Marc and Dave on Christian Television!Marc, Dave and some dumbass from Crimestoppers are the guests on Right Wing Prohibitionist and Christian Minister Doug Kooy’s program ‘Online’. Watch poor Doug go into panic mode when he is faced with the information about Biblical cannabis references. If you live in Vansterdam be sure to tune in to Now TV Online on Wedenesday November 12th to see Dana Larsen sit in the Marijuana hot seat.
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Pot TV manager Chris Bennett’s letter to Doug Kooy
I watched with interest your recent interview with Marc Emery and David Malmo-Levine. Your continuous accusations and assertions reminded me of a saying I’m sure your familiar with “Let him who is without sin cast the first stone”. Doug, there is no righteuous like self righteous and you have shown yourself to be a real hypocritical stone thrower. You continually lambasted Marc and David for breaking the law, both past and present and endorsed that continued criminal charges against people who use marijuana, but then acknowledged your own use of cannabis back in your “rock and roll days in Hawaii” and you even stated that you “loved that high”. If your so into prohibition why don’t you make ammends to society for your own past transgressions and submit a written confession regarding your use and enjpoyment of this ‘sinful’ product to the local authourities and commit yourself to prison? Or is it just the people who use and enjoy it now you want to see punished? ‘Commit the crim, do the time’, sound familiar Doug? There is another saying “It is not what goes into a man’s mouth that defiles him, but what comes out of it”. Dammned by your own words of hypocrisy.
Even your own poll shows people 98% in favour of legalization.
Further, in your zeal for persecution against the scapegoat “drug user” you have put your self in bed with Narconon, a group founded by L. Ron Hubbard, a man with ties to satanism and who referred to Aliester Crowley (aka the Beast 666) as his good friend, and who recomended that people with lung cancer need to smoke more cigarettes and not less to cure the disease (Ron himself smoked 4 packs a day). Hubbard was a drug user and hypocrite as well. I recomend you watch this facinating documentary on L. Ron Hubbard that features audio of Ron himself speaking of Aliester Crowley and recomending cigarettes.
L. Ron Hubbard on Drugs
Fascinating Weirdness! Was the founder of Scientology and the drug rehab program Narconon a user of Drugs and a Practitioner of Black Magick? Was L. Ron Hubbard working for Naval Intelligence and involved in the drug induced mind control predecessors of MK Ultra? Has Scientologist money been used to import heroin and cocaine? Did L. Ron Hubbard really say not smoking enough cigarettes will cause lung cancer? Why are Scientologists filming events like Canada’s Cannabis Day and the Seattle Hempfest? Are Scientologists planning to take over the world and make it Drug-Free? Watch this fascinating video from Detroit’s Red-Eye Rising Productions to find out more.
As for the Christian and Judaic use of cannabis, sink your teeth into this for starters……….
From the Introduction to Sex, Drugs, Violence and the Bible
Next only to sex, do drugs, as in psychoactive substances, play a pivotal role in the development of religion, and the Bible is here no exception. The importance of drugs in religion, like that of sexuality, is often overlooked by researchers who have been imprinted with our Christian influenced societies innate prejudice against these substances. Moreover, without personal experience of the power of psychoactive plants, many researchers have failed to perceive the pivotal role that such plants and preparations have played in religious thought the world over. “All religions in which mysticism and contact with the supernatural play an important part, attribute a sacred character to an intoxicating drink or other intoxicant”(Danielou 1992). The Biblical references to wine, which had become the blood of the savior by the Christian period, clearly falls into this category. The use of wine in the ancient world was “unquestionably due to its power to stimulate the mystical faculties of human nature, usually crushed to earth by the cold facts and dry criticisms of the sober hour”(James 1929). Even more interestingly, as we shall amply demonstrate on these pages, was the use of other intoxicants amongst the Old Testament Israelites.
Despite the early marriage between shamanism and psycho-active plants that inspired the development of whole religions, naturally occurring botanicals like the psilocybin mushroom, Indian hemp, peyote cactus and similar substances have been condemned as devil’s potions and drugs by most religious groups of our modern era. Historically, this situation is an anomaly, not the norm. Prior to the Common Era and throughout the ancient world these magical plants had been seen as sacraments and constituted a very important part of religious worship. In the 1930’s respected scholar W.E. Budge commented that, “Many of the ancient herbalists knew that the juices of certain plants possessed properties which produced extraordinary effects when introduced into the human body, and that some might be used as aphrodisiacs, and others as narcotics, and others as stimulants. And the magicians when they were acquainted with them naturally used them in lotions and philters to produce both good and evil effects”(Budge 1930). Some modern scholars have taken this line of thought further, pointing out that the ancients considered these substances to be the sacred food of the Gods, and a means of communicating with the divine. (Schultes and Hoffman 1979; Mckenna 1992; Ott 1993, etc.).
Still other scholars suggest that humanities drive to alter their consciousness is as innate as the drives to fulfill sexual needs and hunger. Harvard psychiatrist and marijuana medical expert Dr. Lester Grinspoon holds the “view that humans have a need – perhaps even a drive – to alter their state of consciousness from time to time”. Likewise, well-known health and drug researcher Dr. Andrew Weil commented, “There is not a shred of hope from history or from cross-cultural studies to suggest that human beings can live without psychoactive substances”. (A view that is discussed more fully in Ronald K. Siegel’s Intoxication: Life in Pursuit of Artificial Paradise.)
Etymologist and religious historian John M. Allegro pointed out that our ancestors believed these plants were living gateways to other realms, and thought of them as angels. (The Greek and Hebrew equivalent of the name angel literally means messenger or workers of miracle). The ancients interpreted the experiences they received from these plant-angels as divine revelations, in much the same way that shamans have done around the world before recorded history, and are still doing in South America, Africa, Asia and even North America today.
Although it is little known to most modern readers, marijuana and other entheogens played a very important role in ancient Hebrew culture and originally appeared throughout the books that make up the Bible’s Old Testament. The Bible openly discusses the use of mandrake, which is psychoactive, along with intoxication by wine and strong drink so the Hebrews were more than familiar with altering their consciousness. What will be surprising to most modern readers, is the frequent use of cannabis-sativa, by both the Hebrew Priests and Kings. Indicating, as anthropologist Vera Rubin noted, that cannabis “appearsâ€¦ in the Old Testament because of the ritual and sacred aspect of it”(Rubin 1978).
The Old Testament use of cannabis becomes less surprising when one considers that cannabis has been popular at some point with virtually every culture that has discovered its intoxicating properties. Hemp has “been smoked and ingested under various names (hashish, charas, bhang, ganja, kif, marijuana) in the Oriental countries, in Africa, and in the Caribbean area for recreation, pleasure, healing and ritual purposes. They have been important sacraments for such diverse groups as the Indian Brahmans, several orders of the Sufis, African natives, ancient Skythians, and the Jamaican Rastafarians.”(Grof 1984) Pointing out the wide spread religious use of hemp throughout the ancient Near East, amongst the Babylonians, Assyrians, Scythians and Hebrews, as well as the early spread of its cultic use from northern Europe, to Siberian Asia, China, India, Asia minor and Southeast Asia, the famed anthropologist Weston La Barre, suggested that “cannabis was part of a religio-shamanic complex of at least Mesolithic age, in parallel with an equally old shamanic use of soma…”(La Barre 1980). A hypothesis that is further confirmed by our own research.
For over a hundred and fifty years various researchers have been trying to bring attention to the cannabis references within the Old Testament. “Like the ancient Greeks, the Old Testament Israelites were surrounded by marijuana-using peoples. A British physician, Dr. C. Creighton, concluded in 1903 that several references to marijuana can be found in the Old Testament. Examples are the “honeycomb” referred to in the Song of Solomon, 5:1, and the “honeywood” in I Samuel 14: 25-45″ (Consumer Reports 1972). Creighton felt that in ” the O.T. there are some half-dozen passages where cryptic references to hachish may be discovered… But that word, which is the key to the meaning, has been knowingly mistranslated in the Vulgate and in the modern version, having been rendered by a variant also by the LXX in one of the passages, and confessed as unintelligible in the other by the use of a marginal Hebrew word in Greek letters” (Creighton 1903).
“Hachish, which is the disreputable intoxicant drug of the East…is of unknown antiquity. It is known that the fiber of hemp-plant, *Cannabis sativa*, was used for cordage in ancient times; and it is therefore probable that the resinous exudation, “honey” or “dew”, which is found upon its flowering tops on some soils, or in certain climates (*Cannabis Indica*), was known for its stimulant or intoxicant properties from an equally early date…we may assume it to have been traditional among the Semites from remote antiquity. There are reasons, in the nature of the case, why there should be no clear history. All vices are veiled from view; they are *sub rosa*; and that is true especially of the vices of the East. Where they are alluded to at all, it is in cryptic, subtle…and allegorical terms. Therefore if we are to discover them, we must be prepared to look below the surface of the text. (Creighton 1903).
Dr. Creighton is not alone in his view. A few decades later the German researcher Immanuel Low, in his Die Flora Der Juden, (19261967) identified a number of ancient Hebrew references to cannabis, here as an incense, food source, as well as cloth. In more recent times Professor Stanley Moore, chairman of the philosophy department of the University of Wisconsin-Olatteville, has stated that Biblical references to “aromatic herbs” and “smoke” could mean psycho-active drugs used in religious observances that, Moore said are as old as religion itself. “Western Jews and Christians, who shun psycho-active drugs in their faith practices, are the exception, not the norm.”.
Of the historical material indicating the Hebraic use of cannabis, the strongest and most profound piece of evidence was established in 1936 by Sula Benet (a.k.a. Sara Benetowa), a Polish etymologist from the Institute of Anthropological Sciences in Warsaw. Benet later stated that: “In the original Hebrew text of the Old Testament there are references to hemp, both as incense, which was an integral part of religious celebration, and as an intoxicant”(Benet 1975). Through comparative etymological study, Bennett documented that in the Old Testament and in its Aramaic translation, the Targum Onculos, hemp is referred to as kaneh bosm, which is also rendered in traditional Hebrew as kannabos or kannabus. The root “kan” in this construction means “reed” or “hemp”, while “bosm” means “aromatic”. This word appeared in Exodus 30:23, Song of Songs 4:14., Isaiah 43:24, Jeremiah 6:20, Ezekiel 27:19.
In 1980 the Hebrew University in Israel confirmed Benet’s identification of Kaneh-Bosm as hemp, and the respected anthropologist Weston La Barre(1980) referred to the Biblical references in an essay on cannabis. In that same year respected British Journal New Scientist also ran a story that referred to the Hebrew Old Testament references, (Malyon & Henman 1980). A modern counterpart of the word is even listed in Ben Yehudas Pocket Dictionary and other Hebrew source books. Further, on line, the Internet’s informative Navigating the Bible, used by countless theological students, even refers to the Exodus 30:23 reference as possibly designating cannabis. In 1995, with the publication of Green Gold, the biblical references to cannabis were given their most thorough examination up to that time, but unfortunately this information is still not widely known by most modern day Jews, Christians or religious scholars. Further, the news of the cannabis references is not always excepted with open minds. One Rabbi sent the following emotional response to an article Chris Bennett wrote discussing the references to hemp in the Old Testament;
“Incense (and smoke) are all important parts of what the Jewish people did in the Desert as part of serving G-d. In fact, I’ll even agree that perhaps Cannabis was one of the constituent ingredients in the incense. But there is no proof whatsoever that people were getting high! Any objective Torah Scholar or Rabbi who was asked about the total number of times getting high is mentioned in the Bible, or in the Talmud or Midrash, would answer “none”. Cannabis incense or blankets, maybe -but getting high….remember the burden of proof is on you to prove that this is in fact what the Bible is saying. Otherwise, it’s all conjecture. And let’s face it, talk is cheap!”
One might comment that any believer of holy scripture, especially a Rabbi or Priest, could hardly be considered objective when it comes to discussing their faith. If Moses and the prophets were high when they were “talking” with God, this could challenge the legitimacy of the so-called Holy Scripture. The authors sincerely hope that this, the most clear concise presentation of the information regarding the use of cannabis as an entheogen in the Old Testament, will answer any questions on the matter once and for all!
As these pages shall clearly document, many of the Prophets of the Bible were none other than the ancient Middle East counterparts and predecessor of the “New World” shamans that Christianized European explorers would later encounter in their travels. Sadly, with the so-called “discovery” of such shaman lead groups, came Christian settlers and missionaries, who would more than just frown upon indigenous religions. Whole cultures that employed these entheogenic plant-drugs for shamanistic ecstasy, or practiced ritual sexuality, have been decimated by Bible preaching Christian missionaries, who did away with what they considered the primitive and evil practices of the heathens. In exchange the missionaries forced these cultures to except their more civilized religion, the true faith along with its burden of original sin, (and we have all seen what that cultural exchange has done for the aboriginal peoples of the world).
My presentation for an upcoming conference (see www.entheogenesis.ca)
We all know the myth of Eden, with Adam, Eve, the Serpent and the Forbidden Tree.
The references to the forbidden trees in the Eden story and the effects of enlightenment produced by them have long been a topic of discussion by researchers interested in the role of psycho-active substances in the Genesis of religions for obvious reasons and a subject I have taken a personal interest in for over a decade.
The parallels between the story of prohibition of the forbidden fruit in Eden and those of marijuana are uncanny. Just as Adam and Eve were forbidden from eating the enlightening fruit of the tree of knowledge with the warning that “on that day you will surely taste death”, so to was the prohibition of the “devil’s weed” instilled with the warnings that in it’s seemingly harmless leaves lurked “murder, insanity & death”. In both cases the test, for those who have dared to take it, proved to be profoundly untrue.
Although the Eden myth as described in the Bible is thought to have reached it’s final composition sometime around 500 BC, the basic archetypal elements, the sacred tree, the serpent, etc. can be traced back to histories earliest known myths. Indeed the fable of the trees of Eden is thought to be intricately intertwined with the History of the Vedic Soma and the Persian Haoma, and even in humanities earliest known myth, the tale of Gilgamesh, which tells the story of the hero’s failure to grasp the plant of immortality after being tricked by the serpent who guarded it…… Hopefully our own quest for the tree of life will not end so tragically………….
It is interesting to note that in the Eden myth the first act Adam and Eve did after partaking of the tree of knowledge was to sew garments for themselves as cannabis is the oldest know fibre. For from what can be derived from the historical record we know that on the island of Taiwan, just off the coast of mainland China, 12,000 year old archeolgocal evidence such as tools used for working hemp fibers and impressions of hemp fiber left on pottery fragments, demonstrate stone-age mans knowledge and use of the fibrous hemp plant. Showing it’s already widespread use in the distant, distant past , the Columbia History of the world recorded that a trace of 10,000 year old hemp fabric was found at Catal Huyuk, in ancient Mesopotamia now in modern Turkey .
These archeological records document the origins of both cannabis and agriculture during the peak of the ancient Goddess cultures, a time when early agricultural based communities live in general peace, and viewed the many fruits of the earth as gifts from a devine Mother Goddess who continually gave birth and continued fertility to all of creation. As in Hunter gatherer cultures women generally collect plants and berries and men hunt for game, it is believed by many modern anthropologists that agriculture was a discovery of women, who became familiar with the cycles of plants through harvesting. As gatherers, women also became the first understand the magical and medicinal qualities of the plants they collected. As all food and sustenance was viewed as gifts from the goddess, not surprisingly any substance harvested that contained psycho-active properties was considered as carrying forth the spirit of the goddess to her worshippers. Indeed the pioneering cannabis researcher Sara Benetowa saw the “matriarchal circle” as the omega point where “the mass use of hashish” occurred on a cultic level. It is likely due to such evidence that many scholars view the Eve of Eden, the “mother of all living” and her relationship to the forbidden tree as a patriarchaly demoralized depiction of the mother goddess and her relationship with sacred plants and nature.
The archeological record documents that stone-age man was not only familiar with cannabis’ fibers, but also with the effects of burning the plant as well. Oxford archeologist Andrew Sherrat points to the use of cannabis incenses at a gravesite of a group known as the Proto-Indo-Europeans, the Kurgans, who occupied what is know Romania 5,000 years ago. The discovery of a smoking-cup which contained remnants of charred hemp seeds at the site documents that 3,000 years before Christ humanity had already been using cannabis for religious purposes for millennia. From remnants of the charred hemp seeds we can see that the combustible (and psychoactive) parts of the plant – namely flowers and leaves – had been consumed and the hard shell like residue of the seeds left behind. Sherrat also points to even older ceramic tripod bowls, believed to have been ancient incense burners of cannabis due to the use of hemp cords to place impressions upon them, as further indications of humanities primordial relationship with cannabis.
It was likely from an even earlier such group that the primordial cannabis cult arose and spread out reaching all the way from the Orient, throughout the middle east, into Europe, India and Africa. Considering this it is not surprising to find that the root word for “cannabis” “canna” occurs in the Indo-European language, the primordial dialect that accounts for similarities in the English, German, Latin, Greek, Persian and Sanskrit languages. Canna came to refer to the long cane like stocks of the multi-purpose cannabis crop grown in the ancient world, for both fiberous and pharmacological properties, and the term cane itself is derived from cana and can originally be identified with the multi-purpose hemp stalk.
The Tree of Life is strongly associated with the mythical soma, the original sacrament of the most ancient of peoples. Numerous scholars, such as Alain Danielou, AL Basham, and Steve Hager, have suggested that due to Rig Veda descriptions of the ancient sacrament, and the way it was prepared, that soma was a cannabis preparation.
Recent archeological evidence has emerged from Russian excavations in the Kara Kum desert of Turkmenistan which gives the cannabis-soma theory an element of legitimacy that the other candidates cannot top. “[F]or the first time in the world archeological practice, monumental temples were found in which intoxicating beverage of the soma-haoma type were prepared for cult ceremonies…. The excavations documentally proved that poppy, cannabis and ephedra were used for making the soma-haoma drinks, and thickets of these plants were found in excess in the vicinity of the excavated temples of Margiana.”(Sarianidi, 2003)
Soviet archeologists uncovered a large shrine, about the size of a football field dating from 2,000 BC and consisting of two parts, one of which was obviously for public, but the other, as anthropologistr Richard Rudgeley describes “hidden from the gaze of the multitude, an inner sanctum of the priesthood. In one of these private rooms were found three ceramic bowls. Analysis of samples found in these vessels by Professor Mayer-Melikyan revealed the traces of both cannabis and Ephedra. Clearly both these psychoactive substances had been used in conjunction in the making of hallucinogenic drinks. In the adjoining room of the same inner sanctum were found ten ceramic pot-stands which appear to have been used in conjunction with strainers designed to separate the juices from the twigs, stems and leaves of the plants. In another room at the other end of the shrine a basin containing remains of a considerable quantity of cannabis was discovered, as well as a number of pottery stands and strainers that have also been associated with making psychoactive beverages.”(Rudgley, 1998)
Remnants from vessels recovered at the site and involved in the preparation of the sacred drink have impressions from cannabis seeds left in the gypsum that settled over the millennia and the remants of ephedra, poppy and mostly cannabis in the white sediment stuck to the sides of ancient pots and pitchers. Russian archeologist Victor Sariandidi sayas this proves these plants “were used for making the soma – haoma drinks…”(Sariandidi 2003)
Reconstructions of instruments used in the preparation of the ancient drink, offer some insights into the ingenuity of these ancient stoners. The plant was soaked in water in large tubs and then beaten and pressed into milk, a process directed at releasing the THC rich trichchomes from the plant matter, then this preparation was placed into large pots which had a hole in the bottom covered with a wool filter, and the final preparation was recovered in a vessel placed below. A technique similar in some respects to the modern method of making water hash, and the filter bags used in that process.
The addition of the mildly stimulating plant ephedra in this preparation, likely accounts for the reputaition of soma to keep one awake, and was probably done in the same spirit as medieval Sufis, who would eat hashish and drink lots of strong coffee then stay up all night playing religious music. (Interestingly, ephedra is itself on the verge of being being banned, as have cannabis, opium poppies and numerous other plants used in a similiar religious spirit.)
Based upon the massive size of the archeological site, the Russian team believes that the temple served as a major depot for the entheogenic drink and that devotees travelled from a wide area to imbibe of it there. If, as the evidence indicates, this site was one of the earliest remnants of the soma cult, then here with this cannabis cult we can find the very ancient roots of many modern exisiting religions.
Rare spices, incenses and herbs were commodities for trade on the ancient spice trail and not always being available locally, such as things like water or wheat which generally have local dialect names, more precious items often retained the foreign name with which they came. Thus it is not surprising to learn that “canna” related words occurred in Mesopotamia through the Assyrian and Babylonian language names such as “kenab'” “kunubu” and even the Hebrew “kaneh” and the slightly more descriptive “kaneh bosem” meaning fragrant cane.
Such ancient trade routes not only account for the spread of cannabis, and variations of it’s name, but because storytellers often accompanied the caravans that followed this path, this also accounts for the many of the similarities in religious myth that occur throughout the ancient world.
It is here in Mesopotamia that the genesis tale of Eden is thought to have originated. Historians and mythologists point to myths of the crafty god known variously as Ea, Enki, Oannes and Dagon, and depicted as a fish man or serpent man, along with his paradisal garden of Dilmun and the “kisakanu tree” or “plant of life” located in its center as an earlier more positive version of the serpent of Eden and the forbidden trees. Interestingly the term kisakanu in reference to Ea sacred tree, contains the term “kanu'” it’s similarity to the later Assyrian name of cannabis “Kenab” indicate it is quite obviously derived from the sameancient root for cannabis “canna”. The use of the kiskanu tree for fiber, incense and in ritual anointing give clear indications as to it’s botanical origins
Ancient descriptions tell how the kiskanu incenses and anointing oils were used to “open the ear” of the recipient so they could hear the “voice” of Ea, becoming became “He whose ear Ea had opened.”. For instance in the Mesopotamian version of the flood, the hero Ut-Napithtim playing the role later inherited by Noah, burns incense of myrtle wood, cedar and cane, as in cannabis, to receive the advice and blessing of Ea,
The Encyclopedia Britannica makes the following comments about the use of incense in religious ritual “…the ceremonial use of incense in contemporary ritual is most likely a relic of the time when the psychoactive properties of incense brought the ancient worshipper into touch with supernatural forces.” For close to a century scholars have long been noting that ‘Cannabis as an incense was… used in the Temples of Assyria and Babylon `because its aroma was pleasing to the gods.’ Lacking the invention of pipes for smoking marijuana, the ancients would burn cannabis resins combined with other fragrant herbs on enclosed alters and inhale the fumes. Here we can see the ancient King Esarhaddon, whom we shall discuss further for his relationship with cannabis, getting ready to place his head in and inhale the fumes of the sacred qunubu from such a veiled altar. [with image]
In his 1874 work, Lenormant wrote that: “The Chaldean Magus [Mesopotamian holy men of the Chaldean kingdom, circa 400-500 BC] used artificial means, intoxicating drugs for instance, in order to attain to [a]state of excitement acts of purification and mysterious rituals increased the power of the incantations Among these mysterious rituals must be counted the use of enchanted potions which undoubtedly contained drugs that were medically effective” (Lenormant 1874).
In 1989, Barber noted that, in the second quarter of the first millennium BC in Mesopotamia, the “word qunnabu (also rendered qunapy, qunubu, qunbu) begins to turn up as for a source of oil , fiber and medicine “(Barber 1989). Oil, fiber and medicine are three of the most well-known products of the cannabis plant. In our own time, numerous scholars have come to acknowledge qunubu as an early reference to cannabis .
In 1979, Schultes and Hoffman wrote: “It is said that the Assyrians used hemp as incense in the seventh and eighth century before Christ and called it ‘Qunubu'”. Further, the pioneering research of etymologist Sula Benet led to his assertion that “the ritual use of hemp as well as the name, cannabis originated in the Ancient Near East” (Benet 1975). Benet wrote further that, “cannabis as an incense was burned in the temples of Assyria and Babylon ‘because its aroma was pleasing to the Gods.'”
An ancient Babylonian inscription reads: “The glorious gods smell the incense, noble food of heaven; pure wine, which no hand has touched do they enjoy”. According to Mackenzie, “[in Babylonian religious rites,]inspiration was derived by burning incense, which, if we follow evidence obtained elsewhere, induced a prophetic trance. The gods were also invoked by incense.”
King Ashurbanipal lived about 650 B.C., cuneiform descriptions of an incense containing qunnapu [cannabis]along with oil of cypress, aloes, myrtle, palm et al. was described in his library and this description is generally viewed as a copy of a much older recipe. Writings during the earlier kingdom period of Ashurbanipal’s father Esarhaddon give clear indications of the high regard the ancient Assyrians held this sacred plant. “the main items for the [sacred]rites are fine oil, water, honey, odorous plants and cannabis [qunubu]”.
The reference to honey and other odorous plants is interesting as cannabis appears under the Hebrew name ‘kaneh’ in the Old Testament’s song of Songs, alongside odorous plants and honey. Reference to honey also indicates that cannabis may have been consumed as a delectable as well. In 1903 British physician Dr. C. Crieghton noted in his essay ‘Evidence of the Hashish Vice in the Old Testament’ that it was common practice amongst mid-east royalty to consume dried cannabis flowers dipped in honey as a psycho-active delicacy, a practice that Criegton suggested, was shared by certain biblical figures as shall be discussed later. By heating the honey, before dipping the buds, the THC is made more digestible and active, and dries with a crystallized coating.
Alternatively, an oil based solution was also made containing the active ingredients of cannabis, THC which is fatty soluble such a topical preparation used in sufficient quantities, can be transferred through the skin, and this was a common practice throughout the ancient near east. This Holy Oil was thought to be particularly imbued with the spirit of “god”.
Considering that both Ashurbanipal and his father Esarhaddon had the prototype of Eden’s serpent, the crafty god Ea as their tutelary deity in their role as kings, it is interesting to note their association with a plant symbol described by many researchers as the “tree of life”. [begin showing various depiction of assyrian tree of life]and contained in scenes relating to the “sacred rite” in which we know historically that cannabis was used. No known cuneiform written descriptions of what this image is meant to depict exist but we can see it obviously plays the role of the kiskanu tree discussed earlier. Likewise no artistic depiction of cannabis or qunubu as it was known at the time, an important plant that by all accounts that served the ancient mesopotamians in a variety of manners, ranging from fiber for cloth and ropes, lighting and food oil, medicine and as an entheogenic substance imbibed as an incense, drink, food and even in specially prepared oils and perfumes.
The images show the kings being anointed with cone like buds from the sacred tree and this is likely indicative of the anointing of the King from Ea’s sacred kiskanu tree.
Although highly stylized to protect it’s true botanical identity from the profane, the evidence that the sacred tree symbolizes cannabis can be seen in the pine cone like buds collected by the bird masked shaman from the sacred tree covered by seven pronged leaves. The winged and masked shaman represent the ability of the sacred priests to travel between worlds through their entheogenic use of the sacred plant, the seven pronged leaves, the seven spears of the hemp leaf, the pine cone like buds, buds of enthogenic cannabis plant. Even the sacred basket of Ea used for collecting the pine-cone like buds, is weaved from the fibers of the sacred Assyrian tree of life, ensuring it’s true identity as cannabis hemp. Now the mystery of ancient Tree of Life is unveiled and the sacred kiskanu stands revealed.
Every temple contained a grove of the the tree of life, the holy kis-kanu, and the king acted as “master-gardener” over it. By tending the sacred herb garden the king ensured the continued fertility of his reign and of his kingdom……
The original Sumerian words for “Tree of Life” contain a language clue as to the plant’s euphoric nature. As Allegro noted in 1970, “In Sumerian the words for ‘live’ and ‘intoxicate’ are the same, TIN, and the “tree of life”, GEShTIN, is the ‘vine'”. Likewise, the Hebrew word used for life, (as in the Tree of Life), ‘chay’, has more to do with enlivening, freshness, or merriment, rather than personal immortalisation. Ancient Mesopotamian myth, passed down in Sumerian, eventually codified into early biblical accounts written in Hebrew. During this process, the semantic resonance of the words “Tree of Life” stayed the same, indicating a fundamental connection of the fabled Tree with ecstatic states of consciousness.
The ancient Sumerian city of Ur was Father Abraham’s ancestral home. When Abraham traveled from Ur to become the father of Judaism, he carried with him the legends and customs of his people. Many of these legends and customs have particular relevance as sources to our modern bible.
Prior to the time of Moses, where we get some of our strongest Biblical evidence of cannabis use, the Hebrews spent some time in slavery in Egypt, and here to we find similar evidence of the use of cannabis to that in Mesopatamia. It has been suggested by some scholars that Jewish concepts of monotheism, the worship of one god instead of a pantheon of many, were deeply influenced by those of the Egyptian heretic king Ahkenaton. Interestingly Ahkenaton is known to have had high ranking semites in his personal service and in roles of authority. Also tablets referring to the formementioned god Ea have been found on Egyptian sites relating to and dating from Ahkenaton’s reign. More interestingly for our discussion, is that the use of cannabis during the reign of the monotheist, Ahkenaton, was discussed in relation to ancient hemp cordage found on the site of El Armane, the city of Ahkenaton, (Abel 1980); and references indicating that in Thebes, the birth place of the ancient king, cannabis was made into a drink (Shultes and Hoffman 1979).Other Egyptian references refer to cannabis as sm sm t and describe its use as both a salve and incense (THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ISLAM) Further, the forsenic toxologist Dr. Svelta Balabanova discovered evidence of cannabis use, and other “magic plants” when doing deep tissue samples of Ramses the Great, and other ancient Egyptian mummies (Sumach 1997).
More recently as reported by Ananova
Monday 7th October 2002
Scientists recreate the perfume of the pharaohs
Scientists in France say they have recreated the perfume of the pharaohs which they believe was used by the ancient Egyptians to boost their love-lives.
But as the ingredients of Kyphi perfume, said to be an aphrodisiac which helps wearers relax, include cannabis it cannot be commercially produced.
Experts from L’Oreal and C2RMF, the Centre for Research and Restoration of French Museums, succeeded in recreating the legendary Kyphi perfume.
French researcher Sandrine Videault, who for years had attempted to recreate the aroma, was finally able to do so with the help of Greek historiographer Plutarch.
The Greek writer had written that Kyphi had the power “to send someone to sleep, to help them have sweet dreams, to relax them, to drive away the worries of the day and to bring peace.”
The numerous ingredients include cinnamon, incense, juniper and myrrh.
Videault says all previous attempts to use traces of the perfume found in Egyptian museums had failed because not enough was provided for analysis.
But Videault said: “Kyphi will never be sold because some of the ingredients are illegal substances. In any case the smell is probably much too pungent for the modern world.”
THE HOLY ANOINTING OIL
In 1936, a little known Polish Professor, Sara Benetowa (later Sula Benet), did extensive etymological research, showing that both the Aramaic and Hebrew versions of the Old Testament contain references to cannabis as a fiber for rope and cloth, as well as an incense. But most importantly, Benet found that hemp was the active ingredient in the Holy anointing oil of the ancient Hebrews, to be used only in the installation of priests and kings, and in the consecration of holy items, as described in Exodus (30: 22-33).
According to Benet’s research, cannabis appears in ancient Hebrew texts spelled with the Hebrew letters: “Kuph, Nun, Hé Bet, Shin, Mem,” translated into western alphabetic forms as q’aneh-bosm, kaneh-bosm or kineboisin. The book of Exodus records the event of Moses receiving the instructions for making and distributing the hemp enriched holy oil, in the most auspicious tones.
Then the Lord said to Moses, “Take the following fine spices: 500 shekels of liquid myrrh, half as much of fragrant cinnamon, 250 shekels of qaneh-bosm, 500 shekels of cassia–all according to the sanctuary shekel–and a hind of olive oil. Make these into a sacred anointing oil” (Exodus 30: 22-33).
As one shekel equals approximately 16.37 grams, this means that the THC of over 9 pounds of flowering cannabis tops were extracted into a hind, about 6.5 litres of oil. The entheogenic effects of such a solution even when applied topically would undoubtedly have been intense. References to similar cannabis anointing oils occur in the contemporary literature of Egypt, Assyria and Canaan as well as among Buddhist onks in Medieval Tibet, European witches and 19th century occultists.
A number of scholars from varying fields have come to accept this Benet’s identification of cannabis with kaneh bosem such as Anthropologists Weston La Barre and Vera Rubin, Classical Scholars and Linguists Professors Carl Ruck and Blaise Staples, Botaninst William Emboden and other researchers.
Indeed, the Hebrew title “Messiah” means the anointed one, and refers to the psychoactive cannabis ointment mentioned in exodus. The ‘anointed ones’, acting as shamans for the ancient Israelites, were in a sense the consciousness of the group or tribe. The “ideas” that came to them while they were high were heard as the voice of God, and through this ‘inner voice’ they guided the tribe in both war and peace. The holy anointing oil and incense was strictly used on the high ranking members of the priestly Levites, “the anointed priests, who were ordained to serve as priests” (Numbers 3:3).
THE HOLY INCENSE
The Lord said to Moses, “I am going to come to you in a dense cloud “(Exodus 19:9).
In recent years scholars have expressed the opinion that, far from being a minor or occasional ingredient, hashish was the main ingredient of the incense burned in temples during the religious ceremonies of antiquity, and was also routinely used in Hebrew ceremonies burned in front of a brazen serpent Moses is said to have made, until the reign of King Josiah in 621 BC, when its use was suddenly suppressed in the Hebrew tradition In Die Flora Der Juden, Immanuel Low researched the ancient Hebrew technique for making Passover incense and concluded that it included cannabis as a prime ingredient under the Hebrew name “hasisat surur” meaning “revered essence”, according to Low surur was a secret name of cannabis resin. (Low 1926/1967).
It should also be noted that besides covering his won body Moses is to pour the Holy Oil on the incense altar and then burn the incense. The clouded temple, pitched in a tent during the Exodus, was undoubtedly filled with the smoke of burning cannabis-oil, and was the meeting place of priest and God. In Exodus, 30:27, God gives clear instructions to place the altar of incense “before the veil that is by the ark of testimony, before the mercy seat that is over the testimony, where I will meet with thee.” It was from behind this veil of smoke that Moses interpreted the words of the Lord. Just as shamans have since the dawn of time, Moses received his inspiration from a sacred plant and interpreted the experience as containing divine advice and even possession by the holy spirit itself!
This exclusive relationship between the cannabis enriched holy oil and the high preists lasted many generations. All who dared make imitiations were “cut off from their people”. Centuries later when the people of Israel demanded a king, the prophet Samuel took the liberty of extending this use to intitate the new Hebrew monarchs as well. The account of this event gives us quite a laughable description of how set and setting can be exploited to manipulate a trip of an unwary drug taker, and also aptly demonstrates the psycho-active properties of the ointment in question.
Saul, has little idea of what is to take place when he appears before the Hebraic Shaman Samuel to inquire about a lost donkey and instead of revealing the missing ass he is appointed king of his people instead!. “Samuel took a flask of oil and poured it on Saul’s head and kissed him, saying, “Has not the Lord anointed you leader over his inheritance?”(1 Samuel 10:1). After anointing Saul, Samuel tells him that shortly “The Spirit of the Lord will come upon you in power…and you will be changed into a different person.”(1 Samuel 10:6), indicating that the magical (psycho-active) power of the ointment will shortly take effect. Samuel tells Saul that when this happens, he will come across a band of prophets Coming down from a mountaintop, “with harp, tambourine, flute, and lyre before them prophesying”(1 Samuel 10:5), and that Saul will join them. The Hebrew term used for prophet in this manner, nebiim, means to act in anecstatic or frenzied manner.
Saul must have been either temporarily mentally disabled by the psychedelic experience of his anointing and the time spent amongst the ecstatic nabiim, or reluctant to fulfill his appointment as the new king—for when the tribes of Israel are gathered to be shown their new leader, Saul is nowhere to be found. This causes Samuel to consult the Lord on Saul’s whereabouts, and the Lord reveals that Saul, “has hidden himself among the baggage.”(1 Samuel 10:22). A similar episode occurs later in the narration and results in Saul stripping of his clothes and again acting ecstatically.
Saul would later fall out of Samuel’s favor by making an improper sacrifice, and not following the Lord’s command when battling with Israel’s arch enemies, the Philistines. This same battle would see Saul’s own son, Jonathan (Jehova Given) rise in popularity with the people for his daring exploits, and as a result, the jealous father is pitted against son.
A victory over the Phillisitines saw Jonathan vying for the attention of the people with his aging father, who tries to have his own son put to death after the battle, for breaking an oath which Jonathan had no way of being aware. Earlier when Jonathan and his servant were off slaughtering Philistines, Saul had bound the people with an oath, saying “Cursed be any man who eats food before evening comes, before I have avenged myself on my enemies.”(1 Samuel 14:24). Later , after his guerrilla strike, Jonathan is in the woods with the army, and there was apparently some sort of honey oozing out of the wood. Although all the men were famished after a day of battle and fasting, none of them “put his hand to his mouth, because they feared the oath. But Jonathan had not heard that his father had bound the people with the oath, so he reached the end of the staff that was in his hand and dipped it into the honeycomb. He raised his hand to his mouth, and his eyes brightened.”(1 Samuel 14:25-27).
When Saul finds out about Jonathon’s transgression his son replies, “I merely tasted a little honey on the end of my staff and now I must die?” His father’s cold blooded reply is, “May God deal with me, be it ever so severely, if you do not die Jonathan.” Luckily for Jonathan, his earlier bravery of that day had registered with the men, who proclaim to Saul, “Should Jonathan die–he who has brought about this great deliverance in Israel? Never! As surely as the Lord lives, not a hair of his head shall fall to the ground, for he did this today with god’s help.” (1 Samuel 14:43-45). This event marks the first of a number of attempts that Saul would make on the life of his own son.
In 1903, Dr. C. Creighton suggested that Jonathan’s sin may have gone a little further than just eating honey. Creighton felt that the story in 1 Samuel 14, made reference to an account of hashish ingestion and intoxication. Dr. Creighton’s hypothesis was that an Old Testament term, honey-wood (yagarah hadebash), made reference to cannabis. “But that word, which is the key to the meaning, has been knowingly mistranslated in the Vulgate and in the modern version, having been rendered by a variant also by the LXX in one of the passages, and confessed as unintelligible in the other by the use of a marginal Hebrew word in Greek letters.”(Creighton 1903). If this is the case, then perhaps Jonathan had stumbled upon the priesthood’s field of sacred Kaneh-bosm, and on the end of his staff, sampled some of the sticky resins of the herb destined for holy anointing oil and sacred incense?
The theory is, that both Saul and Jonathan were hachish-eaters; it was a secret vice of the palace, while it was strictly forbidden to the people….The incident related in 1 Sam.14…is thus described: “And all [they of]the land came to a wood, and there was honey on the ground. And when the people were come into the wood, behold the honey dropped; but no man put his hand to his mouth: for the people feared the oath. But Jonathan heard not when his father charged the people with the oath; wherefore he put forth the end of the rod that was in his hand and dipped it in an honey-comb (*yagarah hadebash*), and put his hand to his mouth: and his eyes were enlightened.
The exegesis of this passage has been started in an entirely false direction by the bold license of the Vulgate in translating the two Hebrew words meaning ‘honey wood’ by *favum*, honey-comb. The earlier sentences, however obscure, show that the ‘honey’ was of a peculiar kind, there being no mention of bees. The Syriac version gives the most intelligible account of it, as follows, *latine*:’Et sylvas ingressi essent, essetque mel in sylva super faciem agri, flueretque mel’–expressing not inaptly a field of hemp with the resinous exudation upon the flower-stalks, which would flow or run by the heat. In *The Bengal Dispensatory*, by W.B. O’Shaughnessy, M.D. (London,1842), there is the following illustrative passage p.582:”In Central India and the Saugor territory, and in Nipal, *churrus* is collected during the hot season in the following manner:
Men clad in leathern dresses run through the plants with all possible violence. The soft resin adheres to the leather, and is subsequently scraped off and kneaded into balls…A still finer kind, the *moomeea*, or waxen *churrus*, is collected by the hand…In Nipal…the leathern attire is dispensed with, and the resin is gathered on the skins of naked coolies”. Jonathans mode of collecting was the simplest: he dipped the end of a rod into a ‘honey-wood’, and carried it to his mouth; a mere taste of it caused his eyes to be enlightened. The whole incident is obviously dramatized, or made picturesque –the growing field of hemp, the men passing through it, Jonathan dipping the end of a rod into the resin upon a stalk as he passed by. The real meaning is, that Jonathan was a hachish-eater.
The effects, in the case of Jonathan, are unmistakable. A mere taste of the honey on the end of the rod caused his eyes to be enlightened…There is an old explanation of this enlightenment, discussed by F.T. Withof, ‘De Jonathane post esum mellis visum recipiente’, (*Opusc. philolog. Lingae, 1778, pp.135-139). (Creighton 1903).
Dr. Creighton was unaware of Sula Benet’s work regarding Kaneh-Bosm, which wouldn’t take place for over thirty years after he wrote his own piece, so he missed many of the other references to hemp which appear in the Old Testament. Likewise, Benet made no reference to Creighton’s theories concerning honeywood, so it is unlikely that the etymologist was familiar with either Dr. Creighton or his research. Although the two theories do overlap a little, more than one name for cannabis in the Old testament is clearly demonstrated and the two hypothesis seem to enhance each other more than they detract.
The next Biblical account of cannabis comes under the name kaneh and appears in relation to King Solomon. In Solomon’s Song of Songs, one of the most beautifully written pieces in the Old Testament, Solomon mentions kaneh in describing his bride.. . .
HOW DELIGHTFUL IS YOUR LOVE, MY SISTER, MY BRIDE! HOW MUCH MORE PLEASING IS YOUR LOVE THAN WINE, AND THE FRAGRANCE OF YOUR OINTMENT THAN ANY SPICE!. . .
THE FRAGRANCE OF YOUR GARMENTS IS LIKE THAT OF LEBANON. . .
YOUR PLANTS ARE AN ORCHARD OF POMEGRANATES WITH CHOICE FRUITS, WITH HENNA AND NARD, NARD AND SAFFRON, KANEH AND CINNAMON, WITH EVERY KIND OF INCENSE TREE.
SONG OF SONGS 4:8-14
THE GARDEN OF THE GODDESS
Solomon’s ‘Song of Songs’ is a hymn and invocation tcelebrating the wedding of Phoenician mother goddess Astarte. Astarte was known as “Queen of Heaven”, “Star of the Sea” and “Stella Marris” .
Astarte was conventionally worshiped on mountains and hilltops, and as it states in I Kings 3:3.
SOLOMON LOVED YAHWEH; HE FOLLOWED THE PRECEPTS OF DAVID HIS FATHER, EXCEPT THAT HE OFFERED SACRIFICE AND INCENSE ON THE HIGH PLACES.
I Kings 11:4-5 offers an even more explicit example of Solomon’s ties to Astarte.
WHEN SOLOMON GREW OLD HIS WIVES SWAYED HIS HEART TO OTHER GODS; AND HIS HEART WAS NOT WHOLLY WITH YAHWEH HIS GOD AS HIS FATHER DAVID’S HAD BEEN. SOLOMON BECAME A FOLLOWER OF ASTARTE, THE GODDESS OF THE SIDONIANS.
.Expand on the relationship
The next direct reference to kaneh-bosm appears in Isaiah, where God is reprim anding the Israelites for, among other things, not supplying him with his due of the Holy Herb.
YOU HAVE NOT BROUGHT ANY KANEH FOR ME, OR LAVISHED ON ME THE FAT OF YOUR SACRIFICES. BUT YOU HAVE BURDENED ME WITH YOUR SINS AND WEARIED ME WITH YOUR OFFENCES.
An excerpt from earlier in Isaiah indicates that God’s appetite had previously been appeased, and “the house was filled with smoke…”
AND THE POSTS OF THE DOOR MOVED AT THE VOICE OF HIM THAT CRIED, AND THE HOUSE WAS FILLED WITH SMOKE
THEN SAID I, WOE IS ME, FOR I AM UNDONEL BECAUSE I AM A MAN OF UNCLEAN LIPS, AND I DWELL IN THE MIDST OF A PEOPLE OF UNCLEAN LIPS; FOR MINE EYES HAVE SEEN THE KING, THE LORD OF HOSTS.
THEN FLEW ONE OF THE SERAPHIMS UNTO ME, HAVING A LIVE COAL IN HIS HAND, WHICH HE HAD TAKEN WITH THE TONGS FROM OFF THE ALTAR,
AND HE LAID IT UPON MY MOUTH AND SAID, LO, THIS HATH TOUCHED THY LIPS; AND THYNE INIQUITY IS TAKEN AWAY, AND THY SIN PURGED.
DRINKING IN THE HOLY SMOKE
Isaiah, upon having the coal lifted to his lips, had his iniquity taken away and his sins purged. This is comparable to the way in which the Hindu sadhus lift their chillums to their third eye and exclaim “Boom Shiva,” an act indicating their loss of ego and oneness with Shiva.
The fourth appearance of cannabis in the Old Testament is in Jeremiah, by which time it seems that Yahweh’s taste for the herb had declined. In the same way that God rejected Cain’s offering of grain in favour of Abel’s blood sacrifice, the cannabis also is rejected.
WHAT DO I CARE ABOUT INCENSE FROM SHEBA OR KANEH FROM A DISTANT LAND? YOUR BURNT OFFERINGS ARE NOT ACCEPTABLE; YOUR SACRIFICES DO NOT PLEASE ME.
JERIMIAH 6: 20
Of these references to kaneh and kaneh-bosm, the first three have cannabis appear in Yahweh’s favour, the fourth definitely in his disfavour. One might wonder at the reason for these apparent contradictions, and the answer can be found within the story of the suppression of the cult of Ashera, or Astarte, the ancient Queen of Heaven.
There are of course some allusions to this in the Bible itself. The prophets Ezra, Hosea, Nehemiah, and Jeremiah constantly rail against the “abomination” of worshipping other gods. They are particularly outraged at those who still worship the “Queen of Heaven”. And their greatest wrath is against the “unfaithfulness of the daughters of Jerusalem,” who were understandably “backsliding” to beliefs in which all temporal and spiritual authority was not monopolized by men. But other than such occasional, and always pejorati ve, passages, there is no hint that there ever was – or could be – a deity that is not male.
The ties between cannabis and the Queen of Heaven are probably most apparent in Jeremiah 44, where the ancient patriarch seems to be concerned by the people’s continuing worship of the Queen of Heaven, especially by the burning of incense in her honour.
Ccording to well known entheobotanist William Emboden, the shamanistic Ashera priestesses of pre-reformation Jerusalem, who anointed their skins with cannabis mixtures as well as burning it as incense.
THUS SAITH THE LORD OF HOSTS, THE GOD OF ISRAEL; YE HAVE SEEN ALL THE EVIL THAT I HAVE BROUGHT UPON JERUSALEM, AND UPON ALL THE CITIES OF JUDAH; AND BEHOLD, THIS DAY THEY ARE A DESOLATION. . .
BECAUSE OF THEIR WICKEDNESS WHICH THEY HAVE COMMITTED TO PROVOKE ME TO ANGER, IN THAT THEY WANTED TO BURN INCENSE, AND TO SERVE OTHER GODS. . .
THEREFORE NOW. . . WHEREFORE COMMIT YE THIS GREAT EVIL AGAINST YOUR SOULS. . . IN THAT YE PROVOKE ME TO WRATH WITH THE WORKS OF YOUR HANDS, BURNING INCENSE UNTO OTHER GODS IN THE LAND OF EGYPT?
THEN ALL THE MEN WHICH KNEW THAT THEIR WIVES HAD BURNED INCENSE UNTO OTHER GODS, AND ALL THE WOMEN THAT STOOD BY, A GREAT MULTITUDE, EVEN ALL THE PEOPLE THAT DWELT IN THE LAND OF EGYPT, ANSWERED JEREMIAH, SAYING,
AS FOR THE WORD THAT THOU HAST SPOKEN UNTO US IN THE NAME OF THE LORD, WE WILL NOT HEARKEN UNTO THEE.
BUT WE WILL CERTAINLY DO WHATSOEVER THING GOETH FORTH OUT OF OUR OWN MOUTH, TO BURN INCENSE UNTO THE QUEEN OF HEAVEN, AND TO POUR DRINK OFFERINGS UNTO HER, AS WE HAVE DONE. WE, AND OUR FATHERS, OUR KINGS, AND OUR PRINCES, IN THE CITY OF JUDAH, AND IN THE STREETS OF JERUSALEM: FOR THEN WE HAD PLENTY OF VICTUALS, AND WERE WELL, AND SAW NO EVIL.
Jeremiah’s reference to the previous kings and princes that burned incense t o the Queen of Heaven can be seen as referring to King Solomon, his son Rehoboam, and other Biblical kings and prophets.
Other key Biblical figures in the prohibition of cannabis use and the worship of the Queen of Heaven include King Hezekiah and his great-grandson Josiah.
II Kings 18:4 reports of Hezekiah that:
HE REMOVED THE HIGH PLACES, AND BRAKE THE IMAGES, AND CUT DOWN THE ASHERAS, AND BRAKE INTO PIECES THE BRAZEN SERPENT THAT MOSES HAD MADE; FOR UNTO THOSE DAYS THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL DID BURN INCENSE TO IT:
AND HE CALLED IT NEHUSHTAN.
BREAKING THE SERPENT
The interesting thing about this passage is that the Ark of the covenant does not contain the ten commandments of the law of Moses, rather it holds Nehushtan, a brass serpent. The serpent is a frequent component in early representations of the goddess.
The Bible reports that the kings before Hezekiah “set up images and groves in every high hill, and under every green tree; And there they burnt incense in all the high places…”(1Kings 17) So did the kings who reigned after Josiah, who was killed in battle in 609 BC. According to The Columbia History of the World, Josiah’s defeat seems to have been taken as proof of the error of his ways… the later prophecies of Jeremiah and Ezekiel show polytheism back in practice.”
A FORGED BOOK OF LAW
The Book of the Law, which makes up most of Deuteronomy and Leviticus, was used to prohibit the worship of the Goddess and instill the death penalty for the burning of incense. Although it was supposedly written by Moses, it was not discovered until some 600 years after Moses’ death.
It has been suggested that the Book of the Law may have been a forgery committed by the Hebrew priesthood with the hope of eradicating the competing temples and their deities, which were getting more sacrifices from the people than was the temple of Yahweh.
In Occidental Mythology theologian Joseph Campbell states that, before the discovery of the Book of the Law,
neither kings nor people had paid attention whatsoever to the law of Moses which, indeed, they had not even known. They had been devoted to the normal deities of the nuclear Near east, with all the usual cults…
Up until that time the Hebrew people worshiped in the old ways, practicing their cult in open places on peaks and hills and mountains, and even caves below.
The mysterious discovery of the Book of the Law took place during the reign of King Josiah. Once informed of the new regulations, Josiah’s wrath against the incense burners was far harsher than that of his great-grandfather Hezekiah. The Bible describes his actions as follows.
AND THE KING COMMANDED HILKIAH THE HIGH PREIST. . . TO BRING FORTH OUT OF THE TEMPLE OF THE LORD ALL THE VESSELS THAT WERE MADE FOR BAAL AND FOR ASHERAH, AND FOR ALL THE HOST OF HEAVEN: AND HE BIRNED THEM OUTSIDE JERUSALEM IN THE FIELDS OF KIDRON. . .
AND HE PUT DOWN THE IDOLATROUS PRIESTS, WHOM THE KINGS OF JUDAH HAD ORDAINED TO BURN INCENSE IN THE HIGH PLACES IN THE CITIES OF JUDAH, AND IN THE PLACES ROUND ABOUT JERUSALEM; THEM ALSO THAT BURNED INCENSE UNTO BAAL, TO THE SUN, AND TO THE MOON, AND TO THE PLANETS, AND TO ALL THE HOST OF HEAVEN.
AND HE BROUGHT OUT THE ASHERAH FROM THE HOUSE OF THE LORD, OUTSIDE JERUSALEM. . . AND BURNED IT AT THE BROOK KIDRON, AND STAMPED IT SMALL TO POWDER. . . AND HE BROUGHT ALL THE PRIESTS OUT OF THE CITIES OF JERUSALEM, AND DEFILED THE HIGH PLACES WHERE THE PRIESTS HAD BURNED INCENSE. . .
AND THE HIGH PLACES THAT WERE BEFORE JERUSALEM. . . WHICH SOLOMON THE KING OF ISRAEL HAD BUILDED FOR ASHTORETH THE ABOMINATION OF THE ZIDONIANS. . . DID THE KING DEFILE. AND HE BRAKE IN PIECES THE IMAGES, AND CUT DOWN THE GROVES, AND FILLED THEIR PLACES WITH THE BONES OF MEN.
AND HE SLEW ALL THE PRIESTS OF THE HIGH PLACES THAT WERE UPON THE ALTARS, AND BURNED MEN’S BONES UPON THEM, AND RETURNED TO JERUSALEM. . .
AND LIKE UNTO HIM WAS THERE NO KING BEFORE HIM, THAT TURNED TO THE LORD WITH ALL HIS HEART, AND WITH ALL HIS SOUL, AND WITH ALL HIS MIGHT, ACCORDING TO THE LAW OF MOSESL NEITHER AFTER HIM AROSE THERE ANY LIKE HIM.
Working fall of oil and incense call for messianic king
“Christ” is the Greek translation of the Hebrew “Messiah.” In modern English, this term would be translated as the “anointed one.” The title “Christ” was only placed upon he who had “God’s unction upon him.”
This holy anointing oil, as described in the original Hebrew version of the recipe in Exodus (30:22-23), contained over six pounds of kaneh-bosem, a substance identified by respected etymologists, linguists, anthropologists, botanists and other researchers as cannabis, extracted into about six quarts of olive oil, along with a variety of other fragrant herbs. The ancient anointed ones were literally drenched in this potent mixture.
In the Bible’s New Testament, Jesus baptized none of his disciples, as is practiced by the Catholic church, but instead anointed them with this potent entheogenic oil, sending out the 12 apostles to do the same. “And they cast out many devils, and anointed with oil many that were sick, and healed them” (Mark 6:13).
Likewise, after Jesus’ passing, James suggests that anyone of the Christian community who was sick should call to the elders to anoint him with oil in the name of Jesus (James 5:14).
It should be understood that in the ancient world, diseases such as epilepsy were attributed to demonic possession, and to cure somebody of such an illness, even with the aid of certain herbs, was the same as exorcism, or miraculously healing them. Interestingly, cannabis has been shown to be effective in the treatment of not only epilepsy, but many of the other ailments that Jesus and the disciples healed people of, such as skin diseases (Matthew 8, 10, 11; Mark 1; Luke 5, 7, 17), eye problems (John 9:6-15), and menstrual problems (Luke 8:43-48).
According to ancient Christian documents, even the healing of cripples could be attributed to the use of the holy oil. “Thou holy oil given unto us for sanctification… thou art the straightener of the crooked limbs” (The Acts of Thomas).
One ancient Christian text, The Acts of Peter and the Twelve Apostles, which is older than the New Testament, estimated to have been recorded in the second century AD, has Jesus giving the disciples an “unguent box” and a “pouch full of medicine” with instructions for them to go into the city and heal the sick. Jesus explains that you must heal “the bodies first” before you can “heal the heart.”
These findings shouldn’t really be all that surprising, as the medical use of cannabis during that time is supported by the archeological record, and the ailments described above had been treated with cannabis preparations throughout the area for many centuries prior to the Christian era.
As Jesus and his followers began to spread the healing knowledge of cannabis around the ancient world, the singular Christ became the plural term “Christians,” that is, those who had been smeared or anointed with the holy oil. As the New Testament explains: “The anointing you received from him remains in you, and you do not need anyone to teach you. But as his anointing teaches you about all things and as that anointing is real, not counterfeit—just as it has taught you, remain in him” (1 John 2:27).
The Christians, the “smeared or anointed ones,” received “knowledge of all things” by this “anointing from the Holy One” (1 John 2:20). Thereafter, they needed no other teacher, and were endowed with their own spiritual knowledge. Indeed, from Jesus’ own words after his initiation by John, it would appear his own spiritual power came through the anointing:
The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me,
because the Lord has anointed me
to bring good tidings to the afflicted;
he has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted,
to proclaim liberty to the captives,
and the opening of the prison
to those who are bound;
to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor,
and the day of vengeance of our God;
to comfort all who mourn.
Although the Biblical story of Jesus’ initiation by John describes it as the classic Catholic baptism, taking place in a form of submersion in water, the term “baptism” itself can be seen to have connotations of “initiation,” and likely there was more to the story than is described in the Bible.
When fasting always anoint your head with oil…
Ancient Christian scriptures indicate originally the rite was performed in conjunction with the kaneh-bosem anointing rite, “the anointing taking place either before or after the baptismal ceremony.” Certain Christian texts that didn’t make it into the official canon specifically state that Jesus received the title “Christ… be