Special Report: Jamaican ganja journey

Part I: Touchdown in Jamaica
My plane left Atlanta on time, headed south. Below us, the Bahamas, hounded by a hurricane. To the right, Cuba, green and undeveloped, protected from the paving regime of 20th century industrialism by the US economic boycott against the island’s revolutionary ruler, Fidel Castro.

As we entered Cuban airspace at 36,000 feet, going 536 miles per hour, I read books on the history of Jamaica. I was flying on Air Jamaica, the island’s official airline. Attractive, cocoa-colored men and women served free Jamaican Red Stripe Beer. The flight was festive, consisting mostly of soused Americans headed for expensive resorts near Montego Bay.

The island’s history was far from festive. It was first inhabited by people who migrated from South America to the Caribbean, reaching Jamaica approximately 1200 years ago. These migrants, called Arawaks, were joined by a tribe emanating from the Amazon basin; the second tribe was called the Caribs.

Arawaks and Caribs lived in relative harmony with each other and their environment until a disaster named Christopher Columbus and the Spanish Conquest hit them in the late 1400’s. By 1520, the Spaniards had shown the natives the “loving Judeo-Christian god,” using Catholicism as a justification to kill, enslave, rape, burn and torture the natives while establishing Spanish outposts in Jamaica and other Caribbean islands.

England stole Jamaica from Spain in 1655. English emigrants began arriving in Jamaica en masse, and the island became a center for Caribbean slave trading, as Europeans robbed people from Africa to replace indigenous slaves who were dying from disease, starvation and brutality.

Slaves were forced to build massive sugar cane plantations and work them, a daunting task in the region’s blazing sun and tropical humidity. Rocked by slave revolts, the British Parliament abolished slavery in 1838, but freed blacks were still victimized by their owners and institutionalized discrimination. They staged another uprising in 1865, fomented by Jamaican folk hero Paul Bogle. The British crushed the uprising in an especially brutal fashion but resistance to vestiges of colonial rule continued, even after the island won independence from the fading British Empire in 1962.

Since then, Jamaica has become famous for its uninhibited tourist beaches, its volatile political system, Rastafarianism and reggae music, and of course, potent ganja.

Ancient Roads

A driver met me at Montego Bay’s airport, rescuing me from the teeming crowds of hustlers who tried to take my money in front of the terminal. We headed toward Kingston on a road built so long ago that it was totally inappropriate for motor vehicles. I sat terrified in my passenger seat as we sped past uniformed schoolchildren barely an inch away from our bumper, or overtook a truck crowded with screeching chickens on a mountain road so narrow that my door scraped the hedgerow on the side of the road.

There was no road rage or panic, however. My adept driver, other drivers, bicyclists and pedestrians all shared the winding road cheerfully and stoically, with nary a gesture or invective. Everyone seemed quite resigned to life or death possibilities.

The scenery was spectacular but unsettling ? verdant forests, gurgling rivers, waterfalls, hibiscus flowers, scintillating ocean and beaches ? littered by shanties, beggars, cripples, crumbling houses, goats, garbage, defecation, sheep, cows, packs of dogs, police with machine guns, cadavers.

Finally we reached a frenzied, traffic-choked urban grid. Jamaica has yet to outlaw leaded gas; vehicles belching poison surrounded us. We pulled into a gas station guarded by private security agents carrying sawed-off shotguns. Gasoline cost $4 US per gallon. Newspaper headlines screamed about gas riots, the island’s escalating murder rate (nearly 700 this year), its trade deficit, a drop in tourism due to crime rate publicity overseas, political scandals. Melancholy and tension permeated the air.

My driver fought through the streets of Kingston, the Jamaican capital with its 700,000 population crammed between an ideal harbor and the coffee-famous Blue Mountains that rise behind the city. He deposited me at the doorstep of a mediocre hotel surrounded by barbed wire and squatter encampments. I had expected an island paradise, similar to Hawaii, but instead found myself soaked in sweat in the heart of the Third World.

The Doctor is in

From my hotel room, I looked out on Kingston, seeing smoke from small fires, packs of ravenous dogs, traffic jams, thunderstorms, Rastamen smoking spliffs playing soccer, rich tourists playing tennis oblivious to homeless sidewalk dwellers just outside the guarded gates of the hotel.

Someone knocked at my door. I opened it, relieved to find 81-year-old Dr Ronald Lampart, a famous Jamaican physician and long-time ganja activist. I’d read about Lampart on the internet, called him, and been invited to visit Jamaica to cover history in the making.

Lampart, who from 1976 to 1986 had been chief medical officer for the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church and an aide to Dr Melanie Dreher’s landmark ganja studies (see CC #15, #16), is one of many paradoxical, powerful activists in a newly-energized Jamaican ganja legalization movement.

Paradoxical because he doesn’t smoke marijuana, powerful because his education, social class and reputation are so impeccable that he lends irrefutable credibility to ganja culture, which has long been viewed by many Jamaican elites as a lower-class, criminal culture deserving oppression.

Educated at top schools in England and the United States, for 20 years the head of the 150-bed Princess Margaret Hospital in Morant Bay, at 81 a full-time physician who sees hundreds of patients a month, many of whom he treats without charge, Lampart is an unassailable spokesperson for the ganja movement.

“I don’t smoke the stuff,” he said emphatically, sounding and looking more like a person half his age. “I have never laid my hands on a spliff. I advocate legalization because I am tired of seeing the police using the ganja laws to arrest my barefoot brother on the street. Tired of them putting a man in prison for a spliff, using laws to brutalize and victimize poor people and those who are politically outcast or powerless.”

As a doctor who has performed hundreds of surgeries and treated tens of thousands of patients, Lampart is eminently qualified to determine whether ganja is harmful to individuals or society.

“I was the medical officer for the Coptic Church,” he explained, referring to a ganja-based spiritual group that was destroyed by government persecution in Jamaica and South Florida. “I worked in their compound in Saint Thomas. They had a few thousand acres on which they planted yams, bananas and other crops. They lived as a religious, self-sufficient, faith-based community. They got up at four in the morning and worked very hard all day. The children used ganja, and they too worked hard.

“I told the government: here’s the perfect control group for a ganja study; compare these people to anyone else, and you’ll find that they are as healthy, if not more healthy, than the rest of the population. The Coptics absolutely vanquished the idea that ganja makes people lazy. American visitors would come, thinking they were going to be partying non-stop, and the Coptics would work them in the sun and humidity; a lot of them couldn’t handle it.

“The Coptics prayed, took care of each other, and used ganja as their sacrament. They believed it was God’s bush, God’s weed; they used it for spiritual and medicinal purposes. They believed that ganja was responsible for their energy and success. I examined them for ten years, and found no negative effects from their use of ganja. None. They were most peaceful people, never involved in any crimes except the one that society had made against them ? the use of ganja. That is why I am working to change the ganja laws.”

He has other reasons as well. Like the American tourist college student who was arrested by Jamaican police for having a spliff, and chained to a bed in jail until he became ill. Or the Jamaican man shot in the back by police “in broad daylight at a cricket match; I had to operate on him in emergency because his jaw was fractured and his intestine punctured in seven places.” The man hired a lawyer and served a summons on the police officer who shot him, Lampart recalls. The day after the summons was served, the man arrived home to find a warrant for his arrest on marijuana charges.

During the Dreher study, Lampart helped Dreher and her team of medical and anthropological researchers build trust with rural, ganja-using women and their children.

“Of course these people were suspicious of us,” he says, “and we were prepared to find that they were harming themselves and their children by using ganja while they were pregnant and by giving it to their children. The social stigma has been in place for decades, that this stuff is bad for people and the people who use it are bad. We had specially-trained nurses and researchers coming in from Miami and Boston, and at first our subjects were afraid we would turn them in to the police. We were not out to prove anything good about ganja. We were objective. We turned the results over to the statistician and were surprised by the results: the ganja mothers and children were doing fine, in some cases better than non-ganja users.”

“The marijuana smoker is no threat to society.” Lampart continued, “The laws against marijuana are harmful. I write editorials for the top newspapers that emphasize this point. A friend of mine told me that his friend whispered, ‘Dr Lampart must be on the stuff, he must be using the thing.’ Like it is some dirty habit, like heroin addiction. And I absolutely have not used it, so nobody can say I am doing this because of a personal habit or for financial benefit. I do this for human rights, because I want to see Jamaican society become more just and fair.”

Pot power politics

The morning after Dr Lampart’s visit, I had breakfast with two powerful members of the Jamaican ganja legalization movement.

In a delightful garden setting I ate delicious, traditional Jamaican foods, noticing that the pineapple, guava, coconut, mango, banana and papaya grown by indigenous farmers in Jamaica tasted far better than the same fruits grown by factory farms in the United States, Mexico and South America.

My companions were Paul Chang, an environmental consultant and Notre Dame-educated architect who is also a board member of the Hemp Industries Association, and Louis Moyston, a political historian, educator, writer and consultant who has been active in Jamaican politics for nearly three decades.

Chang, a savvy Jamaican-born man of Asian descent, does business and advocates for hemp and marijuana in Canada, the US, Europe, the Caribbean, and Asia. He founded Jamaica’s “Legalize Ganja Campaign” in 1995, but admits that ganja activism has “had some negative effects on my viability as a businessman, because certain people are prejudiced against ganja.”

Fighting injustice is literally in Chang’s blood ? his engineer father Leonard Chang fought against British civil service apartheid that prevented Jamaican nationals from advancing to top positions in the Jamaican government.

“Dad was the first Jamaican to break through the discrimination in the government engineering service,” Chang said proudly. “He was a trailblazer.”
Now, Chang has himself become a trailblazer.

“After my son Dominick was born, he’s six now, I was smoking a spliff and realized that the police could come in and take me away from my family right in front of my child,” he said. “I already knew that hemp and cannabis had a miraculous array of medical, industrial, spiritual, and economic benefits. I decided to become more active in assisting other Jamaicans in changing the government’s policy on this plant.”

Louis Moyston, 45-years-old and a rising star in Jamaica’s ruling political party, the People’s National Party (PNP), explained that I would be accompanying him and Chang to the PNP national party convention being held at the national arena nearby.

Chang and Moyston were excited that they and ganja allies within the PNP structure had managed to place ganja legalization on the official itinerary of the PNP’s conference agenda.

“The PNP is the more progressive of the two major Jamaican political parties,” Moyston said, naming the Jamaican Labour Party (JLP) as the PNP’s more conservative counterpart. “PNP has the most influence on government policy. The National Alliance for Legalization is asking PNP delegates to approve a proposal that will set up a mechanism for objective study of the legalization question.”

Chang drove me and Moyston through bustling streets to the national arena, which is situated across from the national stadium. In an alcove on the street in front of these edifices was a statue of Bob Marley. Hundreds of delegates streamed in and out of the arena. Some smoked ganja while eating “jerk” chicken and pork, succulent, spicy food that is a Jamaican staple. I noticed that, unlike political conventions in the United States, the PNP’s convention seemed to be truly grassroots. Some delegates were dressed in business suits, but others wore rough-hewn work clothes. Moyston explained that PNP conferences were truly democratic: people of all social classes and orientations worked to create public policy reflecting the will of most Jamaicans. Rich people, professional politicians and corporate lobbyists did not own the PNP, he noted.

Moyston’s egalitarian view was backed up by the conference’s opening prayer, which asked God’s help in “the search for truth.”

“May information not be suppressed,” the prayer continued. “May experts be honest in their interpretation of facts and not deliberately mislead the public. May we use what we know to create what ought to be. May all our laws be just to all groups and help integrate us as a people. May all our pursuits contribute to the making of community life where all feel wanted and accepted.”

Inside the arena, I met top government officials, among them Minister of Agriculture Roger Clarke, who was running for a party vice-presidential position.

“It’s a sensitive subject, the demonization of ganja,” he said carefully. “It’s time to take a close look at the pros and cons of this plant. It has industrial and medical value. But we are a small island in a larger world. We have to take into account what the rest of the world thinks. But there are major changes taking place in hemp and marijuana policy in the rest of the world, and those may assist Jamaica. I come from a major agricultural region, so I am keenly aware that Jamaica is a fertile garden blessed with the ability to bountifully grow a wide variety of plants. It remains to be seen if this plant will soon be one of them.”

Ganja is everywhere

Ganja is everywhere in Jamaica, and despite dangers from police and rip-offs, ganja tourists should easily be able to find the kind without losing their behind.

Sex, drugs and money

As with many impoverished countries, cash will get you anything you want in Jamaica. Sex, pot, cocaine – it is all readily available if you are willing to pay for the product and to pay those who provide you access to the product. But never forget that money transactions in foreign countries ? where an outsider is purchasing contraband and/or an illegal service ? are opportunities for disaster as well as pleasure.

Most tourists familiar with Jamaica will tell you that the Negril region is the ganja-friendliest. It’s close to Montego Bay airport, and home to mega-expensive resorts where Europeans and North Americans come to play and play to come.

Negil is the ganja tourism haven, but ganja can be purchased from many variety stores and roadside stands throughout the island. I visited six such businesses to inquire about ganja. They do not overtly advertise ganja sales; they sell candies, coconuts, fruit and other legal goodies. Some were in Kingston, some in a rural area near Negril. Ganja was available in three of them. All I had to do was ask.

Bucks for buds

Two of the three ganja sites offered only small, plastic-wrapped nuggets of compacted bud, selling for about $1 US. The tiny parcels contained approximately one half to three quarters gram, enough to roll a one paper spliff.

The herb was surprisingly fresh. You can determine the freshness by squeezing the bag; if the herb feels dry and brittle, it’s probably no good. If it is springy, light brown or green, has visible resin glands, and has been stored in an ice chest (most roadside stands and small stores have no electricity), it is likely to be quality pot.

The third ganja site had tiny bags and a basket of long, dried buds. The buds were well manicured, perhaps a bit more leafy than some of us would be used to. They were sticky, somewhat dusty, reddish brown. The price for an ounce: $30 US. The vendor said me she could get me a pound for $200 US.

If you are in a hip resort hotel or area, you can feel reasonably safe asking a bartender, taxi driver, waiter, or other service provider about procuring ganja. You’re expected to pay a fee to anybody who helps you get anything illegal.

In Kingston, taxi drivers, Rastafari, and street vendors seemed to be safe sources for ganja. The tourist hotels there (such as the Hilton and the Pegasus) are a bit straight; I wouldn’t have felt comfortable asking the personnel at most upscale Kingston hotels for ganja.

Don’t do ’ems

Unless you want to end up dead or in jail, you have to be very clever and alert when procuring ganja. Intuitional and rational antenna should be highly-attuned for the rip-off vibe. Do not go to any drug transaction away from your hotel area. Do not give your money to somebody who promises to come back with ganja. Do not go into the back of a store, vending stand or house; make the vendor bring the herb to you. Do not go out alone. Do not buy pre-rolled joints. There’s no need for total paranoia, but be cautious, careful and smart.

Some Jamaicans may be suspicious of you, thinking you are CIA, DEA, Jamaican undercover, or some other quisling informant type. Money usually helps them get over their suspicions. If you get a bad feeling about somebody, if the transaction seems tense or weird, get the hell out. Better you find herb somewhere else or even not at all, than to get robbed or harassed.

Herbal highs

But what, you may ask, is the herb like? All the herb I procured was tasty, potent, organically grown outdoors, had a beautiful aroma, was well worth the money. There were few seeds and stems, no sign of mold or other pollutants. Other tourists told of their experiences with schwag, but I didn’t see or smoke any schwag.

Overall, it’s almost as easy to get Kind bud in Jamaica as it is in Amsterdam. The prices are incredible, the stone is tropical, and the ganja season is year-round. It’s fun to get high there too. Jumping off cliffs into the Caribbean is even more of a rush when you just inhaled your very own spliff of Jamaican ganja.

Especially if you are a US citizen, don’t be tempted to bring any of this inexpensive medicine back home with you. Almost every flight arriving from Jamaica is greeted by fascists and canines. US Customs is ever more brutal in its attempt to build Fortress America. So leave your Jamaican bud behind. Bring home photographs, Blue Mountain coffee, and memories. And visit Jamaica often ? the island needs your tourist dollars to stay afloat.

Part II: Herbal history

Like most North Americans, I’ve always thought Jamaica unconditionally welcomed cannabis and cannabis culture. People who lived in Florida and other parts of the Southeastern US during the 1960’s and 70’s remember fleets of planes dropping bales of prime Jamaican weed for coastal retrieval. The fame of reggae superstars like Bob Marley and Peter Tosh, enmeshed in ganja-shrouded Rastafari religion, gave Jamaica a reputation as a country that enthusiastically embraces its ganja roots.

But as Dr Lampart, Louis Moyston, Paul Chang, and others explained to me, Jamaica has a considerably more complicated relationship with ganja than one would expect. Cannabis is not native to Jamaica, for example ? it was most likely introduced to the island by African slaves and East Indians in the 1700’s and 1800’s. Its use was associated with working-class people, influenced by Hindu beliefs, and a source of increasing worry for the British ruling class who saw ganja as part of a dangerous, rapidly-growing black consciousness movement.

“The authorities were against it right from the start, because it made people feel good, it gave even the poorest person a bit of pride and made them think they were somebody,” is how Dr Lampart explained it.

Government reports began to contain warnings about ganja as early as 1883. In 1911, influential Christian churches, many of which still wield considerable power in modern Jamaica, began officially preaching against the plant and its users. In 1912, the Council of Evangelical Churches asked the island’s Legislative Council to outlaw ganja. In 1913, Jamaica added ganja prohibition to its consent agreement with the International Opium Convention, becoming one of the first countries to criminalize cultivation and importation of cannabis sativa.

As Moyston pointed out in a prescient and wide-ranging article published in a major Jamaican newspaper during my visit, Jamaican ganja criminalization was accompanied by propaganda and police state tactics that foreshadowed those used by anti-pot forces in the United States in the 1930’s.

“The Jamaican police force was reorganized after Bogle’s 1865 slave revolt,” Moyston told me. “The British built a paramilitary force modeled after the Ulster constabulary in Northern Ireland, where police were designed to hold down the people, rather than be a part of the community. Police leaders, church leaders, and the media were responsible for spreading spurious anti-ganja information that led to stricter ganja laws.”

In 1924, Jamaica criminalized possession and smoking of ganja. In 1941, spurred on by American drug war hysteria and fear of nascent Rastafarianism, Jamaican authorities established mandatory one-year prison sentences for a first ganja offense; a second ganja offense caused a mandatory two-year term. The 1941 law also contained a provision allowing police to arbitrarily decide that a person possessed marijuana with intent to sell or export it, thus ensuring a prison term.

In the 1940’s and 50’s, Jamaica had its own analog of Harry Anslinger, the dishonest American drug czar who pioneered the use of weird, scary pot stories (“The Killer Weed That Turns Our Children Into Fiends!”). America’s Anslinger was largely responsible for the original US marijuana prohibition that began in 1937; Jamaica’s Anslinger was police commissioner T Calver, who claimed that four youths raped a woman while under the influence of marijuana and repeatedly alleged that ganja caused violent crime. He also offered huge cash rewards to people who snitched on marijuana offenders.

Calver’s anti-ganja scare campaign failed to catch fire, but in 1960, a cadre of ganja-using revolutionaries allegedly killed several British soldiers during a protest. This led to enactment of harsher marijuana penalties in 1961.

Evolving attitudes

After years of colonial rule, Jamaica gained independence from England in 1962. The country’s first Jamaican Prime Minister, JLP leader Alexander Bustamante, is alleged to have been a handpicked lackey of the British regime. He took office pledging to fight against rape and ganja.

JLP and PNP politicians sparred over Bustamante’s extremist ganja policies, which included asset forfeiture provisions. JLP officials lied about marijuana, using reefer madness propaganda. PNP officials protested the lies and the new police powers JLP’s proposals would create. Punitive new laws were passed in 1963. These laws escalated Jamaica’s war against ganja; the use of informants, police brutality, helicopters, severe prison sentences and other fascist tactics became commonplace.

The police and other government jackboots used the marijuana laws as tools for oppression during the 1960’s, as Rastafari and Marxist factions gained stature by challenging the imprint of colonialism on the island’s socioeconomic and cultural hierarchy.

After the 1972 publication of “Ganja in Jamaica,” a landmark scientific research study (Dr Melanie Dreher was one of the researchers) showing that marijuana posed no harm to individuals or society, Jamaican officials removed mandatory minimum penalties for ganja use and possession.

Later in the same decade, widespread ganja growing and exporting caused US officials to demand that the Jamaican government rev up the island’s drug war, but instead of bowing to US pressure, the country’s politicians almost legalized ganja in 1977 and 1978!

According to PNP Representative Paul Burke, whose PNP Region Three Kingston area enclave contains a large proportion of the Party’s power base, and Independent Senator Trevor Munroe, who earlier this year made a motion that asked the Senate to consider revising current ganja law, a bi-partisan and aptly-named Joint Select Committee of Parliament studied the ganja issue in 1977-78 and recommended that private possession of two or less ounces of ganja not be a criminal offense.

I met the erudite, Oxford-educated, Rhodes Scholar Senator Munroe at an activists’ luncheon held at Dr Lampart’s charming country home near Kingston. Munroe, whose educational specialty is comparative Caribbean politics, teaches political science at the University of the West Indies. As we toured Lampart’s estate, marveling at colorful coffee beans, fruit trees, flowers and a series of scenic waterfalls and pools hand-built by Lampart in his spare time, the 54-year-old Munroe explained that he had admired many features of the 1977 recommendations, and had himself proposed a ganja reform resolution soon after being appointed to the Senate by PNP Prime Minister PJ Patterson in January, 1998. Debate on the 1998 proposal stalled, so Munroe brought it up again in April, 1999.

The 1977-78 subcommittee proposal included provisions that levied a mere $10 fine for possession of two ounces or less of ganja in a public place; imprisonment would not be an option in such an offense, and a conviction for the offense would not create a criminal record. The proposal also would have allowed doctors to legally prescribe medical marijuana, and would have set up a well-funded government agency to grow and process medical grade ganja, and supervise its use as medicine and in medical experiments.

Burke’s Region Three proposal, formally adopted at the PNP convention with overwhelming support, also echoes many of the 1977-78 recommendations. Burke is confident that a government-supported ganja research committee will soon be chartered;

he expects the committee to be a diverse group of officials and experts who will produce a credible, wide-ranging, pro-ganja study “within 18 months.”

“Before the PNP vote, I gave this about a 60 to 40 chance of passing the Senate,” Munroe said, congratulating Burke, Moyston, Chang and other activists for helping the PNP to become the first major party to officially support ganja reform. “Now I give it a 90 percent chance of success. I expect it to be debated in October or November.”

“There’s an ongoing change in peoples’ attitudes toward this issue,” Munroe explained. “The PNP has been very forthcoming, and a progressive JLP representative came to me and said he’d do what he could to get them on board too. Surely there’ll be differences of opinion, but nobody can justify giving people criminal records for simply possessing or using this plant.

“Thousands of people have had their lives ruined by these laws, and it has done no good. I am even proposing that we consider cleansing past criminal records relating to ganja. We have to understand that this isn’t really about ganja, it’s about basic human rights and restoring a sense of fairness to our justice system. People can use the more toxic substances ? tobacco and alcohol ? in public and in excessive amounts, and it’s legal. How can it therefore be right to arrest people and give them a criminal record for private, personal use of ganja?”

Drug war imperialism

Burke, Lampart, Munroe and most of the Jamaican ganja activists I met do not smoke marijuana. Ironically, these fierce freedom fighters are the straightest of the straight, men and women whose dignity, considerable achievements and elevated societal status put their motives beyond reproach. Their support for better policies, based on economic, cultural and social justice concerns rather than their desire to smoke a spliff without fear of arrest, is part of a broad-based, pro-ganja attitude held by a majority of Jamaicans. So why is ganja still illegal in Jamaica?

“There’s a lot of people who have a vested money interest in this issue,” explained Lampart. “Drug counselors, urine testers, bureaucrats, police agencies and private organizations make a lot of money spreading lies about ganja and perpetuating its prohibition. They want to keep their jobs. They want to keep getting money from the Americans.”

Lampart proved to be a prophet. Within days of the PNP’s passage of the pro-ganja resolution, the United States Embassy in Kingston launched a new anti-ganja campaign. In an amazingly candid statement that inadvertently revealed the extent that Jamaican sovereignty has been compromised by America’s war on drugs, Deputy Chief of Mission James Cason bragged that the US government has spent hundreds of thousands of dollars during the last ten years to fund and manage Jamaican anti-drug campaigns.

According to Cason, the US Military Information Support Team (MIST) had infiltrated civilian and military personnel, as well as US drug war propaganda, into Jamaican government agencies, media organizations, and non-governmental organizations.

MIST had been responsible for designing and distributing DARE-style propaganda: television, radio and newspaper ads, school programs, posters, bumper stickers and billboards, even coloring books.

The MIST message is the same discredited set of lies distributed by anti-drug forces in the US. MIST emphasizes a “Just Say No” approach, lies about the harmfulness of marijuana, encourages people to narc on their friends and families, and targets marijuana while virtually ignoring drugs that all Jamaicans agree are causing catastrophic problems in Jamaican society: heroin and cocaine.

Cason seemed most proud that MIST was working with Jamaican entities like the National Council on Drug Abuse and an organization called Addiction Alert to produce materials that showed “real Jamaican people in real Jamaican settings.”

Foreign power

The US Embassy’s involvement in internal Jamaican affairs has angered many Jamaicans.

According to Richard Crawford, an energetic legal reform advocate who is also an educator and political organizer, foreign governments have long interfered in Jamaican politics.

“It is definitely of racist origin, the foreigners’ belief that we Jamaicans are not smart enough to police ourselves, that we need some outside power to tell us what to do. I notice that our National Security Minister, KD Knight, is getting even further into bed with the Americans,” Crawford observed.

I knew what Crawford meant. Knight had been one of few people to attack Burke and Moyston’s ganja resolution at the PNP conference, and he was roundly booed for doing so.

Knight’s objections to Burke’s ganja resolution were an odd amalgam of reefer madness, zero tolerance law enforcement, and surprisingly, his contention that growing low-THC hemp might not be illegal in Jamaica. Knight is known as a drug war hard-liner whose res-ponse to the country’s high level of gun violence and crack cocaine addiction is to put police and military units on the streets. During an especially bad outbreak of street violence last July, Jamaican Defence Force soldiers patrolled many communities. Soldiers and police are routinely accused of being as corrupt and violent as the drug gangs and other criminals they are allegedly fighting; nearly 200 Jamaicans have been shot dead by government officials in 1999.

Even though he has tremendous power, and routinely resorts to writing long letters in the country’s newspapers defending his policies, Knight has become something of a joke. He is widely rumored to be a closet marijuana smoker; there have even been cartoons depicting the anti-drug Minister smoking a spliff!

Knight disgusted Crawford and other ganja activists by flying to Washington to visit US Attorney General Janet Reno in September. Reno, whose tattered reputation is at an all-time low due to revelations that the FBI and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF) covered up the use of weaponry that probably led to the incineration of women and children at the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas several years ago, offered Knight those same discredited agencies for use in Jamaica.

Not only did Knight look foolish by accepting the assistance of rogue US agencies that are under Congressional investigation for possible criminal wrongdoing, but he also admitted that a team of FBI and ATF agents were already in Jamaica, assisting police and military officials in intelligence gathering, anti-drug activities, and searches of cars and houses.

Knight announced that an ATF agent would be stationed full-time in Kingston, and that the FBI and ATF would work closely with Interpol and Jamaica’s National Drug, Firearm and Intelligence Centre (NDFIC), its Forensic Laboratory and its Narcotics Division.

Crawford expressed frustration with such developments.

“The American government has a history of turning a blind eye to government and individual lawbreaking that serves American interests. They have worked with drug lords and dictators throughout our region. It is a ridiculous policy, them spending so much money fighting ganja exports to the United States, when the real problem is not ganja, but the guns and crack cocaine coming in here from the United States. The Americans and some members of our government are using our problems as an excuse to establish even more of a police state here,” he said.

A sharp distinction

Jamaican anti-drug forces aren’t sucking off only the American tit: Jamaica’s Finance Minister announced recently that the European Union’s Development Fund has given the equivalent of 50 million Jamaican dollars to the country’s Integrated Drug Abuse Prevention Project.

All the ganja activists I interviewed agreed that crack cocaine and other hard drugs cause serious problems in Jamaica, but they want drug users treated by medical professionals, psychologists, counselors and job specialists, not by police and military officials.

Trevor Macmillan, whose training at the Royal Military Academy in England and years as an army colonel helped him have the expertise to run the entire Jamaican police force from 1993 to 1996, thinks cops should get out of the drug war.

“Let me make it clear,” the 60-year-old Macmillan says, “when I was police commissioner I was scrupulous in making sure all laws were implemented. That was my job. But I came to realize that the illegality of drugs and the drug trade causes violence and corruption. There is no way you can win this war this way. The vast sums of money spent on this war should be spent on educating people about the harm of drugs. They have reduced the use of cigarettes considerably, not by arresting smokers and tobacco growers, but by telling the truth about cigarettes. The same could be done for illegal drugs.”

Yet Macmillan denied that his police officers selectively used ganja laws to violate civil liberties or enforce personal vendettas.

“They have no discretion. They have to enforce all laws,” he said.

The former commissioner says he received “technical anti-narcotics assistance” from the US, Canada and England during his tenure.

“The Brits and Canadians provided support for our anti-drug operations, but the Americans were different. They want you to pass them intelligence information, but they won’t share any with you. They say it’s because all Caribbean nations have corrupt police forces, but they need to understand that respect is mutual. All nations want to feel that their sovereignty is respected. I can tell you this, if the US would do half as much work as we do, we wouldn’t have as many guns coming here from the US, causing all this violence.”

Part III: The Lion of Zion

The battle over Jamaican ganja is not just about geopolitics and social control. It also involves spiritual warfare ? a conflict of good and evil that involves the entire Caribbean. As a Rasta man told me, “Jamaica is a lion whose roar is heard throughout the tropics; if it legalizes herb, other nations are likely to follow suit. This little place, and these little people, can roar down the beast of Babylon, your country (the US) and those who do its bidding.”

Paul Burke and Louis Moyston confirmed that the ideological and actual descendants of religious groups that caused ganja to be outlawed in the early 1900’s were also active in opposing ganja liberalization in the 1970’s.

“The main opposition in 1977 came from two church groups ? the Jamaican Council of Churches and the Jamaican Evangelical Society,” Burke explained.

As he spoke, I recalled something that had troubled me earlier as I took Moyston’s picture next to the Marley statue. In back of the statue was a huge billboard, white lettering on a black background, purporting to speak for the Judeo-Christian “God.” I had seen these same billboard formats ? white lettering on black background, with “God” as signatory spewing hellfire messages typical of Americanized fundamentalist doctrine ? throughout Jamaica. I’d seen exactly the same type of billboards in other places ? most notably in redneck American police states such as Kansas, Oklahoma, Alabama and Georgia, places where the drug war, racism, anti-environmentalism and hog farms are as American as apple pie and ice cream.

Moyston and Chang seemed especially pleased that I had noticed the connection between American-based Christian fundamentalism and anti-ganja sentiment. They told me of the ravages of outside interference in Jamaican affairs, about black nationalist freedom fighters like Marcus Garvey, Leonard Howell and Rasta leaders whose resistance to cultural imperialism and oppression are part of Jamaican folklore.

Wit the help of my hosts and other sources, I pieced together the insidious influence of organized “Christian” religion on the island. Catholicism wiped out indigenous culture early on, by opposing folk magic and herbal medicines in the Caribbean during the days of the Conquistadors. Blacks were given two choices: be Catholic or be killed.

Protestant missionaries began invading the region in the 1600’s. Some of them were principled people who protested slavery and colonialism, but the most powerful Christian religious organizations whored after the ruling elite by advocating and enabling slavery, and by opposing black identity movements that included obeah (an Africanized form of healing magic) and ganja.

Burke said that Christian religious opposition to 1970’s ganja proposals, along with other Jamaican political realities, kept the subcommittee’s decrim recommendation from being enacted as law.

During my time in Jamaica, in conversations with Rastas, street people, taxi drivers and other “regular” Jamaicans, I heard time and again that most Jamaicans resented the influence of American fundamentalism.

“Look around at the damned Mormon, Baptist, Catholic and Seventh Day Adventist churches,” commented my 24-year-old taxi driver as we passed a Mormon enclave. “They’re tax-exempt organizations that send missionaries here to poison our minds and control our people. They treat us like children, giving us trinkets and free food; they’ll help us as long as we bow to their god. They oppose ganja, Rastafari, birth control and independent thought. They support American economic domination and the police. We need to rid ourselves of these foreigners.”

If I had a rocket launcher…

It would have been tempting to dismiss such sentiments as examples of paranoia or xenophobia, but evidence of American involvement in Jamaican drug politics is easy to find.

I personally witnessed US military personnel, accompanied by Jamaican police and national defense forces, operating in Jamaican coastal waters. I was snorkeling in the crystalline, velvety Caribbean approximately 45 miles from Kingston, entranced by thousands of colorful tropical fish and the gently sloping canyon that appeared hundreds of feet below me, when my reverie was interrupted by the ugly sound of two helicopter gunships cruising about 400 feet above the water nearby.

Initially, I thought the copters might contain rescuers searching for a sinking boat or a drowning tourist snorkeler, but after I removed my steamy dive mask and tracked the noisy birds, I realized that these military machines were on a search and seizure mission.

One copter remained over water, near my position about 500 yards offshore; the other was making forays into the mountains that rose from near the coastline. Suddenly, they closed ranks over the sea and sped down the coast. A few minutes later, I saw a US coast guard vessel coming straight toward me at a high rate of speed. I’m used to having to evade reckless watercraft, having dodged many a drunken, polluting, heedless jetskier during long-distance swims in various bodies of water, but this vessel was going so fast that I barely had time to remask and dive down 20 feet before the infernal ship swirled overhead. The idiots could have killed me.

Infused with indignation, I swam for shore, collected my gear, and sprinted to a telephone. I couldn’t get an honest answer from the US embassy, the Jamaican Ministry of Defense, or local police, but local residents later told me that the copters and coast guard vessel had been chasing fishermen in Bowden Bay.

I was told that US and Jamaican military personnel and machinery would “come around a lot,” by a woman whose roadside vending shed sold cold Guinness beer and “iced jelly,” which is the delicious soft fruit scraped from inside a fresh coconut. “They harass the poor fishermen and scare them to death. Last time, they arrest two men from Bahamas with their boat, but they don’t find no drugs. Just an empty ship. Now the men got to spend $40,000 or a year in jail down in St. Thomas on some immigration thing. They used to be using the British helicopter to do this; now it’s the American.”

Now alerted to the possibility of drug war invaders nearby, I continued my love affair with the Caribbean, its water so clear that I could see moonbeams dancing on my arms at midnight 20 feet below the surface. Floating offshore on an idyllic Tuesday afternoon, I was again disturbed by military helicopters. Some more poor fishermen being harassed by the US government, I thought.

Later, I found out my intuition had been correct. Government officials confirmed that a 40 foot boat powered by two 200 horsepower outboard engines had been chased by US airplanes, Jamaican helicopters and Jamaican coast guard boats. The official explanation, much of which was in serious doubt by the time I left Jamaica several days later, was that the US military had been tracking the boat ever since it left Colombia on Saturday night.

US Coast Guard officials in Miami radioed Jamaican forces Tuesday afternoon, after the three men in the boat were allegedly seen tossing bales of ganja into the water. Jamaican helicopters and boats picked up the pursuit, forcing the terrified, alleged smugglers to run their blue boat onto the beach at Yallahs, which is approximately 35 miles from Kingston.

Three men ? two Colombians and one Nicaraguan ? were arrested and taken to be interrogated in Kingston. The US Coast Guard claimed it had recovered several of the dumped bales of marijuana, but didn’t seem to be able to produce them as evidence for Jamaican authorities. The men were charged with immigration violations ? for not telling Jamaican authorities that they were being chased and forced to ground their boat on a Jamaican beach ? and another glorious victory was declared in the war on drugs.

Angering the butcher

Drug war victories in the Caribbean usually come at a price: the loss of sovereignty for small nations unfortunate enough to be noticed by the US Drug Enforcement Administration, Customs, Central Intelligence Agency, Navy, and Coast Guard.

During the Clinton administration, the US has used a carrot and stick approach with Trinidad, Mexico, Belize and other impoverished, tropical nations, offering money and other perks if they cooperate with militarized drug war activities, threatening to withhold money and otherwise punish countries who refuse to let US imperialists run roughshod over national borders and domestic policies.

Although Jamaican ganja advocates have mixed feelings about PNP Prime Minister PJ Patterson, they credit him with resisting America’s attempts during the early 1990’s to force all Caribbean nations (otherwise known as CARICOM countries) to sign onto the “Shiprider Agreement” which would allow US drug warriors unlimited access to Caribbean waters.

Most nations immediately signed onto the Shiprider accord, hungry for American money, military hardware and technical assistance.

But Patterson and the Jamaican Parliament stood up to the Americans, refusing to sign on until the Americans agreed to get permission from Jamaican officials before entering Jamaican waters and airspace. The US bowed to Jamaican pressure; the island signed the accord in mid-1997.

In the taxi on my way from the PNP convention to Kingston’s Bob Marley Museum, I asked the driver how he felt about Shiprider and other US intervention.

“They are invaders,” he answered. “Somebody always invading Jamaica. That be our history.”

Pointing to American fast food restaurants ? Kentucky Fried Chicken, Pizza Hut, McDonalds, and other fat food pits ? the driver lamented globalization, the World Trade Organization, the influence of corporate culture on Jamaican traditions and pride.

I’d been in Jamaica for a few days now, and was no longer surprised by the high level of political awareness displayed by “working-class” islanders. I recalled an earlier conversation I’d had with security guards at my hotel. They’d been forced to stay awake all night, guarding CARICOM heads of state and finance ministers attending a regional conference. The guards spoke of world politics with accuracy and wisdom, correctly identifying the US as the source for crack cocaine and guns that were flowing into Jamaica.

“We know what your Babylon country is doing to this world, mon,” one of them said, in a way that made me realize he might not like a blonde-haired, blue-eyed American journalist asking questions in the middle of the night.

Later, I cornered a CARICOM official in the elevator.

“Of course your country thinks of us as puppets,” he admitted derisively.

When I asked if anyone dared stand up to the US, he replied, “When you are in the position of being meat, you avoid angering the butchers.”

But my taxi driver, sweating in his un-airconditioned Toyota, wasn’t worried about offending butchers.

“You want to know where all the traffic jam come from,” he said, referring to the interminable line of cars ahead of us. “It was never like this in Kingston. Then the Jap car companies dumped thousands of crappy cars on us. Cars that had no pollution control and they couldn’t sell anywhere else. Like fools, the dumb Jamaican buys them. Now we can’t get nowhere and the air smell like shit.”

Trapped in traffic, we listened to Irie FM, a very hip radio station that played radical reggae I’d never heard anywhere else, and featured defiant and entertaining talk shows and disc jockeys who interspersed incredible music with a message of national pride, Rasta philosophy, and revolution.

Finally, we reached Hope Road, with Irie FM playing a song whose lyrics spoke of “rising up to fight for Jah’s great herb.”

At the front gates of the museum, I gave the driver a big tip. He smiled and said, “Bob Marley still alive,” before speeding away.

Ganja Gardens

After spending so much time interviewing people about the fabled Jamaican marijuana crop, I was eager to get out in the countryside and see the righteous herb being grown. By showing copies of Cannabis Culture to people I met, and by sheer luck, several young Jamaican men agreed to guide me to the Promised Ganja Land.

Jungle love

One sultry, late afternoon, I found myself in a car on a dirt track heading into emerald hills. Men digging by shovel in the middle of the road, donkeys, tiny infants, silent grandmas cleared to let us pass. Excluding our car, I could well have been in the world as it was before the cursed Industrial Revolution: no chain saws, no leaf blowers, no weed whackers, no telephone lines. Just ebony people, musical silence, green jungle.

We parked at a clearing. I hoisted 50 pounds of cameras onto my back, and struggled to keep up with H and N, my guides. We wound through a dense but sun-dappled forest, curtained by vines, coconut palms., guavas, limes, breadfruit, snakes, bamboo, singing birds. Without money or even a weapon, you would not starve in this forest. That abundant was its life.

H and N told me about growing herb in Jamaica, but it was hard to understand their dialect that combined English, French and Jamaican slang.

“The police came and burned the plot I used to have,” N said, shaking his head sadly. “They don’t find them much with helicopters here. It was because of informant. Somebody jealous of my herb, or paid by police, or stupid, who hurt their brother and the herb. It hurt the forest. I have to grow. I have to go cut and burn another place to open it for the light. Then I plant again.”

More hiking, blinded by sweat, crossing barbed wire fences. N hums and sings to himself: “Got to free the weed. Got to have the seed.”

We turned a corner and there before me was an acre of cleared, terraced hillside, festooned with ganja plants in varying sizes, shapes, stages of growth. Where the hill sloped and leveled there were small plants in ground rows. Next to them was a container with perhaps a hundred three-inch seedlings planted close together. Up the hill were larger plants, some nearing ten feet tall, light green, thin-leafed, with long, dense single colas and thick stalks, firmly rooted in the well-drained, pebbly soil.

There was no sign of insect damage or nutrient deficiency. Even though it was nearly sundown, some last rays of light were filtering in, illuminating a covered drying shed with several whole plants hung upside down inside.

H and N beamed with quiet pride as I murmured my praise for Jah’s crop, trying to balance my tripod in the crumbly soil, against gravity, on the steep hill. I smelled the glistening colas, peppery and sweet, totally organic, perfumed by solar power and clean rain.

N spoke of carrying water to the plants, growing year-round, worrying about heavy rains that interfered with drying and curing. He grows to support his love for herb, and to make a little money. Very little, in an already-depressed economy that used to benefit from exporting Jamaican ganja to the US, but now the government has interfered with that. A pound of organic, mountain-grown ganja nets only $2500 Jamaican dollars (about $80 US), and he wishes he had a fast boat.

The light fades as H stumbles toward the car. I hurriedly pack my cameras and pause to take a last long look at this miracle crop, this hunted plant, and the kind, dignified young man who has grown it. There is something religious in the moment.

By the time I’ve straggled back to the car, bought the guys a Guinness, cleaned my mud-caked cameras, and flopped down like a limp noodle in my tiny hotel room, I am ready for the sleep of the dead.

Three pictures of paradise

The next morning as the sun rose pink and effervescent, I was awakened by J, who had promised me several days before that he would find me a “big ganja garden” to photograph.

Bleary-eyed, I crawled to his car. It was air conditioned, and we needed it to be. Again a long drive, this time in the opposite direction, down a winding lane, again shrouded by tiny villages and communal living. We parked in the middle of the road, in a forest that was only 30 miles away from the one I had visited the day before, but different, taller trees, more water, more mud.

J introduced me to Charles, who carried a machete and a coil of hemp rope. It flashed on me that I was a foreigner going off into an uncharted forest with two people I didn’t know, one of whom had a long metal blade and a long, thick rope.

Our path was easy for a while, except for the mud, but then we began ascending a vertical hillside, through brambles, no footholds. J and Charles took the lead. I fell back, and then fell down hard on my back, on my tripod, on my cameras. The men were moving very fast, so I scrambled up, trying to see if my cameras had survived the crash. One had.

Near the top of a hill, surrounded on all sides by dense forest, I saw the welcome serrated leaves of approximately 200 plants, growing close together on half an acre of cleared land. Ash and burnt trees contrasted with vibrant ganja shining with morning dew in the watery air.

“I’ve been doing this for 20 years,” Charles said, cutting open a coconut. “I had a thief steal my herb once. He liked my crop better than his own. He was jealous.” Charles paused to make a slashing motion with his machete. “Thieves answer to Jah. The hurricane was in 1980. That washed the crop away. Since then, good luck. We don’t get many male plants. Sometimes the cutter worms come and get the babies before they can get big. The rats try to eat them. I get up every morning this early and work this hard most months of the year.”

The soil Charles was growing in was not full of mud; it was well-drained, moist, rich. He told me that he started seedlings in the ground nearby, transplanted them, didn’t have a need for clones.

I told him about my magazine and its seed catalog.

“We need them Canada people to send us some different seeds,” he said. “We lost a lot of the old Jamaican stock. A lot of people came here with other seeds. Ice, Purple Skunk, Cambodian. We want to grow the Sativa, the tall and friendly herb, that grew here in the early days.”

I was taking pictures as we talked, until my back-up camera began to make weird noises.

Charles was standing in the middle of the field, a fat, billowing spliff in his mouth, holding over his head his machete in one hand and a bouquet of drying cannabis in the other.

“Take my picture, mon,” he said.

“Are you sure? I mean, this is going to be seen all over the world. We really don’t like to compromise anybody’s confidentiality,” I replied.

Charles laughed and a big cloud of smoke rose into the air, caught like a spectral morning in the sun’s filtered rays.

“I live in the bush, mon. Nobody can take me out of here. All them police and soldiers, they know not to come here. Take the picture.”

I took three shots. Then, the camera coughed and died.

Part IV: Redemption song

It was my mistake, telling the first people I met at the Marley Museum that I was an American writing for a pot magazine.

I had to listen patiently, sweat-stupid in the humid sun, as they told me how “fucked up” my magazine was for having written “shit” about Jamaica, Rasta culture and Bob Marley. They weren’t even going to let me in with my cameras unless I paid a huge fee amounting to hundreds of American dollars.

Underneath their misdirected anger, I sensed that they felt that Bob Marley’s life and image had been exploited and inaccurately represented by some other magazine. I kept telling them I worked for a Canadian-based pot mag. To my knowledge, I told them, we’ve never run an article on Bob Marley. My goal was to honor Marley. They finally let me take a few pictures from a few feet inside the gated compound, then they confiscated my cameras until the end of the standard 90-minute guided museum tour, which concluded with a video of Marley playing live.

Marley was born in a place called Nine Miles in Saint Ann’s parish in 1944. He rose to prominence as a soccer-playing, spliff-smoking, guitar-playing “mystic Rastaman” whose songs helped create the worldwide reggae phenomenon. Marley was more than an entertainer. He embodied Jamaican pride, resilience and spirituality, mixing fatalism with pragmatism, smiles with scowls, forgiveness with rebellion.

By the time he obtained official “National Hero” status in the 1970’s, he was already on his way to becoming a martyr. He refused to sell out and enjoy a life of herb and fame, instead trying to heal Jamaica as its turbulent political violence spiraled out of control.

When Marley agreed to play a government-sponsored concert event in late 1976, hardcore members of the JLP interpreted it as a sign that Marley favored the ruling PNP. This led to Marley, his wife Rita, and some members of his band and entourage being shot. Nobody was mortally wounded, but the shooting underscored Marley’s precarious position as a political-spiritual leader.

In early 1978, Marley agreed to participate in a Kingston “peace concert” featuring Peter Tosh and most of Jamaica’s other significant reggae musicians. During the show, which received worldwide media attention, Marley brought Prime Minister Michael Manley and JLP rival Edward Seaga on stage. As he sang the song “Jammin’,” Marley grasped the hands of Manley and Seaga so that the three of them held hands together over Marley’s head. People at the Marley Museum remember the moment with tears in their eyes.

But there are more tears in the Marley story. As with many young musicians during this era, Marley was worked too hard by his record company and the demands of the public. He was upset about events in his home country, where hundreds were being killed in brutal election-related violence. He and his handlers ignored warnings from doctors, warnings that foreshadowed a September, 1980 collapse while he was jogging in New York City. A neurologist gave him the grim diagnosis: terminal cancer of the brain. Rumors that Marley had been poisoned by the CIA, Scotland Yard, or some other nefarious government agency helped people transform their anticipatory grief into anger.

In 1981, Marley was doggedly trying conventional and alternative cures, including a visit to a West German doctor who had once been an SS officer. Nothing worked. He boarded a transatlantic flight headed home from the German hospice on May 9, but never made it to Jamaica. Bob Marley died in Miami, Florida, at age 37, on May 11, 1981.

Marley still alive

When people say Bob Marley still lives, they may be referring to people like Dennis Forsythe, a Jamaican attorney with training in sociology and a doctorate in economics who describes himself as a “plainclothes Rasta ? no dreadlocks.”

“Bob Marley had tapped into the power of the Rasta religion,” Forsythe explained, “which is connected to many other mystical movements ? African drumming, the potential for revival, good magic, the use of ganja to give a spiritual boost. It is medicine, all medicine, in that we feel a need to reach higher, and to be closer to a peaceful nature.”

Forsythe wants peace, but doesn’t want to be a victim of ganja laws, which he describes as “nothing more than an excuse for police to arrest people that they already don’t like who aren’t hurting anybody but they have to find some excuse to get them so ganja is it.”

In 1996, after Forsythe had been practicing law for six years, a woman who was mad at him told police that Forsythe used ganja. Forsythe had already suffered through political persecution at the University of the West Indies, because he taught and wrote that Rastafarianism is a bona fide, positive, political force that could rebuild Jamaican society.

The woman’s accusation was all it took for a gang of police to “mash down” his front door. They found two ounces of ganja, and hauled the radical attorney, his wife, her daughter and his toddler son off to jail.

“One of the terrible things about the ganja law is that most people just cave in and plead guilty and pay the fine,” Forsythe said. “They don’t want any criminal record. That impedes the rest of your life. They don’t want any more trouble. The law tries to rob you of your dignity, your will to fight back.”

Emboldened by the example of Rasta heroes past and present, Forsythe mounted a constitutional challenge against his arrest.

“I taught courses on religion for many years,” he explained. “It was clear to me that the law violated Section 21 of our Constitution, which guarantees freedom of religion and conscience. Ganja is the wisdom weed, a vital part of our religion. I represented myself after I asked eight different lawyers to represent me and finally decided I had to do it myself. This case went all the way to Jamaica’s Constitutional Court. My challenge was denied in May, 1997, but in a fashion that clearly shows the prejudice and ignorance of our conservative judicial system.

The Chief Justice, Mr Wolfe, said that my ‘contention’ that I must be free to practice the Rasta religion was ‘untenable.’ Mr Wolfe further said, ‘His understanding of the freedom of conscience is misguided. Taken to its logical conclusion, it would mean that the offering of human sacrifice in the practice of a religion would be unobjectionable.’ So there you have it. One of the most learned men in this country equates using ganja with human sacrifice. He supposes that he gets to define my religious experience, and prohibit it.”

Forsythe has considered the option of going above Jamaica’s highest court by appealing the decision to England’s Privy Council.

“I think the English judges would agree with my position,” he said, “and that it would set an international precedent. But it is so costly. I cannot afford to do it.”

But all is not lost. Forsythe told me he is about to release a book that outlines his struggle, and the struggle of others, against ganja laws worldwide. And he is cheered by a recent ruling handed down in Guam’s Superior Court. As Forsythe tells it, a Rastafarian holy man named Benny Guerrero was caught bringing ganja into Guam in 1991.

Forsythe says “Ras Benny” fought the charge by arguing that it violated his religious freedom.

“The judge agreed with him. He ruled in August that Ras Benny had proved he was Rasta, and that his use of marijuana is a part of his religion. He ruled that the government had no compelling interest to deny him the right to use his medicine, and that the law against ganja violated their Constitution and the US Religious Freedom Restoration Act. Judge Bordallo further ruled that if it is legal for Ras Benny to use and have ganja, it must also be legal for him to procure it. It is this kind of ruling that gives us hope,” Forsythe said. “It is this kind of ruling that helps us believe that justice and right will prevail.”

Epilogue: Back to Babylon

I sat on the balcony of my hotel room in Kingston on the last night of my sojourn, smoking a fine spliff, watching a steel band next to the pool twelve stories below. The herb, given me by J (see sidebar), was sweet and smooth, easy to roll, light up, and inhale. The high was cheerful and penetrating, easing my aching body, like the band’s calypso medley of Marley songs. “Is this love, is this love, that I’m feeling? No woman, no cry.”

I looked at my notes, my rolls of film, the kind buds I’d have to leave behind in the morning, remembering the taste of fried plantains, bammy, chicken baked in coconut, aged rum, roast breadfruit, mango.

Memories of conversations and images swept over me, like the glistening lights of Kingston, quiet now as the band finished their set, looking like a little village, jewels in the crown, gilded by mountains.

I heard again the voice of one of Dr Lampart’s relatives, an engineer of considerable social rank, who described being rousted from bed in the middle of the night by a police officer summoning him by phone to a roadside where his son and friends had been caught with a spliff. The officer hectoring the kids, attempting to shame them, surprised when the engineer dad didn’t join in the tirade.

The same man remembering a long time ago, in the days of mandatory minimum sentences: “We had a wonderful gardener, a family man, very quiet and good-hearted. Somebody took a dislike to him, and put some ganja under his bike seat, and called the police, and they threw him in jail for many months, and when he came out he was a ruined, destroyed, lost soul.”

I recalled my conversation with Dennis Daly, a 64-year-old human rights attorney and founder of the Jamaican Coalition for Human Rights, in 1968, who talked candidly about the police using ganja laws to crush people, especially Rastafarians.

“The government has special squads that are really paramilitary organizations with carte blanche to dismantle gangs by killing the gang leaders,” he said. “It amounts to execution in cold blood, so that they have become more criminal than the people they pursue. I am not a ganja smoker, but the law itself is a violation of human rights. To be honest, we are very close to becoming a police state.”

Those echoes stayed with me as I sent phat spliffs into the dark sky early the next morning, watching them rain down on the empty pool deck below, then checked out of my room.

At the airport, a huge, color mural depicted Jamaica’s tumultuous history, including a Rasta elder smoking an herb pipe. Then back on Air Jamaica, filled mostly with Jamaicans in business suits and a few dead-eyed tourists, partied out. Destination Babylon.

At Miami Airport, a beefy doughboy in US Customs Uniform with an ugly black drug dog bounded onto the plane before we even had a chance to unfasten our seatbelts. The fascist canine put his nose in my crotch, then sniffed my ganja-stained hands. His handler was looking down a Jamaican woman’s cleavage. I hit the dog with my tripod.

Imprisoned on the plane for ten minutes while the dog smelled everyone and everything, then herded like sheep up a ramp, under the watchful eye of more Customs agents, into a sterile, overly lit quarantine area. Standing in line forever while the dog glided up and down, putting its nose on everyone. Long-haired, arrogant, shifty-eyed male and female agents rudely pulled people out of line. “Why are you here? What do you have in your briefcase? How much money do you have? State your business in this country. Have you secreted anything inside your body? Would you please come with us to secondary search area?”

They forced a man carrying a fragile electronic testing device to practically disassemble the device on the ground, while three goons stood over him, prodding the machine.

I asked a female agent if I could take pictures. No, she replied, why do you want to? I’m a journalist. Really? Too bad. We usually search journalists. We can take your film. Do you have anything you want to declare?

Did I ever! What I wanted to declare was that the Rastafari are right. We are living in the end times, the apocalypse, Armageddon. It doesn’t rain as much as it used to, a grower told me, and when it does rain, “It be fierce. The balance is gone. Nature dying.”

Who doubts that the US is Babylon, metaphorically and literally? It exports death and drug wars all over the world, robs gentle men and women of their medicines, greets harmless visitors with police agents who would have been comfortable as KGB goons.

Waiting, waiting for the luggage. All luggage from all arriving Air Jamaica flights is delayed in all airports in the US, the ticket agent tells me, because US Customs searches for ganja. I see my suitcase in an hour. It has been opened, the contents disturbed.

It is not because I want to feel good in spite of it all that I flash on this final revelation. In the strength of an 81-year-old doctor, a university professor, a Senator, an Asian-Canadian-Jamaican, a Rasta attorney, and millions of allies in Jamaica and across the world, there is a culture, kindred spirits united by ganja, fighting Babylon.

What brought me together in easy friendship with men and women whose language, experiences, customs, prejudices, histories and tragedies are a world apart from mine? Ganja. The same sensi gardens I saw growing on the island hillside, I’ve seen in British Columbia, California, Florida, Europe. The same ganja spirit, the same tasty smoke rising from our lungs into the air. The same feeling of warmth and reassurance. The same resistance to evil, the dogged determination to kill the beast of Babylon, and to have fun doing it.

Yet with this Hitlerized century ending and the year 2000 rushing in, I find myself somehow optimistic.

I keep having this dream: I’m floating in the Caribbean on a raft made of palm trees. The helicopters and coast guards have crashed, boats loaded with ganja freely roam. With me is Charles, grinning his crooked grin and handing me a coconut. Dr Lampart is there, healing patients. Louis, the two Pauls, Dennises and Trevors are amicably discussing politics. KD Knight and the Prime Minister are smoking spliffs for the first time, laughing like children. Wives, babes and mistresses lounge with us, their perfume perfectly combines with the salt air.

I drink coconut juice, inhale a spliff, and we sing Bob’s songs long after the sun goes down. The island is free.

? People’s National Party (PNP): 89 Old Hope Road, Kingston 6, JA; tel (876) 927-7520 or 927-8886; fax (876) 927-4389; email [email protected]; web www.pnp.org.jm
? Jamaica Information Service: PO Box 2222, 58A Half-Way-Tree Road; Kingston 10, Jamaica, W.I.; tel (876) 926-3740; fax (876) 926-6715; email [email protected]; web www.jis.gov.jm

Comments

997 Comments

  1. Pingback: تردمیل خانگی تایوانی

  2. Pingback: temporary site protection

  3. Pingback: flame retardant polythene

  4. Pingback: sasha grey pocket pal

  5. Pingback: wand vibrator

  6. Pingback: sex

  7. Pingback: Bdsm

  8. Pingback: خرید اپل ایدی

  9. Pingback: dong

  10. Pingback: adam and eve sex toys

  11. Pingback: biotech stocks

  12. Pingback: خرید vpn آمریکا

  13. Pingback: battle anime

  14. Pingback: Steel leg stretching machine

  15. Pingback: lgbt anal toys

  16. Pingback: clitoral stimulation cream

  17. Pingback: کفسابی

  18. Pingback: تعمیر لوازم خانگی

  19. Pingback: g spot stimulation

  20. Pingback: couples sex toys

  21. Pingback: tratamento de Alcoolismo

  22. Pingback: Minihaziko

  23. Pingback: adam and eve products

  24. Pingback: Contracting

  25. Pingback: day trade stocks

  26. Pingback: coupon code

  27. Pingback: Best Sex Toys for Men

  28. Pingback: femalelibidoreview

  29. Pingback: best realistic vibrating dildo

  30. Pingback: Best G Spot Vibrator

  31. Pingback: penis stroker

  32. Pingback: glass vibrator

  33. Pingback: wand massagers

  34. Pingback: app for pc download

  35. Pingback: classic organic sauerkraut

  36. Pingback: pc games for windows xp

  37. Pingback: games for laptop download

  38. Pingback: butt plug training

  39. Pingback: sex toys dildos

  40. Pingback: fermented pickles

  41. Pingback: sexy lingerie

  42. Pingback: cock ring vibrator

  43. Pingback: Adam and Eve Big Rack Stroker

  44. Pingback: pussy power

  45. Pingback: online auction

  46. Pingback: Couples Kit

  47. Pingback: intuit serial keys

  48. Pingback: penis pump review

  49. Pingback: Vibrating Cock Ring

  50. Pingback: turkey womens short sleeve t shirts manufacturer

  51. Pingback: g spot vibrator review

  52. Pingback: adam \u0026 eve

  53. Pingback: Adam and Eve Vibrator

  54. Pingback: Best Male Stroker

  55. Pingback: clitoriffic vibrator

  56. Pingback: adam and eve

  57. Pingback: adamandeve.com

  58. Pingback: thegayfrat

  59. Pingback: adam and eve sex toys

  60. Pingback: adult sex toy

  61. Pingback: نصب دوربین مداربسته

  62. Pingback: ABS Module Intercooler

  63. Pingback: adam and eve sex toys

  64. Pingback: before having sex

  65. Pingback: usb vibrator

  66. Pingback: beginner's penis pump

  67. Pingback: bondage sex toys

  68. Pingback: pocket masturbator

  69. Pingback: 3-axis laser scanning systems

  70. Pingback: hair loss clinic Singapore

  71. Pingback: light mirror vanity

  72. Pingback: strap on anal dildo

  73. Pingback: flex vibrator’s bendabl

  74. Pingback: Solo Play

  75. Pingback: adam \u0026 eve

  76. Pingback: bondage equipment

  77. Pingback: YouTubers

  78. Pingback: education

  79. Pingback: adult sex toy

  80. Pingback: adam and eve

  81. Pingback: ac repair

  82. Pingback: free download for pc

  83. Pingback: free download for windows 7

  84. Pingback: adam and eve

  85. Pingback: sex toys

  86. Pingback: pc games download for windows 10

  87. Pingback: rabbit sex toys

  88. Pingback: http://mer99furniture.com

  89. Pingback: pc games for windows 7

  90. Pingback: bondage toys

  91. Pingback: sex underwear

  92. Pingback: anal

  93. Pingback: Allegheny County divorce forms

  94. Pingback: construction equipment repair

  95. Pingback: adam and eve

  96. Pingback: home page

  97. Pingback: pc games for windows 7

  98. Pingback: pc app free download

  99. Pingback: longer erection

  100. Pingback: Bond back cleaning in Melbourne

  101. Pingback: Sripatum university

  102. Pingback: water based lube

  103. Pingback: best seller penis sleeve

  104. Pingback: how to

  105. Pingback: Best Lube

  106. Pingback: Bondage Restraint

  107. Pingback: Best Male Masturbator

  108. Pingback: Dolphin Sex Toy

  109. Pingback: Sex Cream

  110. Pingback: Magic Wand Massager

  111. Pingback: Magic Massager Deluxe

  112. Pingback: Butterfly Kiss Vibrator

  113. Pingback: where to buy silicone vibrator

  114. Pingback: clit

  115. Pingback: adult toy

  116. Pingback: interior design Singapore

  117. Pingback: kala jadu

  118. Pingback: The latest sports news from the most popular sporting event

  119. Pingback: bandiera Italia

  120. Pingback: vacate cleaning Melbourne

  121. Pingback: g spot stimulator

  122. Pingback: rotating vibrator

  123. Pingback: Candles

  124. Pingback: dr. kat

  125. Pingback: Clit Vibrator

  126. Pingback: butt plug

  127. Pingback: inflatable butt pug

  128. Pingback: butt plug

  129. Pingback: gay toys

  130. Pingback: butt plug

  131. Pingback: seattle pest control

  132. Pingback: Healthy food easy to prepare

  133. Pingback: Carpet steam cleaning Melbourne

  134. Pingback: max results pump

  135. Pingback: g spot vibrator

  136. Pingback: label besi

  137. Pingback: auto detailing

  138. Pingback: Mitsubishi brush cutter parts

  139. Pingback: end of lease clean Melbourne

  140. Pingback: real feel dildo

  141. Pingback: free download for windows 10

  142. Pingback: military in iraq blog

  143. Pingback: binary trading

  144. Pingback: Taoist Real Sex Talk

  145. Pingback: Quick News Updates

  146. Pingback: all forex brokers

  147. Pingback: lifelike dildo

  148. Pingback: no deposit bonus forex

  149. Pingback: bangal ka jadu

  150. Pingback: vibe

  151. Pingback: jack rabbit vibrator

  152. Pingback: Venture Point Network

  153. Pingback: website developers

  154. Pingback: vibrator

  155. Pingback: Wifi Socket Which Can Control All Your Home Appliances With Mobile

  156. Pingback: Queen duvet cover

  157. Pingback: online scr game

  158. Pingback: atlanta basement contractors

  159. Pingback: sex toys for nipples

  160. Pingback: pc games for windows xp

  161. Pingback: triple rabbit vibrator

  162. Pingback: g-spot

  163. Pingback: realistic vibrator

  164. Pingback: vibrating dildo

  165. Pingback: realistic dong

  166. Pingback: honey usa

  167. Pingback: Electronics

  168. Pingback: Viagra kaufen

  169. Pingback: download tama tube

  170. Pingback: tratamento de drogas

  171. Pingback: 100% pure kona

  172. Pingback: max dildo

  173. Pingback: dvd專賣店

  174. Pingback: surfboard for hire

  175. Pingback: rampant rabbit sex toys

  176. Pingback: male sex toys

  177. Pingback: adam & eve sex toys

  178. Pingback: sex toy butterfly

  179. Pingback: sex toys cleaner

  180. Pingback: sex toys for couples

  181. Pingback: g spot

  182. Pingback: unique antiques

  183. Pingback: unique antiques

  184. Pingback: white magic

  185. Pingback: pushup jeans

  186. Pingback: lefkoşa kirakık ev fiyatları

  187. Pingback: foldable wall bed

  188. Pingback: Make Money Online

  189. Pingback: sales leads

  190. Pingback: Morris

  191. Pingback: Essential Oils

  192. Pingback: Double Sided Dildo

  193. Pingback: lesbian double dildo

  194. Pingback: every day deals

  195. Pingback: buy kona

  196. Pingback: best kona

  197. Pingback: work at home 2018

  198. Pingback: adam and eve sex toys

  199. Pingback: women's health

  200. Pingback: retro jordans for sale

  201. Pingback: recovery clinic

  202. Pingback: belt for man

  203. Pingback: places to eat in ventura

  204. Pingback: Web Application Development Company

  205. Pingback: Size 0 00 empty capsules

  206. Pingback: purple vibe

  207. Pingback: Army regulation issue boots

  208. Pingback: data science courses

  209. Pingback: Buy Craft Beer Online

  210. Pingback: daily news

  211. Pingback: Birthday wishes for brother

  212. Pingback: https://youtu.be/c49tU2i2JSI

  213. Pingback: Happy Birthday wishes

  214. Pingback: How To Use A Strap On Dildo

  215. Pingback: Tantra

  216. Pingback: Wisdom teeth

  217. Pingback: shasta lake fishing

  218. Pingback: TensorFlow

  219. Pingback: kona 100%

  220. Pingback: pure kona

  221. Pingback: Sex Toy Reviews

  222. Pingback: Tantric Satin ties

  223. Pingback: sex problem

  224. Pingback: http://www.motupatlugameshd.com

  225. Pingback: http://www.hamptonbaylightinghd.com

  226. Pingback: piano

  227. Pingback: home page

  228. Pingback: nSpire Network Signup

  229. Pingback: margaritaville daytona

  230. Pingback: http://motuandpatlugames.com

  231. Pingback: adam and eve

  232. Pingback: motu and patlu

  233. Pingback: LED light sources Sanlibang

  234. Pingback: Permitting

  235. Pingback: california

  236. Pingback: pure kona

  237. Pingback: chicago

  238. Pingback: سرور مجاری فرانسه

  239. Pingback: buy beats

  240. Pingback: Cheap New England Patriots Jerseys

  241. Pingback: work at home 2017

  242. Pingback: cheater

  243. Pingback: 福井脱毛

  244. Pingback: Inspection in China

  245. Pingback: 福井脱毛

  246. Pingback: 福井脱毛

  247. Pingback: games for pc download

  248. Pingback: pc app free download

  249. Pingback: full apps pc download

  250. Pingback: Pinganillo

  251. Pingback: Arduino shields

  252. Pingback: 韓国エスコートアガシ

  253. Pingback: Cheap Indianapolis Colts Fitted Hats

  254. Pingback: phenterminedispensary.com

  255. Pingback: Pinganillo

  256. Pingback: best anal vibe

  257. Pingback: Italian food

  258. Pingback: adam and eve sex toys

  259. Pingback: data recovery

  260. Pingback: penis ring vibrator

  261. Pingback: sex

  262. Pingback: buy dildo

  263. Pingback: anal trainer kit

  264. Pingback: adam and eve haul

  265. Pingback: sex toy review

  266. Pingback: best clit vibrator

  267. Pingback: vibrating rabbit

  268. Pingback: adam and eve sex toy

  269. Pingback: adam and eve

  270. Pingback: smm panel

  271. Pingback: app pc download for windows

  272. Pingback: 2000 freightliner fl70 for sale

  273. Pingback: P_FINMGT_65 Certification Exam Questions and Answers

  274. Pingback: wireless microphone headset for fitness

  275. Pingback: microcamere spion

  276. Pingback: buy real youtube views

  277. Pingback: Best Gaming Headset 2017

  278. Pingback: amazon product rankings

  279. Pingback: Free Internet Radio

  280. Pingback: Download C6010-146 Certification Dumps

  281. Pingback: c diff natural remedies

  282. Pingback: meath

  283. Pingback: szybkie pozyczki

  284. Pingback: discount vibrator

  285. Pingback: sex toy

  286. Pingback: penis enlargement pump

  287. Pingback: dildo

  288. Pingback: Wand Massager

  289. Pingback: thrusting silicone vibrator

  290. Pingback: Male Masturbators

  291. Pingback: Sex Toy

  292. Pingback: desinfectionpunaisedelit

  293. Pingback: first time anal toy

  294. Pingback: livecam

  295. Pingback: fashionable travel clothes

  296. Pingback: telefonsex

  297. Pingback: payday loans

  298. Pingback: vibrators for women

  299. Pingback: clitoral stimulation

  300. Pingback: erotik

  301. Pingback: Buy ios reviews

  302. Pingback: διαφημιση

  303. Pingback: best anal toy

  304. Pingback: tel-sex.cc

  305. Pingback: why do people cheat

  306. Pingback: vibrator

  307. Pingback: https://youtu.be/kK7UQ9-3-D4

  308. Pingback: oh naughty rabbit vibrator

  309. Pingback: C9560-652 Certification Dumps

  310. Pingback: 木瓜

  311. Pingback: 100% pure mulvadi

  312. Pingback: 100% pure mulvadi

  313. Pingback: true wireless headphones

  314. Pingback: venus vibrator

  315. Pingback: Mitsibishi

  316. Pingback: nike jordan

  317. Pingback: Sell. Free Stuff

  318. Pingback: Vibrator Sex Toys

  319. Pingback: Chaga Pilz

  320. Pingback: Squirmy Rabbit Love-Her

  321. Pingback: full version pc games download

  322. Pingback: app download for windows 8

  323. Pingback: Butt Plug

  324. Pingback: menage a trois dp strap on

  325. Pingback: adam and eve

  326. Pingback: miniclip

  327. Pingback: pc apps

  328. Pingback: clitoris vibrator

  329. Pingback: strapon

  330. Pingback: apps for pc download

  331. Pingback: app download for pc

  332. Pingback: pure kona coffee

  333. Pingback: https://youtu.be/_6FlbFkQdi0

  334. Pingback: coffee beans kona

  335. Pingback: pure kona lion

  336. Pingback: Android Fixed Firmware

  337. Pingback: kerala

  338. Pingback: gall

  339. Pingback: free download for windows 8

  340. Pingback: pc games for windows 10

  341. Pingback: games for pc download

  342. Pingback: free download for windows 10

  343. Pingback: Photography

  344. Pingback: https://youtu.be/v9MMRSuY4SE

  345. Pingback: free download for laptop

  346. Pingback: free download for windows 10

  347. Pingback: free download for windows 10

  348. Pingback: Double Vibrator

  349. Pingback: Vibrator

  350. Pingback: SAI

  351. Pingback: relationships

  352. Pingback: auction luxury watches

  353. Pingback: superior auto institute

  354. Pingback: chain saw sharpening CBN wheel

  355. Pingback: 5ml jars

  356. Pingback: отель для кошек

  357. Pingback: riva web

  358. Pingback: edm consumables

  359. Pingback: Acoustic

  360. Pingback: Roof repair near me

  361. Pingback: PHP Music Store

  362. Pingback: 오버워치대리

  363. Pingback: malayalam movies

  364. Pingback: Freightliner Sprinter 2500 Cargo Van

  365. Pingback: bullet cock ring

  366. Pingback: lovehoney

  367. Pingback: rocks off

  368. Pingback: pdr training

  369. Pingback: games for pc download

  370. Pingback: free download for windows 10

  371. Pingback: space research world

  372. Pingback: little dogs

  373. Pingback: small dog

  374. Pingback: Auditor IT

  375. Pingback: سرور مجازی فرانسه

  376. Pingback: free tech

  377. Pingback: pc games download

  378. Pingback: pc games for windows xp

  379. Pingback: best sex doll

  380. Pingback: full version pc games download

  381. Pingback: Dpf

  382. Pingback: sex toys for women

  383. Pingback: Pornstar Pocket Pussy

  384. Pingback: make money from home

  385. Pingback: small dogs

  386. Pingback: Beni ourain

  387. Pingback: Drain basin repairs

  388. Pingback: https://youtu.be/LGAcnLXbnAw

  389. Pingback: Rabbit Stimulation

  390. Pingback: Evolved

  391. Pingback: chat and date

  392. Pingback: best kona coffee

  393. Pingback: best kona coffee

  394. Pingback: 스포츠닥터스

  395. Pingback: 스포츠닥터스

  396. Pingback: oral surgery

  397. Pingback: motherboard repair

  398. Pingback: best rabbit vibe

  399. Pingback: best male masturbater

  400. Pingback: games for pc download

  401. Pingback: apps for windows 7

  402. Pingback: DISCO HIRE HERTS

  403. Pingback: best massager for masterbation

  404. Pingback: anal sex toys

  405. Pingback: best site to book cheap hotels

  406. Pingback: Clasificados Wyoming

  407. Pingback: sexdolls

  408. Pingback: pracovni plosiny

  409. Pingback: montazni plosiny

  410. Pingback: pic share

  411. Pingback: Sex Toys for Couples

  412. Pingback: cPanel Web Hosting

  413. Pingback: domain auction

  414. Pingback: mitsubishi electric solar

  415. Pingback: piezas originales suzuki

  416. Pingback: tax benefits after retirement

  417. Pingback: 925 silver jewelry

  418. Pingback: iPhone screen repair

  419. Pingback: inchiriere apartamente timisoara

  420. Pingback: restraint cuff

  421. Pingback: oki

  422. Pingback: Interior design for your home

  423. Pingback: adam and eve sex toy shop

  424. Pingback: superiorautoinstitute.com

  425. Pingback: crotchless

  426. Pingback: best female sex toys

  427. Pingback: car wreckers melbourne

  428. Pingback: new and best sex toys vibrators

  429. Pingback: Carpet Cutter

  430. Pingback: classic auto salvage

  431. Pingback: 2012 truck for sale

  432. Pingback: Yoga

  433. Pingback: 오버워치 대리

  434. Pingback: Car Wrecker Melbourne

  435. Pingback: dildoes

  436. Pingback: clasificados online

  437. Pingback: this is my email address

  438. Pingback: 2 Chainz Mixtapes

  439. Pingback: Male Enhancement Pills

  440. Pingback: free chat app

  441. Pingback: G Spot Vibrator

  442. Pingback: Discover New Artists

  443. Pingback: DJ Barry Bee Mixtapes

  444. Pingback: Free Mixtape Downloads

  445. Pingback: Wiz Khalifa Mixtapes

  446. Pingback: digital marketing agency philippines

  447. Pingback: We buy houses Wichita, KS

  448. Pingback: toronto homes

  449. Pingback: videochat

  450. Pingback: Premium Employment Solicitors in London

  451. Pingback: taxi sölden

  452. Pingback: Phil

  453. Pingback: adult toys

  454. Pingback: best trucks for sale

  455. Pingback: trampoline park near me

  456. Pingback: size of dumpsters

  457. Pingback: best kona coffee

  458. Pingback: new games

  459. Pingback: tiles transfers

  460. Pingback: tile stickers waterproof

  461. Pingback: 100% kona

  462. Pingback: 이문희 감독

  463. Pingback: best anal vibrator

  464. Pingback: wild g vibrator

  465. Pingback: canada clothing

  466. Pingback: webcam models

  467. Pingback: top dating sites

  468. Pingback: double penetrator

  469. Pingback: bitcoin faucet

  470. Pingback: rabbit vibrator

  471. Pingback: sextoys

  472. Pingback: ფეხბურთი

  473. Pingback: backlinks

  474. Pingback: ماطور للبيع

  475. Pingback: vibrator

  476. Pingback: Wand Massager

  477. Pingback: dryer outside vent

  478. Pingback: a cleaning services

  479. Pingback: Dryer vent cleaning elmhurst

  480. Pingback: best vibrator

  481. Pingback: adult bedroom toys

  482. Pingback: adult bedroom toys

  483. Pingback: live webcam models shows

  484. Pingback: live webcam models shows

  485. Pingback: 被 美国 学校 开除

  486. Pingback: slot machines

  487. Pingback: Go Here

  488. Pingback: coffee from kona

  489. Pingback: pestanas

  490. Pingback: kaina

  491. Pingback: repair

  492. Pingback: Camiones De Volteo Kenworth

  493. Pingback: penis vibrator

  494. Pingback: download software for windows 8

  495. Pingback: best rechargeable vibrator

  496. Pingback: download games for pc

  497. Pingback: WasteEquipment

  498. Pingback: workfromhomejobs

  499. Pingback: web hosting small business

  500. Pingback: descargar

  501. Pingback: Power Stud Vibrator

  502. Pingback: Best Lubricant Sex

  503. Pingback: kona black gold coffee

  504. Pingback: go right here

  505. Pingback: coffee beans kona

  506. Pingback: best coffee kona

  507. Pingback: mountain coffee company

  508. Pingback: east english village emergency tow truck

  509. Pingback: new rollbacks for sale

  510. Pingback: keyword keyword

  511. Pingback: sexual performance enhancer

  512. Pingback: best keyword

  513. Pingback: Live adult webcam models

  514. Pingback: Naughty Kinky Valentines Gifts

  515. Pingback: iphone

  516. Pingback: Camionetas usadas de Venta en texas

  517. Pingback: recommended you read

  518. Pingback: affordable web design calgary

  519. Pingback: escort johor

  520. Pingback: COMPUTING & OFFICE ELECTRICALS

  521. Pingback: adam and eve dvds

  522. Pingback: best fleshlight

  523. Pingback: online sex stores

  524. Pingback: VIC3-2FXS/DID

  525. Pingback: Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi

  526. Pingback: home sip service ontario

  527. Pingback: Leather slim cases for iPhone 7 plus

  528. Pingback: Enrollment

  529. Pingback: junk car buyers

  530. Pingback: here

  531. Pingback: Sex Bed Restraints,

  532. Pingback: vibrator,

  533. Pingback: How to Use a Tongue Vibrator,

  534. Pingback: Wholesale Eliquid

  535. Pingback: pc games for laptop

  536. Pingback: Water Based Lubricant

  537. Pingback: Best Dildo

  538. Pingback: Best G Spot Vibrator

  539. Pingback: Extreme vibrator

  540. Pingback: nike jordan

  541. Pingback: fdstyle

  542. Pingback: restaurants for sale/ to let

  543. Pingback: pc games free download for laptop

  544. Pingback: free download for windows xp

  545. Pingback: ISA 500 Series

  546. Pingback: American

  547. Pingback: sex toy review

  548. Pingback: Home Domestic Cleaning

  549. Pingback: SEO services in lahore

  550. Pingback: belleville boots for soldiers

  551. Pingback: diet pills

  552. Pingback: smartphones

  553. Pingback: daily news portal

  554. Pingback: Pro Se Divorce

  555. Pingback: classic coffee

  556. Pingback: Paralegal

  557. Pingback: super mario run for pc

  558. Pingback: Balers

  559. Pingback: movers london

  560. Pingback: Penis Extension

  561. Pingback: free download for pc

  562. Pingback: Pips Wizard Pro Review

  563. Pingback: sex toys

  564. Pingback: The Best G Spot Vibrators

  565. Pingback: prehistorian

  566. Pingback: kala jadoo

  567. Pingback: penis extension toys

  568. Pingback: Business directory in Spain

  569. Pingback: pc games free download full version for windows 7

  570. Pingback: life insurance options

  571. Pingback: love spell caster

  572. Pingback: Dodge

  573. Pingback: free pc games download full version for windows 10

  574. Pingback: free play slots

  575. Pingback: barrie movers and storage

  576. Pingback: essay writing company

  577. Pingback: בגדי הריון

  578. Pingback: 福井歯医者

  579. Pingback: 福井歯医者

  580. Pingback: 福井歯医者

  581. Pingback: 福井歯医者

  582. Pingback: pc games free download for mac

  583. Pingback: full download for windows 7

  584. Pingback: full download for windows 10

  585. Pingback: pc games free download for mac

  586. Pingback: paintless dent removal training

  587. Pingback: how can i make money

  588. Pingback: aircraft games for android

  589. Pingback: pokemon leaf green

  590. Pingback: dell optiplex parts

  591. Pingback: nighties

  592. Pingback: Couples Toys

  593. Pingback: Silicone G-Spot Vibrator

  594. Pingback: world news

  595. Pingback: Buy Email Lists Australia

  596. Pingback: kala jadoo

  597. Pingback: kala jadu

  598. Pingback: Kama Sutra

  599. Pingback: a\u0026e true feel

  600. Pingback: download android games

  601. Pingback: Trenda

  602. Pingback: Thrusting Vibrators

  603. Pingback: Drug

  604. Pingback: pc games free download for windows 10

  605. Pingback: European River Cruises

  606. Pingback: penny auctions in the uk

  607. Pingback: pc games free download full version for windows 10

  608. Pingback: plasma electronics

  609. Pingback: Letra de

  610. Pingback: Bialetti Replacement Gasket For 1 Cup Stovetop Espresso Coffee Makers

  611. Pingback: LIVE TV

  612. Pingback: Website Designers Aberdeen

  613. Pingback: no cost work from home

  614. Pingback: Gratis Descargar

  615. Pingback: Thrusting Vibe

  616. Pingback: bunny ears sex toy

  617. Pingback: Personality type test

  618. Pingback: Personality tests

  619. Pingback: free software download for pc

  620. Pingback: penis enlarger

  621. Pingback: Radio Jahan

  622. Pingback: Gratis Descargar Para Windows

  623. Pingback: best male sex toys

  624. Pingback: Best Pocket Pussy

  625. Pingback: android tv box

  626. Pingback: Choice Hotels

  627. Pingback: San Diego Hotels

  628. Pingback: Cheap Hotels Near Me

  629. Pingback: сталик

  630. Pingback: Drug and alcohol rehabilitation

  631. Pingback: Most items $ 0.1

  632. Pingback: Travel Agents Online

  633. Pingback: Toned In Ten Review

  634. Pingback: full software download for pc

  635. Pingback: TAXI DUBROVNIK

  636. Pingback: Have a Drug & Toxin Free Body

  637. Pingback: Truck Stop

  638. Pingback: Las Vegas PRP Hair Treatment

  639. Pingback: free software download for windows 10

  640. Pingback: what is the church of scientology

  641. Pingback: new york times bestseller list

  642. Pingback: Online FREE Personality Test

  643. Pingback: Personality Test

  644. Pingback: female vibrator

  645. Pingback: best g spot vibrator

  646. Pingback: sisters of the north

  647. Pingback: Who is David Miscavige?

  648. Pingback: cat food

  649. Pingback: cut resistant gloves

  650. Pingback: http://drjaydani.com/

  651. Pingback: Diy Home Energy System Review

  652. Pingback: Flat Belly Fast DVD Review

  653. Pingback: Be Happy

  654. Pingback: The Way To Happiness

  655. Pingback: What Are

  656. Pingback: Human

  657. Pingback: RO-DEO Vibrator

  658. Pingback: anal sex toys

  659. Pingback: 100% scam

  660. Pingback: Managed Services Provider

  661. Pingback: from home to work

  662. Pingback: página web aquí

  663. Pingback: recycle

  664. Pingback: 20ft shipping container homes cost

  665. Pingback: 1000 Thread count sheets bedding

  666. Pingback: sinhala news

  667. Pingback: Handreparatur Innsbruck Hall

  668. Pingback: personalized wedding gifts

  669. Pingback: what is the brain

  670. Pingback: how the brain works

  671. Pingback: Electrician

  672. Pingback: worldwide chat rooms

  673. Pingback: インフルエンザ

  674. Pingback: インフルエンザ

  675. Pingback: インフルエンザ

  676. Pingback: インフルエンザ

  677. Pingback: página

  678. Pingback: tv

  679. Pingback: プラセンタ

  680. Pingback: プラセンタ

  681. Pingback: プラセンタ

  682. Pingback: agie charmilles

  683. Pingback: maurice

  684. Pingback: online istikhara

  685. Pingback: health benefits of honey

  686. Pingback: su explicación

  687. Pingback: kala jadu

  688. Pingback: Flange manufacturer

  689. Pingback: recipes

  690. Pingback: casino

  691. Pingback: Bildung verändert Leben und verwandelt Volkswirtschaften.

  692. Pingback: book of ra deluxe free download

  693. Pingback: more info here

  694. Pingback: Fenster

  695. Pingback: Getting Divorced

  696. Pingback: essential business books

  697. Pingback: 受注管理システム

  698. Pingback: Denver office space for lease

  699. Pingback: Outdoor wood fired pizza oven mobile Pizza Party made in Italy

  700. Pingback: Jual Kulkas Vaksin DC TENAGA SURYA

  701. Pingback: drink coaster

  702. Pingback: T-Shirts bedrucken lassen

  703. Pingback: Youtube Miracle Pianist Official Page

  704. Pingback: Pinganillos

  705. Pingback: it services omaha

  706. Pingback: click here

  707. Pingback: Youtubemp3download3- Youtube to mp3

  708. Pingback: light deprivation greenhouse

  709. Pingback: usmc combat techniques

  710. Pingback: blue lava rock

  711. Pingback: double door garage door opener

  712. Pingback: article

  713. Pingback: http://www.mypsychicadvice.com

  714. Pingback: satta matka

  715. Pingback: Divorce Law Firm for Men

  716. Pingback: book of ra free game

  717. Pingback: Free Games online

  718. Pingback: SEO services in Lahore

  719. Pingback: make an app

  720. Pingback: Youtube to mp3 converter

  721. Pingback: piano

  722. Pingback: More information

  723. Pingback: Mariam Consulting

  724. Pingback: tech

  725. Pingback: AR670 boots for military operations

  726. Pingback: ottenere reindirizzato qui

  727. Pingback: Free Games

  728. Pingback: Free download games

  729. Pingback: Craig Lubitski

  730. Pingback: why not find out more

  731. Pingback: SATTA MATKA

  732. Pingback: satta matka

  733. Pingback: skin beauty

  734. Pingback: home decor

  735. Pingback: Paul Boogeyman

  736. Pingback: amil baba

  737. Pingback: http://aftonbaldet.se

  738. Pingback: funny pictures

  739. Pingback: mypsychicadvice.com

  740. Pingback: Mariage

  741. Pingback: jobs you can do from home

  742. Pingback: luxury chalets

  743. Pingback: VIIAINTERNATIONAL.COM

  744. Pingback: yenchua.com

  745. Pingback: online auction guide

  746. Pingback: Woman's Rompers

  747. Pingback: How To Determine the Sex of a Beaver

  748. Pingback: details

  749. Pingback: awiz for love

  750. Pingback: http://www.hamefanim.co.il/

  751. Pingback: articles

  752. Pingback: Home Automation

  753. Pingback: cat walk

  754. Pingback: Home Automation Florida

  755. Pingback: Home Surveillance

  756. Pingback: gourmet hawaiian coffee

  757. Pingback: chrome paint uk

  758. Pingback: gourmet hawaiian coffee

  759. Pingback: gourmet hawaiian coffee

  760. Pingback: gourmet hawaiian coffee

  761. Pingback: gourmet hawaiian coffee

  762. Pingback: professeur de guitare

  763. Pingback: Application checking Service

  764. Pingback: dabs

  765. Pingback: gourmet kona coffee

  766. Pingback: Fenster

  767. Pingback: vcc mastercard and visa card buy

  768. Pingback: online mobile number to receive sms

  769. Pingback: flashlight torch free

  770. Pingback: oakleys cheap

  771. Pingback: افلام جديدة

  772. Pingback: Online advertising

  773. Pingback: legit work from home job

  774. Pingback: Display advertising

  775. Pingback: android tv box kodi update

  776. Pingback: Social media advertising

  777. Pingback: life insurance lawyer

  778. Pingback: FS50R12KT3

  779. Pingback: Jaydani

  780. Pingback: sewing thread

  781. Pingback: cheapest virtual number buy

  782. Pingback: 룸알바

  783. Pingback: Taxi Airport Zurich St. Anton

  784. Pingback: como instalar complementos en kodi

  785. Pingback: Computer Software

  786. Pingback: funny video

  787. Pingback: SATTA KING

  788. Pingback: http://garden-tower.com

  789. Pingback: viagra

  790. Pingback: flavored coffee classics

  791. Pingback: best mattress for lower back pain

  792. Pingback: Anime Online

  793. Pingback: hotel

  794. Pingback: friv

  795. Pingback: supplies

  796. Pingback: Entertainment

  797. Pingback: Wars

  798. Pingback: coworking vacation

  799. Pingback: Demostradoras en Cancun

  800. Pingback: Used cars Burbank

  801. Pingback: buy container house uk

  802. Pingback: Wisdom teeth Deltona

  803. Pingback: patio furniture

  804. Pingback: more info

  805. Pingback: resume examples

  806. Pingback: internet

  807. Pingback: recommended you read

  808. Pingback: real estate

  809. Pingback: Led shower head

  810. Pingback: Queen Hair

  811. Pingback: Boîte à chocolat

  812. Pingback: Boat Shipping

  813. Pingback: Faltboothersteller

  814. Pingback: lookup

  815. Pingback: Smartphone Reparatur Bremen

  816. Pingback: wildlife removal

  817. Pingback: Factoring medical receivables

  818. Pingback: MicroCrystalline Cellulose

  819. Pingback: 康山 买房

  820. Pingback: Professional laptop repair 32127

  821. Pingback: how to make an app

  822. Pingback: data entry jobs

  823. Pingback: Fidelity exams

  824. Pingback: backyard

  825. Pingback: programas descargar

  826. Pingback: clean up crew

  827. Pingback: kona-coffee-bean.com

  828. Pingback: jewelry

  829. Pingback: best coffee

  830. Pingback: gourmet hawaiian coffee

  831. Pingback: عروض رمضان

  832. Pingback: got paid

  833. Pingback: lexi banks soundclick

  834. Pingback: www.escortsinorlando.com

  835. Pingback: multilingual seo

  836. Pingback: free download

  837. Pingback: multilingual digital marketing

  838. Pingback: ejuice

  839. Pingback: my company

  840. Pingback: senior care

  841. Pingback: program indir

  842. Pingback: fish tanks

  843. Pingback: coffee beans inc

  844. Pingback: best-coffee-inc.com

  845. Pingback: Continued

  846. Pingback: gourmet hawaiian coffee

  847. Pingback: best-coffee-inc.com

  848. Pingback: Babylon Whackers Download – Adidass News

  849. Pingback: Fun88 China

  850. Pingback: live tv

  851. Pingback: fukuidatumou

  852. Pingback: Piece Of Heaven

  853. Pingback: free slots no

  854. Pingback: Web Site

  855. Pingback: iPad repair

  856. Pingback: Get the facts

  857. Pingback: How to articles

  858. Pingback: legitimate work from home jobs 2016

  859. Pingback: Promo code

  860. Pingback: weblink

  861. Pingback: Agen Judi Bola

  862. Pingback: home for sale by owner

  863. Pingback: Web Wealth System Scam

  864. Pingback: property search

  865. Pingback: real estate agents

  866. Pingback: خرید ویندوز اورجینال xp

  867. Pingback: golds gym tílko

  868. Pingback: Geek News

  869. Pingback: auto detail san diego

  870. Pingback: starscan

  871. Pingback: http://imdb.com

  872. Pingback: http://vlt.se/

  873. Pingback: http://www.konacoffeeinc.com

  874. Pingback: http://www.coffeefromkona.com

  875. Pingback: http://www.peaberrybean.com

  876. Pingback: 아이폰 배경 화면

  877. Pingback: Astro Magazines

  878. Pingback: Free Alien?Games

  879. Pingback: Free Shooting Games

  880. Pingback: financial products

  881. Pingback: http://gp.se

  882. Pingback: http://www.mypsychicadvice.com

  883. Pingback: empresa de transportes

  884. Pingback: Colored tablet binder

  885. Pingback: cheap huawei p9

  886. Pingback: Gas

  887. Pingback: http://expressen.se

  888. Pingback: Steel Mold for cement tile

  889. Pingback: Chicago Companies

  890. Pingback: Florida Judgment Collection

  891. Pingback: Sell my hard drives

  892. Pingback: kona coffee

  893. Pingback: kona coffee

  894. Pingback: http://aftonbladet.se

  895. Pingback: kona coffee

  896. Pingback: royal kona coffee

  897. Pingback: kona coffee

  898. Pingback: ground coffee

  899. Pingback: ground coffee

  900. Pingback: ground coffee

  901. Pingback: ground coffee

  902. Pingback: extra money

  903. Pingback: kona coffee k cups

  904. Pingback: kona coffee beans

  905. Pingback: kona coffee

  906. Pingback: kona coffee beans

  907. Pingback: gourmet coffee

  908. Pingback: özel üniversite

  909. Pingback: fleet management system

  910. Pingback: container houses

  911. Pingback: Denver web designer

  912. Pingback: coffee beans

  913. Pingback: bantningspiller

  914. Pingback: kona coffee

  915. Pingback: coffee beans

  916. Pingback: kona coffee

  917. Pingback: gourmet coffee

  918. Pingback: free casino slots no download

  919. Pingback: agence web montpellier

  920. Pingback: acheter fan facebook pas cher

  921. Pingback: earn money from home

  922. Pingback: singing talent search

  923. Pingback: acheter like facebook

  924. Pingback: acheter des likes facebook

  925. Pingback: Recent world news

  926. Pingback: free desktop wallpapers

  927. Pingback: Baler

  928. Pingback: e-greeting card

  929. Pingback: try this site

  930. Pingback: apartamenty wakacyjne nad morzem

  931. Pingback: back links

  932. Pingback: anti rayap

  933. Pingback: The MLS Finder

  934. Pingback: how to build an app

  935. Pingback: Miniclip Oyunları

  936. Pingback: create your own app

  937. Pingback: Shisha lounge in London

  938. Pingback: Office 2016

  939. Pingback: ground coffee

  940. Pingback: app builder

  941. Pingback: The MLS Real Estate

  942. Pingback: kona coffee

  943. Pingback: keyword ranking

  944. Pingback: click to find out more

  945. Pingback: finger vibrators

  946. Pingback: 411-pain

  947. Pingback: 4 herb tea

  948. Pingback: email processing jobs

  949. Pingback: gopro ebay

  950. Pingback: spiro michals lawyer

  951. Pingback: party tents

  952. Pingback: keyword Đồ em bé

  953. Pingback: hawaiian-isles-coffee/sansei-french-roast-coffee-ground-10-oz

  954. Pingback: macadamia nut coffee

  955. Pingback: acheter des likes

  956. Pingback: ground coffee

  957. Pingback: IT Researches ltd

  958. Pingback: chocolate coffee

  959. Pingback: Website Development

  960. Pingback: Microsoft Persia

  961. Pingback: ground coffee

  962. Pingback: kona coffee

  963. Pingback: ground coffee

  964. Pingback: caramel coffee kcups

  965. Pingback: classic kona coffee single-serve

  966. Pingback: single serve hawaiian coffee

  967. Pingback: Dr. Jessica Renfer

  968. Pingback: grow a healthier you with tower garden

  969. Pingback: microcrystalline cellulose

  970. Pingback: ¿Cómo puedo publicar anuncios en YouTube

  971. Pingback: entra

  972. Pingback: Liliana Berdión de Crudo

  973. Pingback: find more

  974. Pingback: recommended you read

  975. Pingback: click here for info

  976. Pingback: 7 piece patio set

  977. Pingback: here

  978. Pingback: click over here now

  979. Pingback: click here to find out more

  980. Pingback: plantas purificadoras de agua

  981. Pingback: blog link

  982. Pingback: plantas purificadoras de agua

  983. Pingback: he has a good point

  984. Pingback: electronics

  985. Pingback: car service in edgewater

  986. Pingback: プラセンタ注射

  987. Pingback: プラセンタ

  988. Pingback: babagroup.it

  989. Pingback: orologi legno

  990. Pingback: head to head fantasy baseball

  991. Pingback: filme gratis online

  992. Pingback: KASINO LIVE Indonesia

  993. Pingback: rimless glasses

  994. Pingback: gourmet coffee

  995. Pingback: 출장마사지

  996. Pingback: check my blog

  997. Pingback: Google