Recommendations of the LeDain Commission Report on Cannabis

Recommendations of the LeDain Commission Report on Cannabis

The LeDain Commission was set up in 1969 as a Commission of Inquiry
into the non-medical use of drugs. It was established under the
Honourable John Munro, then Minister of National Health and Welfare.
Although the commission’s terms of reference included a broad range of
psychotropic substances, they felt that the issues surrounding cannabis
warranted detailed examination in a separate report, which they issued
in 1971. This report is an extremely thorough examination of the use
and effects of cannabis consumption, and is still considered to be
among the best of its kind.

The commission was made up of five members. Two of the commission

members chose to give separate conclusions and recommendations from the


The majority recommendation of the commission was written by Gerald Le

Dain, Heinz Lehmann and J. Peter Stein. In essence, they recommended

that simple possession of cannabis and cultivation for personal use be

permitted, but that criminal sanctions be continued against the

importation and trafficking of cannabis. What follows is the text of

their recommendations:

We recommend the following changes in the law respecting the

illegal distribution of cannabis:

  1. Importing and exporting should be included in the

    definition of trafficking (as they are under the Food and Drugs

    Act), and they should not be subject to a mandatory minimum

    term of imprisonment. It might be appropriate, however, to

    make them subject to somewhat higher maximum penalties than

    other forms of trafficking.

  2. There should be an option to proceed by indictment or

    summary conviction in the case of trafficking and possession

    for the purpose of trafficking.

  3. Upon indictment, the maximum penalty for trafficking or

    possession for the purpose of trafficking should be five years,

    and upon summary conviction, eighteen months. It should be

    possible in either case to impose fine in lieu of imprisonment.

  4. In cases of possession for the purpose of trafficking it

    should be sufficient, when possession has been proved, for the

    accused to raise a reasonable doubt as to his intention to

    traffic. He should not be required to make proof which carries

    on a preponderance of evidence or a balance of probabilities.

  5. Trafficking should not include the giving, without exchange

    of value, by one user to another of a quantity which could

    reasonably be consumed on a single occasion.

The costs to a significant number of individuals, the majority

of whom are young people, and to society generally, of a policy

of prohibition of simple possession are not justified by the

potential for harm of cannabis and the additional influence

which such a policy is likely to have upon perception of harm,

demand and availability. We, therefore, recommend the repeal

of the prohibition against the simple possession of cannabis.

The cultivation of cannabis should be subject to the same

penalties as trafficking, but it should not be a punishable

offence unless it is cultivation for the purpose of

trafficking. Upon proof of cultivation, the burden should be

on the accused to establish that he was not cultivating for the

purpose of trafficking, but it should be sufficient for him, as

in the case of possession for the purpose of trafficking, to

raise a reasonable doubt concerning the intent to traffic.

The police should have the power to seize and confiscate

cannabis and cannabis plants wherever they are found, unless

the possession or cultivation has been expressly authorized for

scientific or other purposes.

The first of two dissenting opinions was written by Marie-Andree

Bertrand. She argued that the sale and distribution of cannabis be

brought under the control of the provincial and federal governments.

Her recommendations are as follows:

  • The federal government should remove cannabis from the Narcotic

    Control Act, as the Commission recommended in its Interim


  • The federal government should immediately initiate discussions

    with the provincial governments to have the sale and use of

    cannabis placed under controls similar to those governing the

    sale and use of alcohol, including legal prohibition of

    unauthorized distribution and analogous age restrictions.

    Furthermore, this government-distributed cannabis should be

    marketed at a quality and price that would make the ‘black

    market’ sale of the drug an impractical enterprise.

  • The federal government should initiate a program to develop

    efficient practical methods for cannabis production and

    marketing in Canada. A standard form of natural marijuana would

    seem to be most feasible at this stage, but hashish and

    synthetic preparations should also be explored.

  • The federal government should initiate prospective multi-

    disciplinary epidemiological research to monitor and evaluate

    changes in the extent and patterns of the use of cannabis and

    other drugs, and to explore possible consequences to health,

    and personal and social behaviour, resulting from the

    controlled legal distribution of cannabis.

  • All stages of the production and marketing of cannabis should

    be conducted by the federal and/or provincial governments.

The final dissenting opinion was that of Ian L. Campbell. In the

preamble to his recommendations he states that, “I must dissent from

their recommendation that the prohibition of the simple possession of

cannabis be repealed and from part of the recommendation concerning

cultivation. I am in full agreement with all of their other

recommendations.” The reason he gives for opposing the repeal of

simple possession at this time is that it is “apt to be seriously

misinterpreted, particularly by young people” as reflecting the

judgement that cannabis is indeed completely safe and without potential

for harm. He concludes that prohibition of simple possession be

maintained, but that punishment be limited to a fine.

I must dissent from the recommendation of the majority of my

colleagues and recommend that the prohibition of cannabis be

maintained, for the time being at least. Possession of

cannabis should be punishable, upon summary conviction, by a

fine of $25.00 for the first offence and by a fine of $100.00

for any subsequent offence. I fully realize that these

penalties will not be a potent deterrent to those who will not

be deterred by the purely moral force of the law. But far

heavier penalties have clearly failed to deter. I believe that

the reduction of penalties to this level will on the one hand

maintain most of the existing deterrent capacity of the law and

on the other help to reduce the stigmatization to appropriate

levels- levels similar to those for under-age drinking or

buying alcohol from a bootlegger.

With respect to the cultivation of cannabis other than for

purposes of trafficking, I recommend that it continue to be an

offence with penalties identical to those which I recommend for

simple possession.

Despite the fact that the Commission was created to advise government

policy, and that it is regarded as being among the most comprehensive

reports of its kind, none of its recommendations have ever been acted

upon by any Canadian government since it was written.

Virtual Store



  1. Pingback: Make Money Online Without a Website

  2. Pingback: watch it movie streaming

  3. Pingback: home maker on the edge

  4. Pingback: Bad Credit Remortgages

  5. Pingback: wayne

  6. Pingback: best theme for real estate

  7. Pingback: carte grise

  8. Pingback: video marketing

  9. Pingback: garden bridges Dallas

  10. Pingback: garden bridges San Jose

  11. Pingback: upvc window

  12. Pingback: download movie

  13. Pingback: پنجره

  14. Pingback: download

  15. Pingback: steel bowl

  16. Pingback: 12 month loans no credit check

  17. Pingback: دانلود

  18. Pingback: chef stainless steel

  19. Pingback: real money casino games

  20. Pingback: top 40 music

  21. Pingback: real money online casino

  22. Pingback: صيانه

  23. Pingback: compre aqui

  24. Pingback: live sex cams

  25. Pingback: Masha & The Bear

  26. Pingback: yoga pants malaysia

  27. Pingback:

  28. Pingback: Rodrigo

  29. Pingback: gardening

  30. Pingback: gardening

  31. Pingback: www

  32. Pingback: uk top 40

  33. Pingback: Seo

  34. Pingback: Compartilhe

  35. Pingback: Bad Spiderman

  36. Pingback: قیمت پنجره دوجداره

  37. Pingback: drop shipping business

  38. Pingback: دانلود

  39. Pingback: پنجره

  40. Pingback: پنجره

  41. Pingback: Nursery Rhymes

  42. Pingback: plumbing contractor

  43. Pingback: cigna dental providers login

  44. Pingback: دانلود

  45. Pingback: دانلود فیلم اکسیدان

  46. Pingback: karaj

  47. Pingback: window

  48. Pingback: buy proxies

  49. Pingback: ed sheeran

  50. Pingback: walmart1 login

  51. Pingback:

  52. Pingback:

  53. Pingback: top article

  54. Pingback: walmartone login

  55. Pingback: Our Limousine service Vancouver BC office

  56. Pingback: Mitch McConnell

  57. Pingback: garden bridges san francisco

  58. Pingback: viagra

  59. Pingback: مشاوره بازاریابی آنلاین

  60. Pingback: watch porn on instagram

  61. Pingback: SEO consultants London

  62. Pingback: فروش توری پنجره دوجداره

  63. Pingback: پنجره

  64. Pingback: gernas kids

  65. Pingback: دانلود فیلم

  66. Pingback: how to buy bitcoins

  67. Pingback: دانلود فیلم

  68. Pingback: پنجره دوجداره

  69. Pingback: PPC Dublin

  70. Pingback: دانلود فیلم روز

  71. Pingback: buy home

  72. Pingback: دانلود فیلم

  73. Pingback: دانلود فیلم با کیفیت

  74. Pingback: guaranteed approval loans

  75. Pingback: Vancouver BC Airport Shuttle

  76. Pingback: voucher codes

  77. Pingback: cheap golf clubs australia

  78. Pingback: فروش توری پنجره

  79. Pingback: دانلود فیلم

  80. Pingback: شرکت تولیدی پنجره دوجداره ایرانی

  81. Pingback: دانلود فیلم

  82. Pingback: آموزش ساخت پنجره دوجداره

  83. Pingback: پنجره دوجداره وین تک

  84. Pingback: پنجره ضد سرقت المانی

  85. Pingback:

  86. Pingback: game

  87. Pingback: Best Baby Crib Mattress

  88. Pingback: دانلود عالیجناب اول 1

  89. Pingback: دانلود فیلم

  90. Pingback: دانلود سریال عالجناب اول

  91. Pingback: دانلود قسمت دوم عالیجناب

  92. Pingback: دانلود عالیجناب دوم

  93. Pingback: Video prezentacija kompanii

  94. Pingback: watch this video

  95. Pingback: دانلود سریال شهرزاد قسمت 16

  96. Pingback: Erin

  97. Pingback: Roofing Contractors Long Island

  98. Pingback: Social Media Marketing

  99. Pingback:

  100. Pingback: blackjack

  101. Pingback: ΤΣΑΝΤA TRUSSARDI

  102. Pingback:

  103. Pingback: vpn

  104. Pingback: TRUSSARDI BAGS

  105. Pingback: Strasbourg tourist guide

  106. Pingback: Accounting firms in chicago

  107. Pingback: دانلود شهرزاد سیزده 13

  108. Pingback: clash royale hack tool

  109. Pingback: دانلود شهرزاد قسمت 13

  110. Pingback: دانلود شهرزاد قسمت 15 پانزده

  111. Pingback: 917 d2 driver australia

  112. Pingback: anime

  113. Pingback: vpm

  114. Pingback: nicocontrol funciona

  115. Pingback: mdansby

  116. Pingback: دانلود قسمت هشتم شهرزاد

  117. Pingback: recommandation

  118. Pingback: DraftKings

  119. Pingback: Braun Oral-B Vitality 3d white

  120. Pingback: coin-banks bitcoin

  121. Pingback: bitcoin investment coin-banks

  122. Pingback: bitcoin hft

  123. Pingback: Porn World

  124. Pingback: coin-banks bitcoin

  125. Pingback: magazin de pescuit

  126. Pingback: coin-banks cryptocurrency

  127. Pingback: coin-banks review

  128. Pingback: پنجره دوجداره

  129. Pingback: brief boxer gay

  130. Pingback: پنجره دوجداره

  131. Pingback: jake burgess berlin ct

  132. Pingback: buy zynga poker chips

  133. Pingback: video gaming

  134. Pingback: schlong

  135. Pingback: Roof Repair Long Island

  136. Pingback: فروش توری پنجره دوجداره

  137. Pingback: groin wrap support

  138. Pingback: دانلود موزیک

  139. Pingback: Facial Spa Services Coral Springs

  140. Pingback: Acne Facial Treatments Deerfield Beach

  141. Pingback: Facial Spa Services Pembroke Park

  142. Pingback: Acne Facial Treatments Cooper City

  143. Pingback: دانلود فیلم سریال عاشقانه

  144. Pingback: ساخت پنجره دو سه جداره

  145. Pingback: pisces man and scorpio woman love compatibility 2018

  146. Pingback: CBD Pills For Sale

  147. Pingback: قیمت پنجره

  148. Pingback: آموزش پنجره دوجداره

  149. Pingback: porno gratis

  150. Pingback: videos porno

  151. Pingback: porno gratis

  152. Pingback: porno gratis

  153. Pingback: porno

  154. Pingback: porno

  155. Pingback: porno

  156. Pingback: videos porno

  157. Pingback: porno

  158. Pingback: videos porno

  159. Pingback: videos porno

  160. Pingback: videos porno

  161. Pingback: taylormade m2 irons

  162. Pingback: under armour shoes perth

  163. Pingback: bypass windows 7 admin password

  164. Pingback: دانلود قسمت دوازدهم عاشقانه

  165. Pingback: دانلود قسمت 11 شهرزاد 2

  166. Pingback: دانلود قسمت سوم شهرزاد دوم

  167. Pingback: Hunde skove

  168. Pingback: Paleo Diet

  169. Pingback: April O'Neil

  170. Pingback: Mia Malkova

  171. Pingback: Michelle Martinez

  172. Pingback: Michelle Martinez

  173. Pingback: دانلود قسمت 13 عاشقانه

  174. Pingback: دانلود قسمت هفدهم عاشقانه

  175. Pingback: دانلود قسمت چهارده عاشقانه

  176. Pingback: big dick

  177. Pingback: قیمت پنجره

  178. Pingback: دانلود شهرزاد قسمت نهم فصل دوم

  179. Pingback: دانلود شهرزاد قسمت دوازدهم فصل دوم

  180. Pingback: دانلود قسمت هشتم شهرزاد دوم

  181. Pingback: دوم 2 دوم 2 دوم 2 دوم 2 دوم 2 دوم 2 دوم 2 دوم 2 دوم 2 دوم 2 دوم 2 دوم 2aaadffdsvc

  182. Pingback:

  183. Pingback: 4cyn5et4m5t94c5t9m4vn54cx65

  184. Pingback: economics tuition

  185. Pingback: warehouse space for rent miami

  186. Pingback: life insurance lawyer attorney

  187. Pingback: cocuk sex escort

  188. Pingback: anami sikin

  189. Pingback: warehouse miami fl doral

  190. Pingback: cocuk escort

  191. Pingback: reserver hotel pas cher

  192. Pingback: seks izle