoxicates is accounted best, and the lighter and delicate kinds are held in no estimation among the adherents of the Prophet” (Henderson, 1824). As Charles Dickens also noted:

    The best vineyards of Persia are situated in the mountainous districts that stretch from the Persian Gulf to the Caspian Sea. Sixty-five kinds of grape are grown there, its cultivation being abandoned to the Ghebers, the Armenians, and the Jews; for, though the Mohammedan part of the population drink wine without scruple, they assert that the infringement of the law of Islam consists in making the wine, not in drinking it—a convenient conclusion, which satisfies their consciences, and enables them to gratify their inclinations. Pure wine, however, is not for the topers of Ispahan and Teheran, the Jewish and Armenian dealers ministering to that fondness for narcotics which tend so greatly to enervate the East, by mixing myrrh, incense, and the juice of the Indian hemp with the finest growths. (Dickens, 1862)

  1386. Chris Bennett on

    Ironically, it was smoking a joint one night about 3am when i was working as a nightwachman in 1990, that I happened to come across an add for a sermon by Pat Robertson, where this evenagelical nutter was comparing the new Gulf War to Revelation 18: The Fall of Babylon, that caused me to pick up a Bible and read the Book of Revelation, resulting in a religious experience that led me to my last 20 years of research and activism.
    That experience is described here about 6:50 in:
    http://pot.tv/archive/shows/pottvshowse-3376.html

  1387. Anonymous on

    at least show bags hold real shoes…

  1388. Anonymous ( and proud ) on

    you ” successful and notable ” people are such snobs

  1389. Chris Bennett on

    The key words in your comments are “My guess is”, as that is all you have, your pathetic and mean spirited suspicions which you have turned into unbased accusations.

    As for “weasel”, that would be you. For who could be more of a weasle than a cowardly anonymous slanderer who attacks from the shadows? The whole affair is just appalling and clearly illustrates your true character. A petty anonymous shill and his cowardly anonymous attacks. Pathetic.

    You mean I think the old nobodaddy from the Bible is as real as Santa Claus. What did Santa bring you for Christmas stinky? The Bible has no copyright on God and the Bible was written by men. Gnostics have always known about this Lie.

    The tree of Life is pre-Biblical, and its mythical origins are identical with the Vedic Soma, and Avestan Haoma. The Tree of Life is also a Gnostic symbol.

    Gnostic scriptures give prophecies of the Tree’s eventual re-appearance, only they take this a step further, stating the location where the Tree of Life will one day be found; “And the tree of eternal life is as it appeared by God’s will, to the North of Paradise, so that it might make eternal the souls of the pure, who shall come forth from the modeled forms of poverty at the consummation of the age…..”(On the Origins of the World)”

    Interestingly, the ancient texts, although written in cryptic language, indicate that the authors may have foreseen the prohibition of their entheogenic sacraments and their future rediscovery as well. The tractate’s author Seth, indicates that before hiding the texts, and “placed it in the mountain that is called Charaxio, in order that, at the end of the times and eras” it would be rediscovered had the foreknowledge to do this after inhaling certain fumes: “Therefore the incense of life is in me…in order that I may live with thee in the peace of the saints, thou who existeth really truly for ever.” The reference to “the incense of life” and “the peace of the saints” is most interesting when compared to these two quotes, taken from the prophecies of Revelation: “incense… with the prayers of the saints”(Revelation 5:8; 8:3). As discussed earlier, this verse could well be a reference to cannabis incense, which had a long history concerning its prophetic powers in the area:

    “Do you think these rulers have any power over you? None can prevail against the root of truth…..the authorities cannot approach them because of the spirit of the truth present within them; and all who have become acquainted with this way will exist deathless in the midst of dying mankind. Still this sown element will not become known now.”(The Hypostasis of the Archons). The unfortunately fragmented ancient text prophesizes that the tyranny of Iladbaoth (Jehovah) and his followers (the Cathoic Church) would last “Until the moment when the true man, within a modeled form, reveals the existence of [missing words; possibly a further reference to the entheogens in light of the anointing reference that follows directly] truth, which the father has sent”:

    “Then he will teach them about everything: and he will anoint them with the unction of life eternal, given him from the undominated generation. Then they will be freed of blind thought: And they will trample underfoot death, which is of the authorities: And they will ascend into the limitless light ….”

    “Then the authorities will relinquish their ages: And their angels will weep over their destruction: And their demons will lament their death.”

    “Then all the children of the light will be truly acquainted with the truth and their root, and the father of the entirety and the holy spirit: They will all say with a single voice, ‘The father’s truth is just, and the son presides over the entirety’: And from everyone unto the ages of ages, ‘Holy – holy – holy! Amen!'(The Hypostasis of the Archons).

    Considering the Apocalyptic tone of this text, it is interesting to note that many scholars believe the New Testament’s apocalyptic conclusion the Book of Revelation, is in fact a Gnostic text that somehow made its way into the official cannon. In comparison both the Gnostic apocalyptic documents not only contain references of the end times and passages that could be interpreted as indicating the ingestion of entheogens, they also make reference to the rediscovery of a certain long forbidden tree. In both cases this is one of the key issues of the ancient prophecies. The Gnostic author’s reference to “the incense of life”, certainly brings to mind the symbol of the Tree of Life, as does the above The Hypostasis of the Archon’s “unction of life”. Additionally the oldest of the Gnostic sects, the pre-Christian Ophites, refer distinctly to their anointing oil as coming from the Tree of Life itself. Further, much like the eucharistic relationship of Shiva being bhang in India, and the ancient Soma\Haoma being both a plant and a god, elsewhere in Gnostic literature we find the spirit of Christ inhabiting both the mortal Jesus, whom it entered at his anointing, and this same Tree of Life. “For the Tree of Life is Christ. He is Wisdom…the Word…the Life, the Power, and the Door. He is the Light, the Angel, and the Good Shepherd”,(Teachings of Silvanus).

    The true vine, the plant of kindness, the incense of life, the unction of life, the anointing from the tree of life, the spirit of Christ as the Tree of Life, all point to evidence of a “Botanical Messiah” . An identity which is given an even more descriptive portrayal at the end of the Book of Revelation, with a reference to its “leaves… for the healing of the nations”(Revelation 22:2). It is the “healing” aspect, present in both the “holy oil” which contained the “plant of kindness”, and in the leaves of the Tree of Life, which further unites symbol and plant. A connection that aids us in identifying the early Christian use of hemp; for as we have documented, cannabis has been used from ancient times until the present as a valuable medicine and healing unguent.

  1390. Chris Bennett on

    Actually, there is not a thing this pathetic anonymous troll has said, that has not served as an oportunity for me to further explain my views and post my research. he is helping me.

    His attacks have gone from unfounded personal ones against me, to unfounded personal ones against people I know. He is a pathetic shadow puppet who protects himself by hiding in the darkness because he is afraid of the light of day.

    Pitty the poor weasel, the end of all he holds true is about to be flushed down the toilet. He is as scared as a descending turd in that toilet bowl.

  1391. Chris Bennett on

    The only fraud on here is you stinky, and all you have shown is how full of crap you are and what a coward you are as well, only attacking from the shadows. My case is obviously pushing you over the edge 😉

    Keep watching my completely legitimate Trial, cannabis is the Tree of Life, by God. 🙂

  1392. Anonymous on

    Good idea, because your replies usually only make matters worse for you. Better to keep your mouth shut so people don’t bring up the obvious fraudulent nature of your Charter challenge.

  1393. Anonymous on

    Yeah, rumors directly from the person he did it to. Him and Norm set up a sham grow supposedly for a compassion club. Only problem was that Norm had no connection whatsoever with the compassion club he claimed to want to supply. My guess is that this grow was supposed to supply Norm and David, only they were such fuck ups that they couldn’t produce anything but mold and if they did produce anything it was taken in one of the 10 robberies they had, no doubt set up by Norm to cut David out of his half. The whole affair is just appalling and clearly illustrates DML’s true character. It’s all about getting his face in the news or on CC and acting like he’s the white knight of Cannabis when in fact he’s a common low-life scammer and publicity hound. I think he really wants to be Marc Emery. Too bad that spot is already taken. Instead, he’s just a common weasel like Chris Bennet who pretends to believe in God to scam the Supreme Court out of a religious exemption when he really thinks God is as real as Santa Claus.

  1394. Presto Magnifico on

    Most of the plants used in ancient Ale and Wine was motivated by the desire to prevent spoilage. Before people realized Hop flowers kept beer from spoiling longer than other bitter herbs, and tasted much better, herbs like anise, rosemary, coriander, etc., were were used to make the beer last longer. coincidentally, many of these herbs are used to remedy upset stomach. So maybe they were trying to avert a hangover, too? Cannabis was among these pre-hop beverage longevity extenders. A primary example of Cannabis use in Beer can be seen in a beverage still made today in Switzerland called Hanfblute(I think there’s an umlaut on the u, but my keyboard doesn’t have that function.) Now scientists are discovering what the Swiss learned centuries ago: Cannabis has anti-bacterial properties. I doubt that the Hanfblute was used to achieve a ganja stone, because the good stuff would only have 5% alcohol to dissolve into. The history of seeking altered states is truly fascinating! Keep up the good work, Chris!

  1395. Chris Bennett on

    I have known DML for years and he did no such thing, nor did he collect any profits for such a thing. At worst, DML is sometimes a poor judge of character and his eagerness to help an old friend Norm, back fired terribly. DML is not the ripp-off type and he never has been. You, on the other hand, are the worst sort of slanderer, a coward who attacks on the basis of rumours from a point of anonymity. How pathetic is that?

    Dave will be out in a month 🙂

    Come and check out his fabulous Herb Museum, should be open this spring.

  1396. Chris Bennett on

    Well, in comparison to you, that would be a resounding Yes.

    Getting my autograph would require you to have the guts to come out of the shadows, which you don’t have…. so no.

  1397. Anonymous on

    “…in exchange for Bob Denver and Paris (who like me, are much more succesful and notable beings than a sad and angry nobody like you!)..”

    wow so you are successful _and notable
    can I have your autograph?

  1398. Chris Bennett on

    “What we do find amusing”

    Ah, we? you are a lone looser who is even afraid to use is own name, you are a complete Nobody.

    OK how about, Jesus, Moses, Solomon, Zoroaster, Dante and Shakespear in exchange for Bob Denver and Paris (who like me, are much more succesful and notable beings than a sad and angry nobody like you!)

    Hitler and Nixon didn’t like the weed either Mr. Anonymous, just like you 😉

    “Are you familiar with it? Seems all your friends are all on it”

    Yes, unlike you, I have friends. you must be very lonely and unhappy, no wonder you are on here spreading your hate so much. Lol.

    If a personality like yours is the result of a THC-free diet, then we have all been given a divine edict to smoke more weed by your poor example. Toke thy neighbor 🙂

  1399. Anonymous on

    How do you prosecute a person who helps somebody convince a naive disabled woman to lend him a bunch of money? Unlikely she required a contract, being that she was dumb enough to let the con man move in with her and have sex with her. There was no prosecutable case, judging from her blog, so DML and his partner in crime skated. The very noble DML would later run a dope convenience store and make thousands of dollars. Did DML take the first $20,000 in profits and give it back to that woman? Hell no, he threw it away instead. Selfish cunt. Oh well, it looks like karma works after all cuz look where DML is now. Too bad they didn’t give him a real sentence instead of that invitation to do it again.

  1400. Chris Bennett on

    on DML, More unfounded bullshit. Where are the court records of DML’s prosecution on that? I suppose if you are going to slander folks, doing it anonymously offers some protection, even if it is totally chickenshit. Right mr. anonymous?

    I think that you are that obsessed weenie from the cannabisculturecult.com site. it must be frustrating for you watching us all have so much fun over the years, when you have all the time been waiting for the hammer to fall.

    Even if marc goes to jail, as States like California and Colorado, Marc is destined to become a folk hero, the stuff of song and legends, and you…. well you can continue on with your pathetic, ineffective, useless, bitter, friendless and anonymous life, and no one will care then as no one cares now. 🙂

    You obviously know little about the Gnostic religion.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gnosticism

    In Gnosticism Jehova is a demiurge, tyrannical God who is not real but a construct or illusion of the human mind.

    With the COU and this case, Gnosticism is back.

    Make Way For The Tree Of Life. Have a nice Apocalypse.

  1401. Anonymous on

    Nobody doubts the accuracy of Ms Hilton using non medical cannabis there Chris.You are sound as you have ever been on that one. She is as significant pothead rebel as you are you, thats a basic truth.

    What we do find amusing and puzzling is the fact that you present her and dozens of other culture lightweights as your A team of pothead significants..
    THAT IS YOUR EVIDENCE? – WHEW– ! lame or what? Ohh and of course you offer famous American actor Bob Denver = star of Gilligans island..as another THC warrior..

    We are sure that if you asked each and every one of them, they would admit to passing wind..loudly..more freqquently than gettong stoned,, so is there a relation between flatulance and human excellence? Using your Hollywood methodology we could say “YES” This will appeal to your online fascination with poop and farting metaphores. Great scholarly work those Chris, real Supreme Court level arguments. BRAVO

    So what really so your point with this list of might have tried pot Hollywood Squares players?

    We can direct you to a much larger, much more comprehensive list of people who are complete assholes who focus way too much of their time on getting high on pot.. its called …the police arrest blotter. Are you familiar with it? Seems all your friends are all on it

  1402. Anonymous on

    Thanks for confirming my suspicions that the brothers are indeed quite insane. Wow, you actually admire those guys? So your thing is to cherry pick certain parts of the Bible and act as if they are the truth when they support your position while at the same exhibiting utter contempt for the notion of a god who talks to men, which is the whole basis of the Bible and the Judeo-Christian/Islamic religions. You’re almost as smarmy as that DML guy, the one who helped Norman Caouette con a disabled woman out of $20,000 http://cannabisculturecult.blogspot.com/

  1403. Chris Bennett on

    i believe Paris Hilton smoked pot, so my methodology is sound. I probably wouldn’t have listed her with those other folks, but as you really have a thing for her, it all worked out. Otherwise what would you have to harp about?

  1404. Anonymous on

    just checking
    says a lot about your methodology

  1405. Chris Bennett on

    Well we know where your eyes are at you lusty old turd.

    That was not a list I composed, but you missed other entries like Victor Hugo, Alexander Dumas, Francois Rabelais and others notable historic figures, not to mention all the really great rock and jazz stars. But then as your stinky posts show, you only see what you want to see and ignore the rest.

    Keep focussing on cartoon trivia, everyone needs a hobby, and you obviously know what you are good at

    Keep watching 🙂

  1406. Chris Bennett on

    …. now break open your stash, grind some good herb, grab a paper, twist and roll, hold the j to your lips, light a match, and calm down. 🙂

  1407. Chris Bennett on

    believing in a god doesn’t mean believing in the Bible. The COU is more of a Gnostic group than a christian one.

    To quote the good Brothers Walter and Michael

    “All scripture is not given via inspiration from god even though everyone who writes and wants us to believe it is says so. Whose God? Neither the Jews or the Christians believe either “Has the God” and its their stupid “Book”.

    “Cesar wrote the bible. It is meant to control us. We are not sinners. I do not believe Jesus or God would dump this shit upon mankind. The God of the Jews like the God of the Christians is not “The God” nor would Jesus think so, or so I believe .”

    “Much of the word in the Bible which is Hebrew for “Book” is right on, don’t get me wrong, I am Jesus Brother, Sister and Mother. Even the Romans could not completely wipe out the real message of my God for me. One has to remember that even the apostles did not understand what Jesus was saying.”

    RE “I said that if Moses SAID that God told him to put dope in the holy oil that it would have caused a controversy.”

    The Burning Bush told Moses to put keneh bosem in the anointing oil. Why would there have been controversy, your prejudices against the most useful plant in the world did not exist at that time in antiquity (The Genesis myth was written long after Moses’ alleged time). The controversy did come though, but much later, Jeremiah 6:20, through control freaks like you.

    The Golden rule is not to harm others.

    Go ahead and run to the Judge, my religious view is based on no single book, bu it is rather the natural perenial religion that predates all organized religions.

    :p

    The Tree of Life appears at the end of the Bible and its appearance now is symbolizes the end of the era of the Good Book.

    Make Way For the Tree of Life

  1408. Anonymous on

    LOOK UP THE WORD; “SUBJECT” That what you are ? You dont have any right when you are protey of the queen ?? You best move you think like your in a free republic, which you are NOT!! you are a slave of the crown!! NOW, act like a good slave a shut the fuck up!!

  1409. Chris Bennett on

    Sorry little fella, did I hurt your feelings?

    A fraud, no I am a real person with real sincere beliefs. What are you? besides being a troll?

  1410. Anonymous on

    You’re a fraud, Bennet. You know very well that the CotU is not a real God worshiping church at all, but merely a front for dope dealing. Now you’re using it as a front for pretending to be a religious man so you can smoke dope with no legal consequences. The judges will see right through your amateurish ploy and send you on your way. Then, Mr. Bennet, maybe you won’t be quite so offensive on here, calling people trolls and shit.

  1411. Anonymous on

    Chris Bennet said;

    “Re:”If Moses had of said that God commanded an intoxicating plant to be used in the holy oil the people would have asked why God wanted that in there.”

    Right, you are saying Moses was actually talking to God, like a Man talks to a Man. Do you believe in Santa Clause?

    Re: “I’m inclined to believe that the ingredient used in the anointing oil really was Calamus, after reading the post about it being used in Egyptian and Sumerian holy incenses.”

    Yes and you believe in discarnate talking being as well :)”

    I didn’t say that a man can talk to God, I said that if Moses SAID that God told him to put dope in the holy oil that it would have caused a controversy. Interesting, though, that you were so eager to poo-poo the notion of God, considering this quote from the CotU website; http://www.iamm.com/faq.htm#Membership

    “The only pre-requisite to becoming a member is a belief in God and adherence to the
    Word of God and to the Golden Rules.”

    Nice to see that you have dropped the pretense of wanting to use Cannabis for religious purposes, since you are clearly an atheist. Maybe the Supreme Court judges would like to read your comments.

  1412. Chris Bennett on

    You mean the Philosopher’s Stone?

    Yes Cannabis was that as well 🙂

    http://www.alchemylab.com/cannabis_stone1.htm

    Thanx for pointing that out! Your help does not come unheeded or unapreciated. Keep up the good work.

  1413. Anonymous on

    “…its amazing how that Jesus cannabis meme has spread around the planet, eh?..”
    yes it is, thanks to the internet, and the fact that nothing is filtered every vague piece of brain waste can be all over the planet in the exact same measure..

    BTW
    it was brilliant argument firepower that you cited
    _PARIS HILTON_ as an example of your galaxy of super evolved pot supercharged uber humans to validate your claim..
    …………… BRAVO
    and other blonde bimbo stars of pop culture with big boobs–
    ……………BRAVO
    wow maybe JOSIE & the PUSSYCATS was written by people high on Pot,, maybe that has been hidden from us by the prohibitionists then what?
    meme that one on Google oh $3000.00 WitchDoctor warrior

  1414. Chris Bennett on

    Re: “I haven’t seen anything yet that would be convincing to a judge.”

    well you are not a judge, but an anonymous internet troll.

    Re:”If Moses had of said that God commanded an intoxicating plant to be used in the holy oil the people would have asked why God wanted that in there.”

    Right, you are saying Moses was actually talking to God, like a Man talks to a Man. Do you believe in Santa Clause? I am saying Moses went into the Tent of the Meeting, covered himself in a potent cannabis oil, poured some of the flamable oil on tha altar of incense and “spoke” to the Lord in the pillar of smoke over the incense altar, ie like shamans the world over and trough history Moses interpreted the psychoactive state produced through a plant, as a means of recieving divine insights. You are the one who is suggesting the existence of non-corporeal beings.

    Re: “The words used in the Bible simply mean fragrant cane, as you know”

    As i already explained to you, cannabsi and cane come from the same identical root. The Origins of English Words: A Discursive Dictionary of Indo-European Roots By Joseph Twadell Shipley (cannabis and cane both derive from Indo European “kann”)
    http://books.google.ca/books?id=m1UKpE4YEkEC&pg=PA474&dq=cannabis+cane+indo+european&as_brr=3&cd=2#v=onepage&q=&f=false

    “As you see there, a cane is a type of plant that grows in wet soils, much like Calamus does and like Cannabis does not. The Jews wouldn’t even have referred to Cannabis as cane. I don’t know what name they would have used but I doubt fragrant cane would have been it. The case for Calamus is actually much stronger than for Cannabis.”

    Calamus was a common marsh root, kaneh was a precious item that was imported. In both the Jeremiah 6:20 and Ezekiel 27:19 keneh is clearly desctibed as an item of import. (“Danites and Greeks from Uzal bought your merchandise; they exchanged wrought iron, cassia and q’aneh [cannabis] for your wares.” Ezekiel 27:19) and also condemned as coming from from a foreign land, (“What do I care about incense from Sheba or sweet q’aneh [cannabis] from a distant land? Your burnt offerings are not acceptable; your sacrifices do not please me” Jeremiah 6:20). It should be noted that “sweet” in the Jeremiah reference, is derived from the Hebrew term “towb”, which, according to Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, also has connotations of “good, a good thing, cheerful, fine, kind, merry, pleasant, precious favoured”, and by no means necessarily refers to taste, making for the translation of “sugar-cane” in some modern Bibles and an unexplained an assumption that somehow sugar-cane was rejected by Yahweh, and an ingredient in Biblical incense. The indications from the Jeremiah reference also indicate the use of hemp in incenses. It should also be noted that these references when put into the context of the Biblical storyline, indicate that this foreign association with the plant may in fact have been the cause of its disfavour amongst the ancient Hebrews. Certain researchers, who claim the designation of ‘calamus’ as keneh bosem stands correct, have failed to note this situation, which excludes ‘calamus’ by the fact that it was a common marsh root in the area, not a precious item of trade. The term also has some similarities with the contemporary Assyrian term qunubu as well as identical uses in both groups.

    Re: “I’m inclined to believe that the ingredient used in the anointing oil really was Calamus, after reading the post about it being used in Egyptian and Sumerian holy incenses.”

    Yes and you believe in discarnate talking being as well 🙂

    What references to Egyptian and Sumerian clamaus incenses are you refering to? And cite ancient sources.

    From Cannabis and the Soma Solution

    The following passage regarding Assyrian application of topical cannabis is very interesting when compared alongside the use of the cannabis infused “Holy Oil” for similar purposes amongst ancient Hebrew figures, as will be discussed in Chapter 16. “An Assyrian medical tablet from the Louvre collection (AO 7760)(Labat, 1950)(3,10,16) was transliterated as follows…, ‘ana min sammastabbariru sama-zal-la samtar-mus.’ Translating the French [EBR], we obtain, ‘So that god of man and man should be in good rapport: – with hellebore, cannabis and lupine you will rub him’” (Russo 2005).

    In THE CULTS OF URUK AND BABYLON, Marc Linssen notes another cultic use of cannabis, “some of the known aromatics, such as … qunnabu… are mentioned in the… Kettledrum ritual text TU 44, IV, 5ff…. In the list of ingredients for this rite 10 shekel qunnabu- aromatics” (Linssen, 2004). From the ancient inscription, it would seem this was a guarded secret of the Priests involved:

    You will make a libation of first quality beer, wine and milk. With censer and torch you will consecrate (the kettledrum). You will lead the Kettledrum before the gods… The ritual procedure you perform, only the novice may see (it); an outsider, someone who is not responsible for the rites may not see (it) (because if this happens) his days will be short. The one who is competent may show (the tablet only) to one who is (also) competent; he who is not competent may not see (it). Taboo of Anu, Enlil and Ea, the great gods.

    Recipes for cannabis, qunubu, incense, regarded as copies of much older versions, were found in the cuneiform library of the legendary Assyrian king Assurbanipal (b. 685 – ca. 627 BC, reigned 669 – ca. 631 BC). Cannabis was not only sifted for incense like modern hashish, but the active properties were also extracted into oils. “Translating ‘Letters and Contracts, no.162’ (Keiser, 1921), qu-un-na-pu is noted among a list of spices (Scheil, 1921)(p. 13), and would be translated from French (EBR), ‘(qunnapu): oil of hemp; hashish’” (Russo, 2005).

    An ancient Babylonian inscription reads: “The glorious gods smell the incense, noble food of heaven; pure wine, which no hand has touched do they enjoy.” According to Mackenzie, in Babylonian religious rites, “inspiration was derived by burning incense, which, if we follow evidence obtained elsewhere, induced a prophetic trance. The gods were also invoked by incense” (Mackenzie, 1915). A view that was shared by even earlier researchers:

    The Chaldean Magus [Mesopotamian holy men of the Chaldean kingdom, circa 400-500 BC] used artificial means, intoxicating drugs for instance, in order to attain to [a] state of excitement acts of purification and mysterious rituals increased the power of the incantations Among these mysterious rituals must be counted the use of enchanted potions which undoubtedly contained drugs that were medically effective. (Lenormant 1874)

    Records from the time of Assurbanipal’s father Esarhaddon (reigned 681 – 669 BC) give clear evidence of the importance of such substances in Mesopotamia, as cannabis, ‘qunubu’ is listed as one of the main ingredients of the paramount ‘Sacred Rites’.

    In a letter written in 680 BC to the mother of the Assyrian king, Esarhaddon, reference is made to qu-nu-bu. In response to Esarhaddon’s mother’s question as to “What is used in the sacred rites”, a high priest named Neralsharrani responded that “the main items…. for the rites are fine oil, water, honey, odorous plants (and) hemp [qunubu].”

    Egyptian

    Catherine Graindorge mentions cannabis in a funerary offering: “some Theban tombs mention an offering of… plants to the deceased… [including] smsmt [shemsemet, cannabis]… According to the tomb of Neferhotep… the smsmt-plant was created by Re” (Graindorge, 1992). Unfortunately it is unclear as to what the nature of this offering was (fiber?, food?, incense?, Beverage?), but apparently it occurred during “certain activities concerned with private funerary worship”, where “the priests of the ka, or the family of the Theban deceased, make libations and fumigations in the chapel of the tombs” (Graindorge, 1992). A situation which certainly brings to mind the Scythian Funerary rites and fumigations with burning hemp referred to earlier.
    Kyphi, the Scent ‘Welcome to the Gods’

    Fig 3: Offering Incense
    Some sources have suggested that cannabis was an ingredient in the ancient incense and perfume of the Pharaohs, known as kyphi. Kyphi was used as an offering to the Gods. As the sun set, Egyptian worshippers would burn this fragrant mind altering preparation to the Sun God RA (who created cannabis) praying for his return the following morning. Indicating the medical qualities of it’s ingredients, Kyphi was applied on the skin to heal wounds. It was also considered to be a potent relaxant and an aphrodisiac. Unlike the ointments of the Assyrians, the Kyphi was a rather solid and wax like concoction. A cone of kyphi was placed on the top of the head, and as the hot Egyptian Sun and body temperature of the devotee warmed it, the potent ingredients of the preparation would slowly melt and drip down off the head and onto the body.

    Researchers have suggested more than 50 natural ingredients for making the Kyphi, the most popular probably being: Aloeswood, Benzoin, Cannabis Resin, Cardamom Seeds, Cassia, Cedar, Cinnamon, Copal, Frankincense, Galangal Root, Ginger, Honey, Juniper, Lemongrass, Mastic, Mint, Myrrh, Orris, Pistachio, Raisins, Red Wine, Rose Petals, Saffron, Sandalwood, Storax Balsam. Archeologist Joel Zias, who has found evidence of the use of psychoactive substances at sites of ancient Near Eastern cultures, notes that “the Egyptians wrote a lot about medicine however the formula is always a bit of this a bit of that etc., therefore one can never know the exact method of replicating it. Hash was very common as was opium” (Zias, 2005).

    Writing in 1920, the Occultist Oliver Bland, after naming many of the suggested ingredients of the Kyphi and demonstrating some knowledge of its preparation, put forth the following unverified, but interesting, etymological suggestion:

    The clue to the secret of the ancient incense lies not in what we have been able to recover from the papayri, but in the word itself. Kyphi is recognizable to-day in “keef,” the popular name for the smokeable variety of the herb Cannabis Indica or Indian Hemp.

    Cannabis Indica is none other than our friend hashish…. It is not after all, a far cry from the mysteries of Osiris, in Egypt…. Osiris… “died” annually, and mimicry of the symbolic event was the basis of all ritual. In the mysteries the initiate “died,” too: but the death was no mere formula, but an actually induced state of stupor or deep trance brought about by the fumes of keef. (Bland, 1920)

    More recently, a European news story reported on the efforts of a well known perfume company to recreate the Ancient Kyphi: ANANOVA, Monday, 7th October, 2002, ‘Scientists recreate the perfume of the pharaohs.’

    Scientists in France say they have recreated the perfume of the pharaohs which they believe was used by the ancient Egyptians to boost their love-lives.

    But as the ingredients of Kyphi perfume, said to be an aphrodisiac which helps wearers relax, include cannabis it cannot be commercially produced.

    Experts from L’Oreal and C2RMF, the Centre for Research and Restoration of French Museums, succeeded in recreating the legendary Kyphi perfume.

    French researcher Sandrine Videault, who for years had attempted to recreate the aroma, was finally able to do so with the help of Greek historiographer Plutarch.

    The Greek writer had written that Kyphi had the power “to send someone to sleep, to help them have sweet dreams, to relax them, to drive away the worries of the day and to bring peace.”

    The numerous ingredients include pistachios, mint, cinnamon, incense, juniper and myrrh.

    Videault says all previous attempts to use traces of the perfume found in Egyptian museums had failed because not enough was provided for analysis.

    The expert says the recreation of the aroma is a long process because there are many different recipes for it: “In some samples only ten ingredients are used, in others up to 50,” she said.

    According to written documents, the perfume, which came in block form and unlike modern-day scents was not alcohol based, was worn by ancient Egyptians in their hair and in intimate places to boost their sex lives.

    But Videault said: “Kyphi will never be sold because some of the ingredients are illegal substances. In any case the smell is probably much too pungent for the modern world.”

    The Nepenthe

    In relation to the above references to hemp in funerary rituals, it is interesting to note the nepenthe, a drug which the Egyptians were said to have used to ease the grieving of mourners for the dead. THE ODYSSEY OF HOMER (9th-8th century BC) describes the Nepenthes which came to the Greeks from Egyptian Thebes:

    Then Helen, daughter of Zeus… cast a drug into the wine whereof they drank, a drug to lull all pain and anger, and bring forgetfullness of every sorrow. Whoso should drink a draught thereof, when it is mingled in the bowl, on that day he would let no tear fall down his cheeks, not though his mother and his father died, not though men slew his brother or dear son with the sword before his face, and his own eyes beheld it. Medicines of such virtue and so helpful had the daughter of Zeus, which Polydamna, the wife of Thon, had given her, a woman of Egypt, where earth the grain-giver yields herbs in greatest plenty, many that are healing in the cup, and many baneful. There each man is a leech skilled beyond all human kind…

    The historian Diodorus Siculus, who lived in the 1st century B.C., noted that still in his time, more than 7 centuries after the composition of Homer’s ILIAD, “people say that the Egyptian women make use of the powder (of this plant, scil. the nepenthes) and they say from ancient times only those women who lived in the ‘Town-of-Zeus’ [i.e. Thebes, which was also known as Diospolis] had found medicines which cure wrath and grief” (1, 97, 1-9; Eus. PE 10, 8, 9-12; cf. also Ps.Iustinus, Cohort. ad gent. 26e).

    “It is generally assumed that the drug, which Helen is supposed to have learned in Egypt, was opium, but the effects as described in the poem are much more like Cannabis, which was also widely employed in Egypt and throughout the Near East” (Ruck, et al., 2007). Numerous researchers have seen nepenthe as a cannabis concoction. An idea first put forth by the French Pharmacist Joseph Virey (1775—1846) who suggested in 1813 that hasheesh was Homer’s nepenthe (Bulletin de Pharmacie). Many others have since concurred: “The opinions entertained by the learned, on the nature of the Nepenthe of the ancients have been various. By Th. Zwinger, and… by Sprengel, in his history of botany, it is supposed to be opium… But the best authorities, with whom our author coincides, are of opinion that the Nepenthe was derived from the Cannabis sativa of Linnaeus” (Christen, 1822); “the famous nepenthe of the ancients is said to have been prepared by decocting the hemp leaves” (Watt, 1853); “nepenthe which may reasonably be surmised was bhang from the far east” (Benjamin, 1880). As the authors of THE MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS also concluded: “Nepenthes… Perhaps the Bust or Hasheesh, a preparation of the Cannabis sativa” (Wilkinson & Birch, 1878). See also (Walton, 1938; Burton, 1894; Lewin, 1931; Singer and Underwood, 1962; Oursler, 1968; Wills, 1998). It is clearly the Nepenthe that Prof Richard Evans Schultes and Prof. Albert Hofmann are referring to when they wrote in a chapter on cannabis “In ancient Thebes the plant was made into a drink with opium like effects” (Schultes & Hofmann, 1979).

    In A GLOSSARY OF COLLOQUIAL ANGLO-INDIAN WORDS AND PHRASES, Yule and Crooke note an interesting connection between a Coptic (Greek-Egyptian) term and the nepenthe; “Bhang is usually derived from Skt. Bhanga, ‘breaking,’ but [Sir Richard] Burton derives both it and the Ar. Banj from the old Coptic Nibanj, ‘meaning a preparation of hemp; and here it is easy to recognize the Homeric Nepenthe’ ” (Yule, et al., 1903/1996). As Abram Smythe Palmer also notes in FOLK-ETYMOLOGY: “NEPENTHE, the drug which Helen brought from Egypt, is without doubt the Coptic nibendj, which is the plural of bendj, or benj, hemp, ‘bang,’ used as an intoxicant” (Palmer, 1882). When one returns to the contemporary Avestan term for cannabis, b’a?’ha, the similarity in this context, ne- b’a?’ha, brings us to an even closer to the cognate pronunciation ‘nepenthe.’

    One can also note a similarity to the Indian term ‘panga,’ which refers to a paste made from pounded cannabis leaves mixed with water (Watt, 1908). (It should be noted that by the time the pyramids were built, there had already been large cities in India’s Mohenjodaran-Harappan in India, [geographically close to Mesopotamia and Scythian southwest Asia], for some centuries). The Hebrew term ‘pannag,’ which Dr. Raphael Mechoulam believes identifies a preparation of cannabis (Mechoulam, et al., 1991) is also similiar. Interestingly, as nepenthe was a powder it is notable that both of these terms are believed to identify prepared forms of cannabis as well.

    As the Nepenthe was infused in wine, it is important to note that ancient Amphorae, clay wine vessels from an Egyptian site, from the time period in question, revealed evidence of cannabis. In the 2004 paper, POLLEN ANALYSIS OF THE CONTENTS OF EXCAVATED VESSELS—DIRECT ARCHAEOBOTANICAL EVIDENCE OF BEVERAGES, Manfred Rosch refers to vessels collected from a site in ?Saruma/Al-Kom Al-Ahmar in Middle Egypt on the Nile:

    At this place the Institute of Egyptology of the University of Tubingen is excavating a graveyard which was used from the 6th Dynasty until the Roman period… Here some wine amphorae were excavated, from the bottom of which we obtained samples of organic material for pollen analytical investigations…. The useful plants, Cerealia and Humulus/Cannabis were present. (Rosch, 2004)

    Fig 4: Coptic wine amphora from ?Saruma. Scale size 70 cm.. Broken bottoms of Coptic amphorae from ?Saruma, showing black organic residues inside containing pollen. Scale size 20 cm. (Photos: B. Huber)

    Re “If you’re lucky, there might not be a van outside the court waiting to take you to Bellevue.”

    Sure i will, and I suppose you think they will send these 3 professors who read my books and wrote affidavits for the case with me.
    http://www.cannabisculture.com/v2/node/20392

  1415. Chris Bennett on

    Well then, with my tax money, you are helping my side, as your criticims only serve as a bouncing board to further establish my view.

    Chill out, the Bible is only a book 😉
    and you are only a nobody.

  1416. Chris Bennett on

    yuck, what’s that smell? Another unclaimed fart from some anonymous ass.

    Unlike you, I provide actual references from noted scholars and academics, you just have your pathetic unbacked up criticisms, that considering your own anonymity, really add up to one stinky pile of anonymous poop. its amazing how that Jesus cannabis meme has spread around the planet, eh?

    http://www.google.ca/search?q=bennett%20jesus%20cannabis&hl=en&ned=ca&sugg=d&sa=N&tab=nw

    http://news.google.ca/archivesearch?q=bennett+jesus+cannabis&hl=en&ned=ca&scoring=a

    All these references to cannabis – keneh bosem came out long before I even knew about this or wrote about it.

    One of Anthropologist Sula Benet’s, original articles regarding the keneh bosem theory http://books.google.ca/books?id=CBXxnaGk0hwC&pg=PA40&dq=exodus+30:23+can

    As Sula Benet herself notes: “In the original Hebrew text of the Old Testament there are references to hemp, both as incense, which was an integral part of religious celebration, and as an intoxicant” (Benet 1975: 1936). Through comparative etymological study, Benet documented that in the Old Testament and in its Aramaic translation, the Targum Onculos, hemp is referred to as keneh bosem (variously translated as kaneh bosem, kaniebosm, q’neh bosm ) and is also rendered in traditional Hebrew as kannabos or kannabus. The root “kana” in this construction means “cane~reed” or “hemp”, while “bosm” means “aromatic”. This word appeared in Exodus 30:23, whereas in the Song of Songs 4:14, Isaiah 43:24, Jeremiah 6:20, Ezekiel 27:19 the term keneh (or q’aneh) is used without the adjunct bosem.

    Anthropologist Vera Rubin (Jewish, so she knows the language) http://www.thereedfoundation.org/rism/Rubin.html
    Vera Rubin noted, that cannabis “appears in the OLD TESTAMENT because of the ritual and sacred aspect of it” (Rubin 1978).

    The German researcher Immanuel Low, in his DIE FLORA DER JUDEN (1926\1967) identified a number of ancient Hebrew references to cannabis, here as an incense, food source, as well as cloth, noting the keneh, and keneh bosem references amongst others in this regard, independent of Benet . Interestingly, Immanuel Löw, referred to an ancient Jewish Passover recipe that called for wine to be mixed with ground up saffron and hasisat surur, which he saw as a “a kind of deck name for the resin the Cannabis sativa” (Low, 1924). Low suggests that this preparation was also made into a burnable and fragrant concoction by being combined with Saffron and Arabic Gum (Low, 1926\1967).

    In 1980 the respected anthropologist Weston La Barre (1980) referred to the Biblical references in an essay on cannabis, concurring with Benet’s earlier hypothesis. In that same year respected British Journal New Scientist also ran a story that referred to the Hebrew OLD TESTAMENT references: “Linguistic evidence indicates that in the original Hebrew and Aramaic texts of the Old Testament the ‘holy oil’ which God directed Moses to make (Exodus 30:23) was composed of myrrh, cinnamon, cannabis and cassia” (Malyon & Henman 1980).

    As well, William McKim noted in DRUGS AND BEHAVIOUR, “It is likely that the Hebrews used cannabis… In the OLD TESTAMENT (Exodus 30:23), God tells Moses to make a holy oil of ‘myrrh, sweet cinnamon, kaneh bosem and kassia’” (McKim, 1986). A MINISTER’S HANDOOK OF MENTAL DISORDERS also records that “Some scholars believe that God’s command to Moses (Exodus 30:23) to make a holy oil included cannabis as one of the chosen ingredients” (Ciarrocchi, 1993).

    Independent support for Benet’s view of the Semitic origins of the term kaneh can be found in THE WORD: THE DICTIONARY THAT REVEALS THE HEBREW SOURCE OF ENGLISH, by Isaac E. Mozeson. In reference to Hebrew kaneh, Mozeson follows a similar view to Benet’s that the “so-called IE root kanna… is admitted to be “of Semitic origin”….the IE word kannabis (hemp – a late IE word borrowed from an unknown source)” (Mozeson, 1989)….KANBOOS is an early post biblical term for hemp… The word HEMP is traced to Greek kannabis and Persian kannab… The ultimate etymon is conceded by Webster’s to be “a very early borrowing from a non-IE, possibly Semitic language…. In seeking related words… consider Aramaic… KENABH… and [Hebrew] KANEH…” (Mozeson, 1989) Interestingly Mozeson makes no reference to calamus in the context of the term kaneh.

    Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan, a noted American Orthodox rabbi and author. In THE LIVING TORAH, Kaplan notes that “On the basis of cognate pronunciation and a Septuagint reading, some identify Keneh bosem with English and Greek cannabis, the hemp plant” (Kaplan, 1981). Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan has also noted of early Kabalistic magical schools who used magic and other means of communion for mystic exploration, that “some practices include the use of ‘grasses,’ which were possibly psychedelic drugs” (Kaplan, 1993). The Kabalistic text the Zohar records:

    “There is no grass or herb that grows in which G-d’s wisdom is not greatly manifested and which cannot exert great influence in heaven” and “If men but knew the wisdom of all the Holy One, blessed be He, has planted in the earth, and the power of all that is to be found in the world, they would proclaim the power of their L-rd in His great wisdom.” (Zohar.2,80B)

    Like the Zoroastrian royalty and priesthood, there are indications that early Kabbalists enjoyed the use of the herb, but prevented its consumption by the common people. In the P’sachim, “Rav Yehudah says it is good to eat… the essence of hemp seed in Babylonian broth; but it is not lawful to mention this in the presence of an illiterate man, because he might derive a benefit from the knowledge not meant for him.- Nedarim, fol. 49, col. 1” (Harris, et al., 2004).

    Other sources have noted a Kabbalistic comparison to the effects of cannabis with divine perception, noting an “intriguing reference to cannabis in the context of a fleeting knowledge of God: Zohar Hadash, Bereshit, 16a (Midrash ha-Ne’elam)” (Gross, et al., 1983). Thus, evidence for the use of cannabis in Jewish mysticism does exist,and this fits in well with the suggestions for the role of q’neh in pre-reformation Israel and Judea.

  1417. Anonymous on

    “…Hey I’ve been paying for my case myself, $3000 so far. Who is paying you to be here anonymous Troll boy?…”

    ..why the forces of prohibition, with your tax money…

    chill out your higness Chris,
    remember… its only a plant

  1418. Anonymous on

    we did look and thats what we found,

    _ that you mostly quote yourself
    and refer to articles that refer to you
    or the handful of sketchy references
    you hang your entire premise on

    anybody can produce the same results..
    just Google ” Jesus cannabis” like you yourself suggested
    and see the Overly Bennet rich results..

    its like googling ” Coca Cola”
    and being surprised
    its all written by Coca Cola
    describing the worlds favorite beverage

    —so we asked Pepsi
    and they refered us to < tapwater.com >

  1419. Anonymous on

    we did look and thats what we found,

    _ that you mostly quote yourself
    and refer to articles that refer to you
    or the handful of sketchy references
    you hang your entire premise on

    anybody can produce the same results..
    just Google ” Jesus cannabis” like you yourself suggested
    and see the Overly Bennet rich results..

    its like googling ” Coca Cola”
    and being surprised
    its all written by Coca Cola
    describing the worlds favorite beverage

    —so we asked Pepsi
    and they refered us to < tapwater.com >

  1420. Anonymous on

    whew..

    Riddle : when is a rock not a rock?
    Answer: when its a stone

  1421. Chris Bennett on

    Calamus can be toxic, whereas cannabis can’t. Calamus is considered unsafe for human consumption by the Food and Drug Administration due to the fact that massive doses given to lab rats over extended time periods has proved to be carcinogenic.

    I know of no references which refer to a topical effects from calamus.

    Ofcourse there are numerous psychoactive plants in the mid-east and there is no reason to think the ancients did not know about them. mandrake is mentioned in the Bible, and ‘strong-drink’ is thought to have been an alcoholic solution that held a variety of psychoactive plants. Wine also often had plants added to it throughout the ancient world.

  1422. Chris Bennett on

    ‘ if you can’t take the debate heat _here–”

    ah, you mean you can’t take the debate heat here…. 😉 You are the one who keeps having to descend into petty personal insults. 😉 Try to stay on track a little.

    “Evidence presented does not add up to a vast and dynamic world cult based on the use of cannabis to invent the concept of God nor a create a spiritual platform for the human species to appreciate and explore creation.”

    Yes it does actually. How does it not in your view?

    “It is possible that some people used some cannabis here and there over a great span of time to get stoned . It is possible that some people used some cannabis in some religious applications, at some tome in some places.”

    Well that is a start, just keep reading and your view will change even more.

    Religious and spiritual use of cannabis
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religious_and_spiritual_use_of_cannabis

    “We evaluate what stoners aspire to and build, and we are not impressed”

    You mean stoners like these?

    1.) Barack Obama. El Presidente de Los Estados Unidos!
    2.) Bill Clinton “…but I didn’t inhale.” Fomer U.S. President!
    3.) Bill Murray. Yep, everyone’s favorite actor was arrested for possession.
    4.) Paris Hilton. Socialite. Night Vision Porn-Star.
    5.) Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, Basketball star
    6. George W Bush Politician and professional hypocrite.
    7. John F Kennedy. Politician.
    8. Steve Jobs, co-creator of the Apple computer.
    9. Queen Victoria.
    10. Bruce Lee.
    11. Aaron Sorkin, creator of ”The West Wing”.
    12. Art Garfunkel , singer, Simon and Garfunkel.
    13. Abbie Hoffman, Activist.
    14. Al and Tipper Gore Politicians
    15. Aleister Crowley, Author and Famous Satanist.
    16. Alexander Dumas, Author – “The Three Musketeers”
    17. Ali Campbell, Singer with UB40
    18. Alice B. Toklas. Famous Cook – Wrote recipe for Hash Fudge Filmed as. ‘I Love You Alice B. Toklas’
    19. Allen Ginsberg, Poet. Andrea Corr, musician, “The Corrs”. Anjelica Huston, Actress. Arnold Schwarzenegger. Actor. “I did smoke a joint and I did inhale.”
    20. Art Garfunkel. Singer of, “Simon and Garfunkel” fame.
    21. Arthur Rimbaud.
    22. Balzac.
    23. Beatles.
    24. Bill Gates. Not confirmed, just very strongly hinted at in his Playboy interview.
    25. Bing Crosby. Famous crooner of “I’m dreaming of a White Christmas”. Now the Film “High Society” makes sense!
    26. Bix Beiderbecke Jazz musician.
    27. Black Crowes, musicians
    28. Bob Denver, Star of “Gilligan’s Island”.
    29. Bob Dylan, musician.
    30. Bob Marley, musician
    31. Burt Reynolds, actor. He left his first wife because of her drug use. But he has been seen in Cannabis Cafes.
    32. Cab Calloway, Jazz musician. Claimed he only used it once.
    33. Carl Sagan, Scientist – SiFi writer – film “Contact” More info here.
    34. Carlos Santana musician.
    35. Carrie Fischer, Actress
    36. Charlie Sheen, actor.
    37. Charlize Theron, Actress.
    38. Charles Beaudelaire, Author.
    39. Cheech Marin, Actor
    40. Chris Conrad, Author and expert on Cannabis Hemp
    41. Chris Farley. Comedian.
    42. Chrissie Hynde, musician.
    43. Chris Rock, Actor, Comedian, Producer, Screenwriter.
    44. Chubby Checker, Musician. Sang; “Lets Twist Again”.
    45. Cilla Black, Musician and presenter.
    46. Claire Rayner, Agony Aunt.
    47. Cody Kasch Actor. TV series Desperate Housewives
    48. Conan O’Brian TV Host
    49. Count Basie, Jazz Ban Leader
    50. Dame Margot Fonteyn, Prima ballerina.
    51. David Bailey, Photographer .
    52. Dan Quayle . Politician.
    53. David Hockney, Artist.
    54. Diego Rivera Mexican Artist
    55. Dion Fortune Welsh occultist.
    56. Dionne Warwick, Famous singer of “Walk on by”.
    57. Dioscorides Pedanius, 1 st cent. AD. Greek physician. Wrote ‘De Materia Medica’, used for 1,500 years.
    58. Dizzy Gillespie, Jazz musician
    59. Dr Francis Crick. Nobel Prize winner.
    60. Dr Lester Grinspoon.
    61. Dr R.D.Laing
    62. Dr W.B. O’Shaugnessy Re-introduced cannabis to European medicine.
    63. Drew Barrymore, actress.
    64. Duke Ellington, Jazz Band Leader.
    65. Elliott Gould. Actor.
    66. Eminem, musician.
    67. Emperor Liu Chi-nu, made medical recomendation for its use.
    68. Emperor Shen-Nung, made first known medical recommendation for its use.
    69. Errol Flynn, Actor
    70. Evelyn Waugh. Author.
    71. Francis Ford Coppella, Film Director.
    72. Frances McDormand , Actress
    73. Fats Waller, musician.
    74. Fitz Hugh Ludlow – wrote ‘The Hasheesh Eater’.
    75. Francois Rabelais. 16 th French author
    76. Friedrich Nietzsche, Used it as a medicine.
    77. Gary Johnson. Governor of New Mexico – Reformer.
    78. Gene Krupa, Jazz musician.
    79. George Gurdjieff , Russian Mystic.
    80. George Melly, Jazz musician.
    81. George Soros, Financier and reformer.
    82. George Washington , grew it and there is evidence that he prepared it for smoking.
    83. Gerard de Nerval French writer
    84. Graham Greene, Author.
    85. Grateful Dead musicians.
    86. Harrison Ford, Actor.
    87. Howard Marks. Ex-smuggler and Raconteur.
    88. H R H Prince Harry, Third in line to the British throne.
    89. H R H Princess Margaret, sister to Her Majesty the Queen.
    90. Howard Stern
    91. Hua T’o Medical use as anaesthetic .
    92. Hunter S. Thompson, Author
    93. Isabel Allende, Chilean author. Mentioned in her book “Paula”.
    94. Jack Kerouac, Author
    95. Jack Nicholson, actor.
    96. Jackie Gleason, actor. Another whom the DEA kept on their pot files.
    97. James Brown, musician
    98. Janis Joplin, musician.
    99. Jane Fonda, Actress.
    100. Jennifer Aniston, actress.
    101. Jennifer Capriati, Tennis champ.
    102. Jesse Ventura, Governor of Minnesota.
    103. Jim Morrison, musician.
    104. Jimmy Dorsey, Jazz musician,
    105. Jimmy Hendrix, musician
    106. Joan of Arc, was accused of using witch herbs (another name cannabis).
    107. John Belushi, actor.
    108. John Denver, musician. He recorded a song about it.
    109. John Kerry . Politician. US Senator
    110. John Lennon. musician.
    111. John Le Mesurier. Actor.
    112. John Wayne, Actor, “I tried it once but it didn’t do anything to me.”
    113. Jonathan Miller, Theatre Director.
    114. Johnny Cash, musician.
    115. Jon Snow, Channel 4 News presenter. (UK)
    116. Julia Roberts, Actress,
    117. Kary Mullis, Nobel Laurate, Biology.
    118. Ken Kesey, Author
    119. Kenneth Tynan, Playwright.
    120. Kurt Cobain, musician.
    121. Larry Hagman, actor, of “JR” fame.
    122. Led Zeppelin, musicians.
    123. Lenny Bruce, Comedian.
    124. Lewis Carroll, Author
    125. Lewis Wolpert, biologist.
    126. Little Richard, musician.
    127. Louis Armstrong, Jazz musician.
    128. Luke Perry, actor.
    129. Louis Hebert, French Botanist
    130. Macaulay Culkin. Actor, Home Alone.
    131. Mark Stepnoski. two-time Super Bowl champ, Dallas Cowboy.
    132. Mick Jagger, musician
    133. Mike Bloomberg. New York City Mayor.
    134. Mike Tyson, Boxer.
    135. Miles Davis, Jazz musician.
    136. Milton Berle, Actor
    137. Mo Mowlam, Minister
    138. Modigliani. Sculptor.
    139. Montel Williams Chat show host.
    140. Montgomery Clift, actor
    141. Neil Diamond, musician.
    142. Neil Young, Musician.
    143. Newt Gingrich Speaker of the US Senate.
    144. Norman Mailer, Author.
    145. Oasis, Noel Gallagher
    146. Oliver Stone, Film Director.
    147. Oscar Wilde, Author.
    148. Pablo Picasso, Artist.
    149. Pancho Villa, Revolutionary Leader.
    150. Peregrine Worthstone, former editor of the Sunday Telegraph.
    151. Peter Fonda, actor.
    152. Peter Sellers, actor.
    153. Peter Tosh, Poet.
    154. Pierre Elliot Trudeau, Former Prime Minister of Canada.
    155. Pink. Musician. Mentioned in Playboy interview (11/02).
    156. Pink Floyd, Musicians.
    157. P. J. O’Rouke. Author.
    158. Ram Dass, Philosopher.
    159. Ray Charles, musician.
    160. Richard Feynman, Nobel Prize Laureate physicist.
    161. Richard Pryor, actor.
    162. Robert Anton Wilson. Philosopher .
    163. Robert Mitchum, Actor, was jailed in the 40s for possession of marijuana.
    164. Rolling Stones, musicians.
    165. Ross Rebagliati, first ever snowboarding Gold Medallist, 1998 Winter Olympics.
    166. Rudolf Nureyev, Ballet dancer. Also see entry for Margot Fonteyn.
    167. Rudyard Kipling . Author.
    168. Ryan Farrell, Australian Sprint Car champion.
    169. Salvador Dali, Artist.
    170. Samuel Beckett, Author.
    171. Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Author.
    172. Sinead O’Connor, musician.
    173. Sir Paul McCartney, Musician.
    174. Sir Mick Jagger, Musician.
    175. Snoop Dogg, musician.
    176. Steve Martin , Actor.
    177. Stephen King. Author.
    178. Steven Soderbergh, Film director.
    179. Stephen Sondheim. Broadway composer and lyricist.
    180. Sting / Gordon Sumners, musician.
    181. Ted Turner, of CNN fame.
    182. Terence McKenna.
    183. Terry Pratchett. Author of the “Diskworld” books.
    184. The Who, musicians.
    185. Thelonious Monk, Jazz musician.
    186. Timothy Leary
    187. Tomas Enge, Formula 3000 World Champion.
    188. Tommy Chong. Actor
    189. Tommy Lee, Musician.
    190. Tony Booth, the father-in-law of Britain’s Prime Minister.
    191. UB40, Band.
    192. Victor Hugo. Author ‘Les Misérables’
    193. Walter ‘Stumpy’ Brennan actor.
    194. Walter Benjamin, Philosopher.
    195. Wesley Snipes, actor. Has been seen in Cannabis Cafes.
    196. Whitney Houston, musician. William Butler Yeats. Famous Irish Poet and Occultist.
    197. William S. Burroughs, Author.
    198. William Shakespeare. Dramatist. More here.
    199. Willie Nelson, musician.
    200. Woody Harrelson, Actor and reformer.

    “If cannabis potency is the same now as it was in the distant past, qv the stoner world doubts DEA declaration that super pot of the 21st C is several times stronger than the 60s schwagg – then even more so– a plant poison so profound in its action and impacts so negatively on social productivity== then cannabis intoxication on the scale and intensity Mr B implies here would have presented a very serious problem for human advance in ancient times. ”

    You mean people would have been smarter?

    Marijuana may live up to be “the elixir of life” for brain cells
    http://www.earthtimes.org/articles/show/4241.html

    A study by University of Saskatchewan researchers suggests beneficial aspects of smoking marijuana at least among rats, who appear to have sprouted new brain cells and besides benefiting from reduced depression and anxiety. The study’s results appearing in the ‘Journal of Clinical Investigation’ have actually given a fillip to the traditional and mythological view that associates the addictive weed in some ways with immortality.

    The Canadian researchers led by Xia Zhang, suggested that the illicit substance marijuana actually may promote new brain cells in region of the brain called the hippocampus that is associated with memory. They concluded that marijuana was possibly “the only illicit drug whose capacity to produce increased neurons is positively correlated with its (anti-anxiety) and anti-depressant-like effects”.

    For the study, the researchers injected laboratory rats two times everyday for 10 days with HU210, a synthetic cannabinoid chemical (obtained from marijuana) and evaluated them against a normal group. The rats that underwent the HU210 injections developed new nerve cells in the brain’s hippocampus dentate gyrus region of the brain that facilitates memory development. The injections also appeared to counter depression and anxiety, but could not be held as 100 percent akin to smoking marijuana, which the researchers felt would require additional studies.

    Zhang suggested that the study did indicate that marijuana could have its medical uses particularly “for the treatment of anxiety and depression”. But these results are unlikely to buy the favor with the US administration or the possibility of legalization on medical grounds. In fact only recently the US Supreme Court ruled against marijuana growth or possession for medical reasons.

    Unlike most addictive drugs that are known to inhibit the development of new neurons, causing loss of memory and impairing learning on chronic use, it appears that marijuana or ganja may actually be the mythological “elixir of eternal life” that Indian gods churned from the oceans. A sharp contrast from ordinary addictive substances, the researchers suggested that marijuana’s neurogenetic properties may actually be unique given that the rats showed some correlation between their cannabinoid treatments, the increased nerve genesis and their altered stress or anxiety levels.

    Marijuana that has traditionally been used by many cultures over centuries “for medical and recreational purpose”, as the researchers suggest appears to be able to modulate pain, nausea, vomiting, epilepsy, stroke, cerebral trauma and variety of other disorders both for humans and animals alike. But it maybe several more studies before the mysterious benefits of marijuana that currently stand shrouded in tradition and mythology, become accepted by the modern scientific world. (Ravi, Chopra, Earthtimes, Oct. 15, 2005)

    No wonder cannabis has not only been associated with the Big Bhang that started religions, but with the “Great leap forward” which saw such things as the harnessing of fire and invention of the wheel! It is interesting to note that scientists have postulated that plant based cannibinoids ingested by ancient Man, may have been responsible for pre-historic man’s “Great Leap Forward”.

    The study of cannabis has led to all sorts of new medical and scientific discoveries through investigations into the psychoactive and medicinal properties of the plant, found in plant ligands, that resemble the indigenous (endo)cannibinoids in the human body. The reason cannabis makes us high is that certain molecules in cannabis resins are able to mimic similar shaped molecules in the human body, and attach themselves to receptors in man’s brain and body. How these similarities between cannibinoids found in hemp and those in man developed is a subject of much current speculation, and theories about some sort of coevoletionary development have become the topic of current scientific thought. Doctors John McPartland and Geoffery Guy, in their fascinating paper, THE EVOLUTION OF CANNABIS AND COEVOLUTION WITH THE CANNABIS RECEPTOR – A HYPOTHESIS, postulate that a plant ligand, such as the cannibinoids of the hemp plant, “may exert sufficient selection pressure to maintain the gene for a receptor in an animal. If the plant ligand improves the fitness of the receptor by serving as a ‘proto-medicine’ or a performance-enhancing substance, the ligand-receptor association could be evolutionarily conserved” (McPartland & Guy, 2004).

    “In a hunter-gatherer society, the ability of phytocannabinoids to improve smell, night vision, discern edge and enhance perception of colour would improve evolutionary fitness of our species. Evolutionary fitness essentially mirrors reproductive success, and phytocannibinoids enhance the sensation of touch and the sense of rhythm, two sensual responses that may lead to increased replication rates.”

    “Some authors have proposed that cannabis was the catalyst that synergised the emergence of syntactic language in Neolithic humans (McKenna, 1992) . Language, in turn, probably caused what anthropologists call ‘the great leap forward’ in human behaviour, when humans suddenly crafted better tools out of new materials (e.g. fishhooks from bone, spear handles from wood, rope from hemp), developed art (e.g. painting, pottery, musical instruments), began using boats, and evolved intricate social (and religious) organizations. This rather abrupt transformation occurred about 50,000 years ago… this recent burst of human evolution has been described as epigenetic (beyond our genes) – could it be due to the effect of plant ligands [i.e. plant based cannibinoids]?” (McPartland & Guy, 2004)

    Archaeological evidence indicating ancient man’s use of hemp 30,000 years ago fits within the time period for Man’s evolutionary ‘Great Leap Forward’. Considering that the location of the cannibinoid receptors are the greatest in the “cerebral cortex, striatum, basal ganglia, cerebellum and thalamus… humans ingesting phytocannibinoids” could have had a considerable evolutionary edge over non-cannabis using homo-sapiens.

    It works for me. 🙂

    “please don’t use up too much of our valuable publicly funded court time for your vain purposes.”

    Hey I’ve been paying for my case myself, $3000 so far. Who is paying you to be here anonymous Troll boy? They sure are not getting their money’s worth, you are getting buried by information and helping me further establish my views.

    You refer to cannabis as a “a plant poison”. Please explain how cannabis is poisonous. Administrative Law Judge Francis L. Young declared that cannabis in its natural form is “one of the safest therapeutically active substances known to man”.

    Peronally I think cannabis goes far beyond “not too bad for you” but is beneficial and good for you. You seem to me like a prime example of someone with dangerously low THC levels. I hope you hook up soon – you know you want to. You wouldn’t be trolling here so much if you didn’t have some sort of obsession with the good herb. Go ahead and bite that forbidden fruit, you know you want it.

    Make way for the Tree of Life! and tell your friends.

  1423. Chris Bennett on

    “It is an uncommon but widespread semi-aquatic plant found in temperate and subtemperate zones of both the Old and New Worlds. Today it is mainly found in Europe, North America, Japan, and in a few parts of southern Russia.”

    Calamus was a common marsh root, kaneh was a precious item that was imported. In both the Jeremiah 6:20 and Ezekiel 27:19 keneh is clearly desctibed as an item of import. (“Danites and Greeks from Uzal bought your merchandise; they exchanged wrought iron, cassia and q’aneh [cannabis] for your wares.” Ezekiel 27:19) and also condemned as coming from from a foreign land, (“What do I care about incense from Sheba or sweet q’aneh [cannabis] from a distant land? Your burnt offerings are not acceptable; your sacrifices do not please me” Jeremiah 6:20). It should be noted that “sweet” in the Jeremiah reference, is derived from the Hebrew term “towb”, which, according to Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, also has connotations of “good, a good thing, cheerful, fine, kind, merry, pleasant, precious favoured”, and by no means necessarily refers to taste, making for the translation of “sugar-cane” in some modern Bibles and an unexplained an assumption that somehow sugar-cane was rejected by Yahweh, and an ingredient in Biblical incense. The indications from the Jeremiah reference also indicate the use of hemp in incenses. It should also be noted that these references when put into the context of the Biblical storyline, indicate that this foreign association with the plant may in fact have been the cause of its disfavour amongst the ancient Hebrews. Certain researchers, who claim the designation of ‘calamus’ as keneh bosem stands correct, have failed to note this situation, which excludes ‘calamus’ by the fact that it was a common marsh root in the area, not a precious item of trade. The term keneh bosem also has some similarities with the contemporary Assyrian term qunubu as well as identical uses in both groups.

    Re”In Exodus 30: 23,24,34, when God ordered Moses to make the Holy Oil, one of its constituents was an aromatic reed which some authorities have suggested might have been Acorus calamus.”

    …and some authorities see that it was cannabis. Like we didn’t know that. I like how less sure this reference is than many others.

    “Besides.. topical application of cannabis doesn;’t really work..
    I believe Marc Emery himself demonstrated this in Vancouver a few years ago. his conclusion: pot based body oil was not psychoactive”

    Marc has acknowledged he made the mistake of putting it on outside on a cold windy day (for a photo shoot) when his pores would have been all closed, and thus spoiled the test.

    Holy anointing oil testimomials
    http://www.thc-ministry.org/forum/forumdisplay.php?f=30
    http://thehealingchrist.com/The_Holy_Anointing_Oil.php

    As one shekel equals approximately 16.37 grams, this means that the THC of over 9 pounds of flowering cannabis tops were extracted into a hind, about 6.5 litres of oil. The entheogenic effects of such a solution, even when applied topically, would undoubtedly have been intense. Health Canada has done scientific tests that show transdermal absorption of THC can take place. The skin is the biggest organ of the body, so of course considerably more cannabis is needed to be effective this way, much more than when ingested or smoked. The people who used the Holy oil literally drenched themselves in it. Based upon a 25mg/g oil Health Canada found skin penetration of THC (33%). “The high concentration of THC outside the skin encourages penetration, which is a function of the difference between outside and inside (where the concentration is essentially zero)” (James Geiwitz, Ph.D, 2001).

    Cross cultural references to such topical preparations of cannabis have been identified (Bennett & McQueen, 2001; Bennett, 2006). Closer to Moses’ own time, as noted earlier, ancient Assyrian inscriptions indicate that a similar preparation was in use for identical purposes:

    An Assyrian medical tablet from the Louvre collection (AO 7760)(Labat, 1950)(3,10,16) was transliterated as follows…, ‘ana min sammastabbariru sama-zal-la samtar-mus.’ Translating the French [EBR], we obtain, ‘So that god of man and man should be in good rapport: – with hellebore, cannabis and lupine you will rub him.’ (Russo 2005)

    Cannabis, A Healing and Magical Balm (2006, Cannabis Culture)

    A decade and a half ago, when I first started researching the cultural role of cannabis, I failed to at first realize the important role of topical cannabis preparations. For the most part I was looking for references to smoking and ingesting cannabis, methods I was familiar with and knew worked, and I was unaware that topical applications of the herb were both potentially psychoactive and medicinally effective.

    In fact, in my first book Green Gold the Tree of Life: Marijuana in Magic and Religion (Access unlimited 1995), myself and the co-authors largely failed to realize the very important role of the Judaic use of the cannabis based anointing oil as described in Exodus 30:23, only mentioning the reference and quickly skimming over the fact that the later Greek term Christ, was a translation of the Hebrew Messiah, meaning ‘The Anointed One’ and making reference to this same holy oil.

    As many people now know the Original Hebrew and Aramaic versions Exodus 30:23 contain references to the word keneh-bosem, meaning fragrant-cane, and identified by some etymologists, linguists and anthropologists as cannabis. In the Biblical account Moses is instructed by God, who first appears as a burning bush, to make a holy ointment rich with keneh-bosem.

    After finishing Green Gold and continuing on with researching the role of cannabis in history for my next book, Sex, Drugs, Violence and the Bible (Forbidden Fruit Publishing, 2001), I was surprised to find more references to such topical preparations of the herb and began to realize that such ointments are indeed both psychoactive and medically effective, after all the skin is the biggest organ of the body! Of course considerably more cannabis is needed to be effective this way, much more than when ingested or smoked. Based upon a 25mg/g oil Health Canada found skin penetration of THC (33%) . “The high concentration of THC outside the skin encourages penetration, which is a function of the difference between outside and inside (where the concentration is essentially zero).”( James Geiwitz, Ph.D, 2001).

    When we take a look at the Exodus recipe for the Holy Anointing oil it is clear from the amounts used that even with mediocre cannabis, it would have been a rather potent topical preparation. It has also been suggested that the other ingredients, myrrh, cassia and cinnamon, besides having traditional medicinal qualities of their own, may have speeded up blood flow through the skin and thus enhanced the preparation of the ointment.

    Sidebar quote: “In Exodus 30,23 sq., Yahweh specifies the ingredients for the chrism, making clear that such unguents contained herbal additives to the oil: Cannabis sativa (kaneh bosm, usually translated “aromatic cane”) is combined with perfuming spices (cinnamon, cassia, and myrrh) in oil. … The psychoactivity of the “spices” in the anointing oil, in addition to the Cannabis, deserves attention. Cinnamon and cassia are mild to moderate stimulants. Myrrh is reputed to have medical properties. … (Ruck, Staples, and Heinrich) (2001)

    Exodus recipe

    Then the LORD said to Moses, “Take the following fine spices: 500 shekels of liquid myrrh, half as much of fragrant cinnamon, 250 shekels of kaneh bosm, 500 shekels of cassia – all according to the sanctuary shekel – and a hint of olive oil. Make these into a sacred anointing oil, a fragrant blend, the work of a perfumer. It will be the sacred anointing oil.” (Exodus 30:23)

    In today’s measure:
    (if 1 shekel = 11.5 grams; 1 hin = 6.5 liters)

    5.75 kg (12.68 lbs) liquid myrrh
    5.75 kg (12.68 lbs) cassia
    2.875 kg (6.34 lbs) fragrant cinnamon
    2.875 kg (6.34 lbs) cannabis flowers
    6.5 liters (1.72 gallons) olive oil

    The ointment was mixed in the large cauldrons required for the extensive ingredients, and the sacred craft of making the holy ointment was passed down through a guild of Perfumers who carefully guarded their secrets (de Waal 1994). Possibly, the Hebrews placed all the ingredients of the Holy Oil into such cauldrons, along with a quantity of water, and then boiled all the ingredients together. After straining, the water would slowly be boiled off and this would leave a solution imbued with the oil soluble properties of the other ingredients, such as the psycho-active resin of the cannabis that was used. As well double-rimmed earthenware pots used for distillation have been found in the Ancient Near East, dating as far back as 3,000 B.C.. “The raw material would be placed between two rims, and a lid put over the vessel. A solvent (water or oil) would be boiled in the bottom pot: the vapor would condense on the lid, run down over the raw material, extract the ingredient sought, and drip back into the bottom of the pot. The principle was in fact that of the coffee perculator.”(Saggs 1969).

    Sidebar: [warning the use of essential oils in this recipe, instead of whole plants as in the original, may cause skin irritation and even burning] Roger Christie of the THC Ministry in Hawaii is probably the greatest modern exponent of the use of the Holy Oil and his site http://www.thc-ministry.org offers many testimonials regarding the modern use and reproduction of the Bible’s keneh-bosem oil. Roger has done the math which enables smaller batches of the Holy Oil to be prepared, and as Roger notes “This puts more holy anointing oil within the reach of many more deserving people – faster.”

    1 cup of organic, extra virgin olive oil
    30 drops of myrrh essential oil
    15 drops of cinnamon essential oil
    30 drops of cassia essential oil and
    1/4 ounce of premium, ground Cannabis flowers.
    + prayer, intention, blessing and love.

    “I heat the base of olive oil in a Pyrex measuring cup as it sits in a saucepan of boiling water. I boil the water – NOT the olive oil.”

    ”When the olive oil is very hot I add the ground Cannabis flowers and stir the mixture with a wooden chopstick. (Zero metal touches the oil.) I heat it all together a second time in the pan of water. Remove from heat and let cool for ten minutes, or so.”

    ”Then I strain the Cannabis out of the oil by pouring it through a new (washed and dried) men’s handkerchief into a second Pyrex measuring cup. Then I add the drops of essential oil of myrrh, cinnamon and cassia to the clear, Cannabis-infused olive oil. Finish the ceremony with loving intention, healing blessing and direct moonlight and the ancient, topical sacrament is good to go. Decant into smaller, eye-dropper bottles.”

    According to Roger, this preparation is very potent and must be both prepared and administered with some caution:

    ”The Old Testament gives warnings in Exodus 30:23 and I will, too. In my experience and opinion, not everyone is capable of making holy anointing oil safely, nor is everyone happy to inhale it, or receive it upon their skin. It can cause second degree burning of the eyes and sensitive skin! Please beware! Do not rub it into the skin, for instance.”

    ”I posted the sacred recipe that I use, and I offer it to others with the consideration that it IS truly reverent. Please treat it as such every step of the way or it might BURN you or the person you apply it to.” Roger Christie

    End sidebar

    Similar topical preparations of cannabis were used for both healing and spiritual purposes throughout the ancient world. In Egypt, where cannabis was known by the name sm-sm-t, the healing herb was believed to have been a creation of the Sun God Ra, and was used in ceremonies honoring the dead. (Graindorge, 1992). Some sources have also suggested that cannabis was an ingredient in the ancient incense and perfume of the Pharoahs, known as khyphi.
    Kyphi was used as an offering to the Gods. As the sun set, Egyptian worshippers would burn this fragrant mind altering preparation to the Sun God RA, praying for his return the following morning. Indicating the medical qualities of it’s ingredients, Kyphi was applied on the skin to heal wounds. It was also considered to be a potent relaxant and an aphrodisiac. Unlike the oil of the Hebrews the Kyphi was a rather solid and wax like concoction. A cone of kyphi was placed on the top of the head, and as the hot Egyptian Sun and body temperature of the devotee warmed it, the potent ingredients of the preparation would slowly melt and drip down off the head and onto the body. Researchers have suggested more than 50 natural ingredients for making the Kyphi, the most popular probably being: Aloeswood, Benzoin, Cannabis Resin, Cardamom Seeds, Cassia, Cedar, Cinnamon, Copal, Frankincense, Galangal Root, Ginger, Honey, Juniper, Lemongrass, Mastic, Mint, Myrrh, Orris, Pistachio, Raisins, Red Wine, Rose Petals, Saffron, Sandalwood, Storax Balsam.
    According to Lise Mannich the literal translation of sm-sm-t is “The Medical Marihuana Plant,” (Mannich, 1989) Egyptian medical texts that include references to cannabis include The Ramesseum III Papyrus (1700 BC), Eber’s Papyrus (1600 BC), The Berlin Papyrus (1300 BC), The Chester Beatty VI Papyrus (1300 BC). Possibly due to the sticky and adhesive quality of honey a number of Egyptian topical medical preparations required it as an admixture to cannabis based medicines. According to the ancient papyri such topical cannabis preparations were used to treat inflammations of the vagina, and to treat ingrown toe and finger nails. (Ghalioungui 1963)

    We find similar use of cannabis for both spiritual and medicinal purposes in ancient Mesopotamia. An ancient document dating back to the time of King Esarhaddon (reign 680-669 BCE), dictated that: “the main items—for the [sacred] rites are fine oil, water (?), honey, odorous plants, myrrh (and) hemp”. Likewise, as noted in the groundbreaking paper by cannibinoid expert Dr. Ethan Russo, ‘Clinical Cannabis in Ancient Mesopotamia: A Historical Survey with Supporting Scientific Evidence’ an Assyrian medical tablet from the Louvre collection has been transliterated: “So that god of man and man should be in good rapport:—with hellebore, cannabis and lupine you will rub him.” (Russo 2005)

    Dr. Russo records that numerous topical applications of cannabis for medical purposes can be found throughout ancient Mesopotamian documents. “cannabis was used with the plant El in petroleum to anoint swelling…. [and] was also employed as a simple poultice” (Russo 2005) More interestingly, records of topical ointments used in the treatment of “Hand of Ghost” an ancient malady now thought to be epilepsy, included cannabis as a key ingredient. A prescription for the disease was “Cannabis, styrax, oak, Ricinus, Oenanthe, linseed, kelp (?), myrrh, wax of honey, lidrusa-plant, sweet oil, together thou shalt mix, anoint him therewith with oil.”

    Ancient Mesopotamian topical preparations that included cannabis were also used in the treatment of certain diseases of the chest and lungs, stomach problems, skin lesions, lice, swollen joints and a variety of other maladies. (Russo, 2005)
    These ancient Mesopotamian references are particularly interesting when weighed up against the evidence supporting the early Christian use of the keneh bosem enriched Holy Oil. As detailed in The Cannabis Culture article ‘Cannabis and the Christ: Jesus used Marijuana’ (CC 11), early Christians used the Holy oil to treat a variety of ailments in the first few centuries AD. The CC 11 article showed that rather than some sort of magical act as described in New Testament accounts, Jesus and the apostles healing of those with leprosy, crippled limbs, wounds, epilepsy (seen as demon possession) and other maladies, may have a foundation of fact via the medicinal qualities of cannabis now believed to have been contained in the holy oil. The oldest New Testament Gospel clearly verifies this use of the holy oil early on in Jesus’ controversial ministry: “And they cast out many devils, and anointed with oil many that were sick, and healed them. (Mark 6:13)”
    Indeed even archeological evidence from the mid-east, documents the important role that topical cannabis held in ancient medicine as can be seen from the Associated Press article, ‘Hashish evidence is 1,600 years old’,(1992). “Archaeologists uncovered organic remains of a substance containing hashish, grasses and fruit on the abdominal area of a teenage female’s skeleton that dates back to the fourth century, the antiquities authority said in a statement.”. In this case it was believed that cannabis had been used in the treatment of a complicated child birth, possibly to aid with uterine contractions, (unfortunately in this case the girl died from the complications). (Cannabis appeared in 19th and early 20th centuries as a “Uterine Sedative”).
    The CC article on the Christian use of the anointing oil explained how the use of an entheogenic preparation for both healing and enlightenment became an antithesis of the faith as Christianity was adopted by the Roman Empire, and much of the Roman Catholic Churches persecution of Gnostic and pagan cults alike was focused on “devil’s herbs” such as cannabis… a scourge of persecution that soon led to the Dark Ages. Regardless of the Church’s efforts to suppress them topical preparations of cannabis and other herbs continued to haunt the Papacy through their use by people now known to us as witches. As British anthropologist Richard Rudgley noted “narcotic plants that made up the ointments include thorn-apple (Datura), black hellebore, sweet flag (Acorus Calamus), Opium and Cannabis.”( Rudgley 1998)
    “In 1615, an Italian physician and demonologist, Giovanni De Ninault, listed hemp as the main ingredient in the ointments and unguents used by the devil’s followers. Hemp, along with opium, belladonna, henbane, and hemlock, the demonologists believed, were commonly resorted to during the Witches’ Sabbath to produce the hunger, ecstasy, intoxication, and aphrodisia responsible for the glutinous banquets, the frenzied dancing, and the orgies that characterized the celebration of the Black Mass. Hemp seed oil was also an ingredient in the ointments witches allegedly used to enable them to fly” (Abel, 1982)
    Topical preparations of cannabis are reputed to have survived this witch hunt not only in magical ointments where it was combined with potent and sometimes deadly hallucinogenic plants, but also in herbal remedies for the treatment of skin lesions, and swellings. Dr. Russo notes the “frequent use of hemp strains for such purposes by the renaissance herbalists…. and modern Indian usage for similar purposes… clinical anecdotal support for modern studies pertaining to anti-inflammatory benefits of THC, CBD and terpenoids” (McPartland, 2001; McPartland & Russo, 2001)
    “Syrenius wrote in 1613 that ointment made from hemp resin is the most effective remedy for burns (Syrenius 1613) and that diseased joints could be straightened with the roots of hemp boiled in water….. In Germany for example, sprigs of hemp were placed over the stomach and ankles to prevent convulsions and difficult childbirth, and in Switzerland hemp was also used to treat convulsions….In Poland, a mixture of hemp flowers, wax and olive oil was used to dress wounds.”(Benet 1975)
    Likewise, such use of topical cannabis preparations have survived in the mid-east into modern times as well. “In Uzbekistan and other parts of Central Asia adjacent to Afghanistan, cannabis extracts are rubbed on the skin in the form of a kind of massage oil”(Rudgley, 1998) Anthropologist Sula Benet, records that in Central Asia “A mixture of lamb’s fat with ‘nasha’ [hashish] is recommended for brides to use on their wedding night to reduce the pain of defloration. The same mixture works well for headache when
    rubbed into the skin”(Benet 1975) The early 2oth century European medicine, Unna’s green salve, which was used as a remedy for lupus, contained: Acid salicyl., Liq. Stib. chlorati aa 2.0, Extr. Cannabis ind., Creosoti aa 4.0 , Adeps lanae 8.0. (Kabelik 1955)
    According to the Hemperor, Jack Herer, “Until 1937, virtually all corn plasters, mustard plasters, muscle ointments, and fibrosis poultices were made from or with cannabis extracts. Rheumatism was treated throughout South America until the 1960s with hemp leaves and/or flower tops heated in water or alcohol and placed on painful joints. In fact, this form of herbal medicine is still widely used in rural areas of Mexico, Central and South America, and by California Latinos for relief of rheumatism and arthritis pain. Direct contact with THC killed herpes virus in a University of South Florida (Tampa) 1990 research study by Dr. Gerald Lancz, who warns that ‘smoking marijuana will not cure herpes.’ However, anecdotal reports indicate a faster drying and healing of the outbreak after topical application of ‘strong bud,’ soaked in rubbing alcohol and crushed into a paste.” (Herer, 1994)

    The Pharmaceutical Formulas(1929), included the following ingredients in a liniment recipe, apparently for the use in the treatment of aches and pains:

    Menthol
    Chloral hydrate
    Extract of Cannabis Indica`
    Essential oil of camphor
    Methyl salicylate to
    Rub together the enthol, chloral hydrate, and extract of cannabis Indica, and dissolve in the oil of camphor and methyl salicylate; set aside for seven days, and filter.
    During the time I was collecting antiques for The Museum of Psychoactive Substances display at the BC Marijuana Party Bookstore, one of the most intriguing things I noticed was the amount of cannabis corn plasters that were available during the 19th and early 20th century under a variety of brand names (pictures). The 1929 edition of The Pharmaceutical Formulas recorded that out of a total of ninety-six Corn remedy formula’s listed, fifty contained Cannabis as a given ingredient. Although some writers on “Quack Medicines” have tried to write off the popularity of these cannabis corn plasters, as being purely placebo and due to popularity of green ointments, (which the addition of cannabis provided), here again in corn plasters we may have more evidence on the efficacy of topical cannabis preparations. Besides known antibacterial properties which likely helped, the anecdotal evidence for Cannabis’ ability to shrink corns and make them disappear, may be related to emerging scientific evidence regarding the topical applications of cannabis for the treatment of tumors. In the cases of both tumors and corns the healing effects of cannabis seem to penetrate into the flesh and prevent the formation of new blood vessels that support the growth of these fleshy deposits.
    Researchers from the Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Biology, Complutense University, Spain, in a study of the use of cannabis-based ointment on skin tumors reported that:
    “Local administration induced a considerable growth inhibition of malignant tumors generated by inoculation of epidermal tumor cells into nude mice. Cannabinoid-treated tumors showed an increased number of apoptotic cells…”

    ”These results support a new therapeutic approach [cannabis-based ointment] for the treatment of skin tumors.” (Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2003).
    “Tumors require an adequate supply of oxygen and nutrients to grow more than a few millimeters. For that purpose they produce proangiogenic factors that promote the formation of new blood vessels… important differences were observed when vessel morphology was examined: while control carcinomas showed a network of dilated vessels, cannabinoid-treated tumors displayed a pattern of blood vessels characterized predominantly by narrow capillaries (Figure 6b). Morphometric analyses confirmed that cannabinoid treatment induced a statistically significant decrease in blood vessel size, as determined by the total area occupied by vessels, the area per vessel, and the vessel larger diameter length.”( The American Society for Clinical Investigation Inhibition of skin tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo by activation of cannabinoid receptors, 2003)
    Many sources seem to believe that such topical use of cannabis are not psychoactive. It was probably with this view in mind that a 2005 New Mexico Bill, introduced by Sen. Shannon Robinson (D- Albuquerque), advocated strictly topical use of cannabis, such as in an ointment or patch. As we can see from the use of cannabis based ointments from our reading here, this is clearly a misperception. This was a fact even acknowledged at the height of pre-prohibition cannabis medicines. In his little known 1920’s book, ‘THE ADVENTURES OF A MODERN OCCULTIST’, Oliver Bland writes in a chapter largely dealing with the magical use of cannabis, “hashish is absorbed rapidly. Cases have been known where a little of the extract used as an anodyne in corn plasters has been absorbed and produced hallucinatory state.” (Bland, 1920)
    The topical use of cannabis by 19th century magicians, reminiscent of the medieval witches ointments, was apparently somewhat widespread in the occult underground of the period. TECHNIQUES OF HIGH MAGIC, lists the following astral projection ointment, which was popularized in the 1890’s: Lanolin-5 ounces; Hashish- 1 ounce; Hemp flowers-1 handful; Poppy flowers-1 handful; Hellebore-1/2 handful,(King & Skinner 1976). Another occultist, Pascal Beverly Randolph (1825-1875) recorded a similar stimulant powder, which was mixed with fat (he records that in the middle ages human fat was used in the recipe) and contained 40 grams of hashish as well as 260 grams of hemp along with henbane, belladonna, Garlic, Poppy flowers, etc.. It was to be rubbed on the “solar plexus, the hollow of the throat, the arm pits, and behind the knees, the soles of the feet, and the palms of the hands.”- (Randolph 1988 [reprint])

    In our own time, besides ailments already discussed, research into applications of cannabis based topical preparations are being pursued in the treatment of glaucoma, pruritus, antibiotic resistant infections and other maladies. Interestingly, one of the things I learned about myself while researching the article was the variety of patents being placed on transdermal preparations of cannibinoids, particularly newly developed slow release patches.

    From the clay and bronze pots of the ancient practitioners of early medicine, to the Pyrex beakers of the modern lab, it seems clear that topical preparations of cannabis work and that they are here to stay, another example of the ancient wisdom and modern science of cannabis based medicine and the gifts the healing leaves of this wonderful plant has brought to humanity. When one considers that Jesus himself may have healed with such topical cannabis preparations, their modern reintroduction becomes, if not a miracle, at least a profound revelation.

    Bibliography

    THC in Hemp Foods and Cosmetics: The Appropriate Risk Assessment
    James Geiwitz, Ph.D., and the Ad Hoc Committee on Hemp Risks
    January 15, 2001

    MEDICINES FROM THE BIBLE Roots & Herbs & Woods & Oils
    WAAL,Dr.Marinus De, Original Publications, 1994

    The Greatness that Was Babylon
    H. W. F. Saggs, Frederick A. Praeger, 1969.

    ‘Les Oignons de Sokar’, Graindorge, Catherine, Revue d’Egyptologie, 43, 1992

    An Ancient Egyptian Herbal (ISBN: 0292704151)
    Lise Manniche, University of Texas Press, 1989

    Magic and Medical Science in Ancient Egypt.
    Ghalioungui, Paul. Hodder and Stoughton., 1963

    Clinical Cannabis in Ancient Mesopotamia: A Historical Survey with Supporting Scientific Evidence, Ethan Russo, M.D., Unpublished paper
    Associated Press article, “Hashish evidence is 1,600 years old”, that appeared in Vancouver newspaper The Province, on June 2, 1992

    The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Substances by Richard Rudgley Little, Brown and Company (1998).
    “Early Diffusion and Folk Uses of Hemp” in Cannabis and Culture, S. Benet, V. Rubin, ed. (The Hague: Mouton, 1975)
    Marihuana, the First Twelve Thousand Years (Mcgraw-Hill Paperbacks). ,
    Abel, Ernest L, Mcgraw-Hill, 1982.
    HEMP & THE MARIJUANA CONSPIRACY: THE EMPEROR WEARS NO CLOTHES The Authoritative Historical Record of the Cannabis Plant, Marijuana Prohibition & How Hemp Can Still Save the World (ISBN: 0525055754)
    Herer, Jack, Queen Of Clubs Publishing., 1994.
    THE APPLES OF APOLLO, Ruck, Staples, and Heinrich,
    Carolina Academic Press, (2001)

    The American Society for Clinical Investigation Inhibition of skin tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo by activation of cannabinoid receptors
    M. Llanos Casanova1, Cristina Blázquez2, Jesús Martínez-Palacio1, Concepción Villanueva3, M. Jesús Fernández-Aceñero3, John W. Huffman4, José L. Jorcano1 and Manuel Guzmán, J. Clin. Invest. 111:43-50 (2003). doi:10.1172/JCI200316116.
    Copyright ©2003 by
    New Mexico Takes Up Medical Marijuana, Susan Konig, Health Care News, April 1, 2005, The Heartland Institute
    THE ADVENTURES OF A MODERN OCCULTIST
    Bland, Oliver Dodd Mead., 1920
    TECHNIQUES OF HIGH MAGIC (ISBN: 0446893781)
    King, Francis; Skinner, Warner Books, Incorporated, New York, NY, U.S.A., 1976
    Sexual Magic.
    Randolph, Pascal Beverly (Translated) Robert North: Magickal Childe, 1988
    1955 – ACTA UNIVERSITATIS PALACKIANAE OLOMUCENSIS – TOM. VI., Prof. Jan Kabelik – HEMP AS A MEDICAMENT, History of the medicinal use of hemp
    The Pharmaceutical Formulas by S.W. Woolley and G.P. Forrester [1929 Edition], cited at antiquecannabisbook.com

  1424. Anonymous on

    It is possible that some people used some cannabis here and there over a great span of time to get stoned . It is possible that some people used some cannabis in some religious applications, at some tome in some places.

    Evidence presented does not add up to a vast and dynamic world cult based on the use of cannabis to invent the concept of God nor a create a spiritual platform for the human species to appreciate and explore creation.

    If cannabis potency is the same now as it was in the distant past, qv the stoner world doubts DEA declaration that super pot of the 21st C is several times stronger than the 60s schwagg – then even more so– a plant poison so profound in its action and impacts so negatively on social productivity== then cannabis intoxication on the scale and intensity Mr B implies here would have presented a very serious problem for human advance in ancient times. A stoned out world could not have built the world you presently enjoy. We evaluate what stoners aspire to and build, and we are not impressed

    Only priests and Sufi like leisure people could afford to be stoners.. only a very tiny % of the human experience players can afford the luxury of being stoned.. Stoner apologists imagine their 420 ideals and scofflaw values are acceptable , even superior to everybody elses.

    Good luck in court oh holy stoners.. if you can’t take the debate heat _here– you will likely burst into flames, like a 420 Icarus when you roll this spotty argument out before a judge..remember you are asking for an exemption to be stoned on a controlled substance and pass it all off as a superior frame of mind.. so far you come off as a windy pot goon, that only other equally vague and angry pot goons think has any merit.. Good luck.. you will probably need it

    please don’t use up too much of our valuable publicly funded court time for your vain purposes.

  1425. Anonymous on

    I’m inclined to believe that the ingredient used in the anointing oil really was Calamus, after reading the post about it being used in Egyptian and Sumerian holy incenses. It makes perfect sense that Moses would have used the Egyptian holy incense ingredients in his anointing oil and incense. Besides, Cannabis was known to be an intoxicant. If Moses had of said that God commanded an intoxicating plant to be used in the holy oil the people would have asked why God wanted that in there. If Cannabis had been used, that would have become known at some time.

    I just don’t think there is a credible connection between the Jewish religion and Cannabis. Your case is far from solid. It’s conceivable, but just barely. I haven’t seen anything yet that would be convincing to a judge. The words used in the Bible simply mean fragrant cane, as you know. Here’s a quote from Wiki on the word cane;

    “Cane are either of two genera of tall, perennial grasses with flexible, woody stalks from the family Poaceae that grow throughout the world in wet soils. They are related to and may include species of bamboo. The genus Arundo is native from the Mediterranean region to the Far East. Arundinaria is found in the New World. In English, the word “cane” derives from biblical Hebrew Qanah for uses corresponding closely to English; in the Bible it is often translated “reed.”

    As you see there, a cane is a type of plant that grows in wet soils, much like Calamus does and like Cannabis does not. The Jews wouldn’t even have referred to Cannabis as cane. I don’t know what name they would have used but I doubt fragrant cane would have been it. The case for Calamus is actually much stronger than for Cannabis.

    I also think that your case is doomed by not only the weak Jewish connection but also the fact that the religion you chose happened to be one of the wackiest on the Internet. If you were smart, you would have said you were a Hindu convert. How could the Supreme Court make a ruling against a major world religion without getting a whole lot of fallout? What will happen if they rule against the CotU? Not a damn thing. Everybody other than Reverends Dumb and Dumber will say job well done.

    Personally, I think you’re insane even to be associated in any way with that “church”. Oh well, you’re not the first person with very poor judgment in religious affiliation. Look at Tom Cruise and John Travolta. You’re in good company and will be well known as a wacko, just like them. Can’t see that being a positive thing but apparently it does something for you. Once you bring up that church, you’ll be laughed out of the Supreme Court. If you’re lucky, there might not be a van outside the court waiting to take you to Bellevue.

  1426. Anonymous on

    http://www.a1b2c3.com/drugs/var002.htm%20

    CLIP.. two minute search on Google

    It is an uncommon but widespread semi-aquatic plant found in temperate and subtemperate zones of both the Old and New Worlds. Today it is mainly found in Europe, North America, Japan, and in a few parts of southern Russia.

    Asians have been using sweet flag for at least the last 2000 years for a number of beneficial medicinal usages. It has been traded in markets throughout the Middle East and Asia.

    Calamus was used in the sacred incenses of both the Sumerians and the ancient Egyptians and remains of the plant were found in the tomb of Tutankhamun. The aromatic leaves were placed on the floors of medieval churches and houses as effective air-fresheners and insecticides.

    It may also have had a similar use in Biblical times. In Exodus 30: 23,24,34, when God ordered Moses to make the Holy Oil, one of its constituents was an aromatic reed which some authorities have suggested might have been Acorus calamus.
    lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll

    .. calamus is a well known all natural perfume fixative, So maybe there was actually no mis translation of the Bible concerning the holy oil ingredients that is the cornerstoine of your theory.

    My tip off was the descriptor ” Rat Root ” from another poster here– the calamus I am familiar with grows all over the Northern hemisphere,, Canada – Central Asia it is very common and some varities are more potent than others…
    Cannabis sativa could have been easily grown much nearer the Holy perfume works by the priests if so required and caravans of pot would be unnecessary. and it would get stale on the way–hashsish had not yet been invented

    Maybe the Hebrews used cannabis for all the reasons we do in 2010- for fringe society to become intoxicated but it likely was NOT a major secret ingredient of the priests holy oil as you suggest. Besides.. topical application of cannabis doesn;’t really work..

    I believe Marc Emery himself demonstrated this in Vancouver a few years ago. his conclusion: pot based body oil was not psychoactive

  1427. Chris Bennett on

    You obviously didn’t look through many of those footnotes. I did reference a some articles I wrote that cite numerous other academics and historical material, and which link to source material, but I also posted pages out of other books in there via google books.

    From my perspective Mr. Anonymous your criticisms just have no basis whatsoever, and you can’t even offer a specific issue, or point of contention, just your own unfounded criticisms.

  1428. Anonymous on

    suspicious, as was your suggestion to Google ” Jesus Cannabis ” and as we can all see the greater part of the links and references about your claim are either by ypou or about you

  1429. Chris Bennett on
  1430. Chris Bennett on

    It is pretty difficult to go into such detail as you suggest in a news interview. See my books for more details, but I will try to answer your questions here as well.

    Books
    Green Gold the Tree of Life: Marijuana in Magic and Religion (1995)
    http://csp.org/chrestomathy/green_gold.html
    Sex, Drugs, Violence and the Bible (2001)
    http://www.forbiddenfruitpublishing.com/SexDrugs/Book
    and the forthcoming Cannabis and the Soma Solution (2010)
    http://www.cannabisculture.com/v2/content/big-bhang
    http://www.amazon.com/Cannabis-Soma-Solution-Chris-Bennett/dp/0984185801

    Re: “How did ” Hoama” just become ” Soma”? pffft and it just was so? thats a little sketchy. – We note that important cultural leap just sort of happened without reason or cause.”

    The connection between the Indian Soma and Persian Haoma is both well known and well established
    http://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&source=hp&q=soma%20haoma&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&tab=wp

    As I.J.S. Taraporewala explained of the connection between Soma and Haoma:

    “The Aryans (using the word in its narrower sense, as comprising the two peoples, the Indians and the Iranians, who called themselves by that proud name) had lived together for long ages in one land, had spoken one tongue and had followed one religion. Where that ancient Motherland of the Aryans was, we have now no means of determining, but it seems to have been a region far to the North, which, according to the Iranian tradition, was overwhelmed and destroyed by ice and snow. At a later period the two main stocks of these people migrated southwards, still keeping together, and after many generations of wandering, ultimately arrived in the neighbourhood of the high mountainous region which we know as the Pamir table-land today. They spread around from that region into the lower fertile and salubrious valleys of the south, west and east. The lands called by us Afghanistan and Bactria were the regions where the Aryans had long carried on their activities.”

    “The language which these people spoke was the ancient tongue of which the language of the Vedic Hymns and that of the Gathic Chants of Zarathustra were both branches. The exceedingly close resemblance between the two has been noted by every student of Aryan philology. So close are these two languages that a mere phonetic change (or, to put it popularly, a slight mispronunciation) often suffices to translate a passage from the one into the other, keeping at the same time the sense absolutely intact. The differences are not greater than what are found between two ‘dialects’ of one original tongue.”

    “The religious traditions inherited by these two great peoples, the Hindus and the Persians were, therefore, the common Aryan traditions…. Haoma is … [an] Indo-Iranian Deity, being the Vedic Soma. In the Avesta He is not a mere personification of the Soma-plant, but a great Teacher who appeared in the very early days to lead forward our infant humanity… Some scholars believe that it was He who introduced the Haoma-(Soma-) Cult among the Aryans and thus gave His own name to the plant and its juice which formed an important item of the Indo-Iranian ritual. The Hindu and Zoroastrian rituals turn entirely upon the offering of the juice of this plant.” (Taraporewala, 1926)

    This common ancestry accounts for the many similarities in the Indian and Persian cosmologies and language as can be seen in the surviving religious texts the Hindu RIG VEDA, and the Persian, Avesta, and especially to their use of the sacred plant known in India as Soma, and in Persian Haoma. As Dasturji Dr. Maneckji N. Dhalla explained of the connections between Haoma and Soma:

    “…[T]he resemblance between… [the Haoma] and the Soma cult is so great that they are spoken of in identical words. We shall quote a few of the more important passages to show the close parallelism between the Haoma-Soma cult. The celestial plant, it is said, was brought upon earth by birds. It is girishta or girijata and parvata vrddhah, say the Vedic texts, and the Avesta says it is bareshnush paiti gairinam and paurvatahva viraodha, that is, growing on mountains. It is Av. zairi, and Skt. hari, meaning green or golden. It is passed through a sieve of the hairs of the tail of the sacred bull among the Iranians and from that made of sheep wool among the Indians. The extracting process is called Av. havana, and Skt. savana. It is Av. haomahe madho, and Skt. somyam madhu, ‘sweet juice of Haoma-Soma.’ It is Av. baeshaza, and Skt. bheshaja, ‘healing.’ The plant is deified among both and then it is called Av. hvaresh, and Skt. svarsh ‘celestial,’ it is Av. hukhratu, and Skt. Sukratu, ‘posessed of good intelligence.’ It is Av. verethraja, and Skt. vrtraha, ‘victorious’.” (Dhalla, 1936)

    See also
    Soma revealed
    http://www.cannabisculture.com/articles/3155.html
    The Soma Solution by Chris Bennett
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-r2mN1pl4Gg
    Burning Shiva: Has The Soma Question Been Answered?
    http://pot.tv/archive/shows/pottvshowse-2041.html

    Re “As for “Kannabosum” just sort of was mistranslated into ” Calamus”- we would appreciate something more substantial than just stating that is just was.”

    I have discussed this situation in detail in earlier blogs

    The Great Keneh Bosem Debate – Part 1
    http://www.cannabisculture.com/v2/node/20688

    Part 2 of the Great Keneh Bosem Debate:
    http://www.cannabisculture.com/v2/node/20803

    This connection has been accepted by a number of scholars

    One of Anthropologist Sula Benet’s, original articles regarding the keneh bosem theory http://books.google.ca/books?id=CBXxnaGk0hwC&pg=PA40&dq=exodus+30:23+can

    As Sula Benet herself notes: “In the original Hebrew text of the Old Testament there are references to hemp, both as incense, which was an integral part of religious celebration, and as an intoxicant” (Benet 1975: 1936). Through comparative etymological study, Benet documented that in the Old Testament and in its Aramaic translation, the Targum Onculos, hemp is referred to as keneh bosem (variously translated as kaneh bosem, kaniebosm, q’neh bosm ) and is also rendered in traditional Hebrew as kannabos or kannabus. The root “kana” in this construction means “cane~reed” or “hemp”, while “bosm” means “aromatic”. This word appeared in Exodus 30:23, whereas in the Song of Songs 4:14, Isaiah 43:24, Jeremiah 6:20, Ezekiel 27:19 the term keneh (or q’aneh) is used without the adjunct bosem.

    Anthropologist Vera Rubin (Jewish, so she knows the language) http://www.thereedfoundation.org/rism/Rubin.html
    Vera Rubin noted, that cannabis “appears in the OLD TESTAMENT because of the ritual and sacred aspect of it” (Rubin 1978).

    The German researcher Immanuel Low, in his DIE FLORA DER JUDEN (1926\1967) identified a number of ancient Hebrew references to cannabis, here as an incense, food source, as well as cloth, noting the keneh, and keneh bosem references amongst others in this regard, independent of Benet . Interestingly, Immanuel Löw, referred to an ancient Jewish Passover recipe that called for wine to be mixed with ground up saffron and hasisat surur, which he saw as a “a kind of deck name for the resin the Cannabis sativa” (Low, 1924). Low suggests that this preparation was also made into a burnable and fragrant concoction by being combined with Saffron and Arabic Gum (Low, 1926\1967).

    In 1980 the respected anthropologist Weston La Barre (1980) referred to the Biblical references in an essay on cannabis, concurring with Benet’s earlier hypothesis. In that same year respected British Journal New Scientist also ran a story that referred to the Hebrew OLD TESTAMENT references: “Linguistic evidence indicates that in the original Hebrew and Aramaic texts of the Old Testament the ‘holy oil’ which God directed Moses to make (Exodus 30:23) was composed of myrrh, cinnamon, cannabis and cassia” (Malyon & Henman 1980).

    As well, William McKim noted in DRUGS AND BEHAVIOUR, “It is likely that the Hebrews used cannabis… In the OLD TESTAMENT (Exodus 30:23), God tells Moses to make a holy oil of ‘myrrh, sweet cinnamon, kaneh bosem and kassia’” (McKim, 1986). A MINISTER’S HANDOOK OF MENTAL DISORDERS also records that “Some scholars believe that God’s command to Moses (Exodus 30:23) to make a holy oil included cannabis as one of the chosen ingredients” (Ciarrocchi, 1993).

    Independent support for Benet’s view of the Semitic origins of the term kaneh can be found in THE WORD: THE DICTIONARY THAT REVEALS THE HEBREW SOURCE OF ENGLISH, by Isaac E. Mozeson. In reference to Hebrew kaneh, Mozeson follows a similar view to Benet’s that the “so-called IE root kanna… is admitted to be “of Semitic origin”….the IE word kannabis (hemp – a late IE word borrowed from an unknown source)” (Mozeson, 1989)….KANBOOS is an early post biblical term for hemp… The word HEMP is traced to Greek kannabis and Persian kannab… The ultimate etymon is conceded by Webster’s to be “a very early borrowing from a non-IE, possibly Semitic language…. In seeking related words… consider Aramaic… KENABH… and [Hebrew] KANEH…” (Mozeson, 1989) Interestingly Mozeson makes no reference to calamus in the context of the term kaneh.

    Prof. Carl Ruck, Classical Mythology, Boston University , (also a linguist)

    Cannabis is called kaneh bosem in Hebrew, which is now recognized as the Scythian word that Herodotus wrote as kannabis (or cannabis). The translators of the bible translate this usually as ‘fragrant cane,’ i.e., an aromatic grass. Once the word is correctly translated, the use of cannabis in the bible is clear. Large amounts of it were compounded into the ointment for the ordination of the priest. This ointment was also used to anoint the holy vessels in the Inner Sanctum or Tabernacle (‘tent’). It was also used to fumigate the holy enclosed space. The ointment (absorbed through the skin) and the fragrance of the vessels (both absorbed by handling and inhaled as perfume) and the smoke of the incense in the confined space would have been a very effective means of administering the psychoactive properties of the plant. Since it was only the High Priest who entered the Tabernacle, it was an experience reserved for him, although as the chrism of priestly ordination it was probably also something experienced in a different way by the whole priesthood. This same psychoactive chrism was later used for the coronation of the kings.

    As well, my co-author of Sex, Drugs, Violence and the Bible, Neil McQueen, who has a Masters in religious Studies and a degree in Hebrew, is also a supporter of Benet’s theory

    Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan, a noted American Orthodox rabbi and author. In THE LIVING TORAH, Kaplan notes that “On the basis of cognate pronunciation and a Septuagint reading, some identify Keneh bosem with English and Greek cannabis, the hemp plant” (Kaplan, 1981). Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan has also noted of early Kabalistic magical schools who used magic and other means of communion for mystic exploration, that “some practices include the use of ‘grasses,’ which were possibly psychedelic drugs” (Kaplan, 1993). The Kabalistic text the Zohar records:

    “There is no grass or herb that grows in which G-d’s wisdom is not greatly manifested and which cannot exert great influence in heaven” and “If men but knew the wisdom of all the Holy One, blessed be He, has planted in the earth, and the power of all that is to be found in the world, they would proclaim the power of their L-rd in His great wisdom.” (Zohar.2,80B)

    Like the Zoroastrian royalty and priesthood, there are indications that early Kabbalists enjoyed the use of the herb, but prevented its consumption by the common people. In the P’sachim, “Rav Yehudah says it is good to eat… the essence of hemp seed in Babylonian broth; but it is not lawful to mention this in the presence of an illiterate man, because he might derive a benefit from the knowledge not meant for him.- Nedarim, fol. 49, col. 1” (Harris, et al., 2004).

    Other sources have noted a Kabbalistic comparison to the effects of cannabis with divine perception, noting an “intriguing reference to cannabis in the context of a fleeting knowledge of God: Zohar Hadash, Bereshit, 16a (Midrash ha-Ne’elam)” (Gross, et al., 1983). Thus, evidence for the use of cannabis in Jewish mysticism does exist,and this fits in well with the suggestions for the role of q’neh in pre-reformation Israel and Judea.

    Re; “Maybe this explains why, the to stoners, root word
    ” Canna ” clearly means ” cane ” but they don’t place any special significance on the word ” Canine” which means ” Dog ” or ” big sharp teeth ”
    and its similarity serves no special purpose to advance the agenda of stoner eletes. That’s a very very loooooong reach from holy intoxicant to a four legged animal that fetches sticks if the key factor is the shared root word from which it is derived.”

    Again you show your ignorance on the subject and your arrogance in your approach. Is there a reason why you are so “snotty”? There is no etymological relation between the connected terms cannabis, and cane with canine. Both ‘Cannabis’ and ‘Cane’ come from an Indo-European root-word ‘Kann’. “Canine” comes from an Indo-European root-word “Kuon”.

    See-
    The Origins of English Words: A Discursive Dictionary of Indo-European Roots By Joseph Twadell Shipley (cannabis and cane both derive from Indo European “kann”)
    http://books.google.ca/books?id=m1UKpE4YEkEC&pg=PA474&dq=cannabis+cane+indo+european&as_brr=3&cd=2#v=onepage&q=&f=false

    The Origins of English Words: A Discursive Dictionary of Indo-European Roots
    http://books.google.ca/books?id=m1UKpE4YEkEC&pg=PA156&dq=indo+european+root+for+cannabis+cane&as_brr=3&cd=1#v=onepage&q=&f=false

    Also
    http://books.google.ca/books?id=8QX50Vddm-gC&pg=PA247&dq=indo+european+root+for+cannabis&as_brr=3&cd=5#v=onepage&q=indo%20european%20root%20for%20cannabis&f=false

    Cannabis (etymology)
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannabis_(etymology)

    The Indo-European term ‘kanna’, was spread around the ancient world by nomadic Scythian tribes, and has left traces through the vernacular ‘an’ seen in various modern terms for cannabis in Indo-European family languages, such as the Indian bhang, the Persian bhanga, the Greek kannabis, the French chanvre, the Dutch canvas and the German hanf. This is also the view of Prof. Carl Ruck who has commented that “kaneh bosem in Hebrew… is now recognized as the Scythian word that Herodotus wrote as kannabis (or cannabis)” (Ruck, 2009). Anthroplogist Weston La Barre noted in regards to this as well:

    …[T]he word would seem very old in Indo-European, rather than multiply borrowed… [I]f as the anthropologist Sula Benet proposes, the cannabis terms are borrowed from a Semitic language, then there is the problem of a seemingly pan-Indo-European term diffused from ancient northern Eurasia. And cannabis, of course grows wild in north central Eurasia, whence the Indo-Europeans came. That the terms [in IE languages for cannabis] are manifest dialectic equivalents would constitute the solidest possible evidence for the antiquity of the word, since the undivided Neolithic Indo-Europeans began to migrate (spreading prehistorically all the way from Ireland to Ceylon) and to break up dialectically in the early Bronze Age. (La Barre, 1980)

    I hope that helps 🙂

  1431. Anonymous on

    In short yes. In short why, because we have not all stood up at the same time to step forward to set them in their place. their place is simply put too, they are not above god , they are under us as we are the nation. without us they would have nothing.

  1432. University of Zonk Phd on

    How did ” Hoama” just become ” Soma”? pffft and it just was so? thats a little sketchy. – We note that important cultural leap just sort of happened without reason or cause. Something that primary in your story would benefit from an explanation, a theory, something to bridge the credibility gap. As for “Kannabosum” just sort of was mistranslated into ” Calamus”- we would appreciate something more substantial than just stating that is just was.Again, because this is an essential and primary feature in your argument. Its difficult to just imagine that it just did change, when other holy or significant words remain very stable over much longer periods of time.

    There is a great deal of conveniently Morphing vocab in this theory. We can’t see it ringing any other cognitive bells than those of the stoner elete who seem a little desperate to advance the case for pot as a forgotten epoch shaping intoxicant.

    Maybe this explains why, the to stoners, root word
    ” Canna ” clearly means ” cane ” but they don’t place any special significance on the word ” Canine” which means ” Dog ” or ” big sharp teeth ”
    and its similarity serves no special purpose to advance the agenda of stoner eletes. That’s a very very loooooong reach from holy intoxicant to a four legged animal that fetches sticks if the key factor is the shared root word from which it is derived.

    If we were to apply the logic offered here, we could argue that 21st century teen pop star diety ” Hanna Montana” was merely a mistranslation of ” Canna Montana” – a California virgin goddess of girly songs and holy intoxication inspired ” munchies” that summons up a forgotten, but hugely significant corn god manifests him/herself in the form of ” Dorittos ”

  1433. Anonymous on

    And here in the USA we are “One Nation Under God“. So who is man to deny another what God has put here for us? Does the government not put themselves above God by doing so?